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were brought from the Birman territory. This species equals the former in size, and is almost equally, if not quite as beautiful. The first information we have respecting this species, is that given by Aldrovandus, (1599,) who, however, had never seen the bird, but only two drawings sent by the emperor of Japan to the pope. Subsequently nothing farther was heard about it, till Shaw described it in his Zoological Miscellany, from a figure taken from an Indian drawing sent to England by a friend.
M. Temminck in the year 1813, in the second volume of his work on Gallinaceous Birds, gave a sketch of the head, with a description, taken by Le Vaillant from a living individual seen by him at the Cape of Good Hope, whither it had been sent from Macao. More recently the bird has been described by Dr. Horsefield, who found it in Java; while sir Stamford Raffles observed it in Sumatra. Specimens are in the British Museum.
The prevailing tints in this species are blue and green, varying in intensity and mutually changing into each other, according as the light falls more or less directly upon them. The crest is twice as long as in the common species, and the feathers of which it is composed, are regularly barbed from the base upwards in the adult bird, and of equal breadth throughout. Head and crest interchangeably blue and green, a naked space on the cheeks, including the eyes and ears, is coloured of a light yellow behind, and of a bluish-green towards its fore part. The feathers of the neck and breast, which are broad, short, rounded, and imbricated like the scales of a fish, (very different to those in the other species,) are at the base of the same brilliant hue as the head, and have a broad, lighter, and somewhat metallic margin. Those of the back have still more of the metallic lustre. The wing-coverts are of the general hue, with a deeper tinge of blue; the primary quill feathers are light chestnut. The tail feathers and their coverts, namely the train, are of a splendid metallic brown, changing
The latter are terminated by ocellated spots similar to those of the common peacock. Iris deep hazel ; in the common species it is of an intense red. The female has a plain dress, closely resembling that of the common pea-hen; but the crest is different. (See Gardens and Menagerie of Zoological Society.)
Whether this species is gregarious like the common pea-fowl, or more solitary in its habits,
we have yet to learn, nothing, indeed, is known respecting its manners in a state of nature, nor does it seem to be very
abundant. Preserved specimens in the British Museum, and in the museum of the Zoological Society.
The turkey (Meleagris Gallopavo) is originally a native of America. The term meleagris, applied by modern zoologists to this bird, was given by the ancients to quite a different species, namely the guinea-fowl. According to Grecian fable, the sisters of Meleager mourning the death of their brother, were transformed into these birds, the plumage of which is covered with white spots, the showers of their tears. The application of the title meleagris to the turkey, arose from the obscurity in which it was enveloped when it first made its appearance in Europe, and the very names of Turkey, Coq d'Inde, Gallo d'India, and Indianische Hahn, prove the ignorance which prevailed respecting it. The history of the turkey, indeed, as it respects its introduction into Europe, is almost a blank. When, or by whom it was brought, we do not know: most probably Spain first received it in the beginning of the sixteenth century from her new world colonies, and most likely it had been long antecedently domesticated in Mexico. Certain it is that Oviedo, in his Natural History of the Indies, (for so were the intertropical parts of America then called,) published at Toledo in the year 1526, describes the turkey as a kind of peacock, abounding in New Spain, whence numbers had been transported to the islands and the Spanish Main, and domesticated in the houses of the Christian inhabitants. Yet even in 1524, during the reign of Henry viii., was the turkey known in England. There is an old distich which runs as follows :
“Turkies, Carps, Hops, Pickerell, and Beer,
Came into England all in one year.” It was about the year 1524 that hops, or the Humulus lupulus, were introduced into England from Flanders, and at the same time came in the turkey. In other respects the couplet is erroneous. Mr. Yarrell, who, in his history of the carp, notices these lines, says, “Pike, or Pickerell, were the subjects of legal regulations in the reign of Edward 1. Carp are mentioned in the Book of St. Albans,
printed in 1496. Turkeys and hops were unknown till 1524, previous to which wormwood and other bitter plants were used to preserve beer; and the parliament in 1528, petitioned against hops as a wicked weed. Beer was licensed for exportation by Henry vii. in 1492, and an excise on beer existed as early as 1284, and also in the reign of Edward 1."
Difficult as it is to rear broods of turkeys in our country, they appear to have greatly multiplied soon after their introduction, for in 1541, we find them enumerated among the delicacies of the table. Archbishop Cranmer (Leland's Collectanea') ordered that of cranes, swans, and turkey-cocks, there should be at festivals only one dish ; and in 1573, Tusser, in his Five Hundred Points of Good Husbandry, enumerates these birds as gracing the farmer's table at Christmas. In the present day the turkey, in a state of domestication, is very widely spread. In India it is reared, according to colonel Sykes, in great numbers by the Portuguese. It has not, we believe, extended to Persia. There is a humorous story told in the Sketches of Persia, that these birds are at least not generally known there. It appears that two English gentlemen, on their arrival