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action as justice shall require: And provided further, That this section shall apply to seamen on foreign vessels while in harbors of the United States, and the courts of the United States shall be open to such seamen for its enforcement. [This section shall not apply to fishing or whaling vessels or yachts-Dec. 21, 1898, sec. 26.]

Whenever the wages of any seaman are not paid within R. S., 4546. ten days after the time when the same ought to be paid according to the provisions of this Title [R. S., 4501-4613], or any dispute arises between the master and seamen touching wages, the district judge for the judicial district where the vessel is, or in case his residence be more than three miles from the place, or he be absent from the place of his residence, then, any judge or justice of the peace, or any commissioner of a district court, may summon the May 28, 1896. master of such vessel to appear before him, to show cause why process should not issue against such vessel, her tackle, apparel, and furniture, according to the course of admiralty courts, to answer for the wages.

Dec. 21, 1898.

June 28, 1906.

Sec. 4.

If the master against whom such summons is issued R. S., 4547. neglects to appear, or, appearing, does not show that the Sec.6. wages are paid or otherwise satisfied or forfeited, and if the matter in dispute is not forthwith settled, the judge or justice or commissioner shall certify to the clerk of the district court that there is sufficient cause of complaint whereon to found admiralty process; and thereupon the clerk of such court shall issue process against the vessel. In all cases where the matter in demand does not exceed one hundred dollars the return day of the monition or citation shall be the first day of a stated or special session of court next succeeding the third day after the service of the monition or citation, and on the return of process in open court, duly served, either party may proceed therein to proofs and hearing without other notice, and final judgment shall be given according to the usual course of admiralty courts in such cases. In such suits all the seamen having cause of complaint of the like kind against the same vessel may be joined as complainants, and it shall be incumbent on the master to produce the contract and log book, if required to ascertain any matter in dispute; otherwise the complainants shall be permitted to state the contents thereof, and the burden of proof of the contrary shall be on the master. But nothing herein contained shall prevent any seaman from maintaining any action at common law for the recovery of his wages, or having immediate process out of any court having admiralty jurisdiction wherever any vessel may be found, in case she shall have left the port of delivery where her voyage ended before payment of the wages, or in case she shall be about to proceed to sea before the end of the ten days next after the day when such wages are due, in accordance with section forty-five hundred and twenty-nine of the Revised Statutes. [This section shall not apply to fishing or whaling vessels or yachts-Dec. 21, 1898, sec. 26-but this section shall apply to all vessels engaged in the taking of oysters-June 28, 1906, sec. 4.]

R. S., 4548.

R. S., 4603.

R. S., 4605.

R. S., 4251.

Dec. 21, 1898.
Sec. 24.

Sec. 4.

Sec. 11.

American ves

Moneys paid under the laws of the United States, by direction of consular officers or agents, at any foreign port or place, as wages, extra or otherwise, due American seamen, shall be paid in gold or its equivalent, without any deduction whatever any contract to the contrary notwithstanding.

Any question concerning the forfeiture of, or deductions from, the wages of any seaman or apprentice, may be determined in any proceeding lawfully instituted with respect to such wages, notwithstanding the offense in respect of which such question arises, though hereby made punishable by imprisonment as well as forfeiture, has not been made the subject of any criminal proceeding.

Whenever in any proceeding relating to seamen's wages it is shown that any seaman or apprentice has, in the course of the voyage, been convicted of any offense by any competent tribunal, and rightfully punished therefor, by imprisonment or otherwise, the court hearing the case may direct a part of the wages due to such seaman not exceeding fifteen dollars, to be applied in reimbursing any costs properly incurred by the master in procuring such conviction and punishment.

97. Vessels exempt from libel for wages.

No canal-boat, without masts or steam power, which is required to be registered, licensed, or enrolled and licensed, shall be subject to be libeled in any of the United States courts for the wages of any person who may be employed on board thereof, or in navigating the


98. Advances and allotments of wages.

(a) It shall be, and is hereby, made unlawful in any Apr. 26, 1904. case to pay any seaman wages in advance of the time June 28, 1906. when he has actually earned the same, or to pay such adMar. 4, 1915. vance wages, or to make any order, or note, or other (Effective on evidence of indebtedness therefor to any other person, sels beginning or to pay any person, for the shipment of seamen when Nov. 4,1915 payment is deducted or to be deducted from a seaman's foreign nations wages. Any person violating any of the foregoing provitreaties Mar. 4, sions of this section shall be deemed guilty of a misde1916; on ves meanor, and upon conviction shall be punished by a fine foreign na of not less than $25 nor more than $100, and may also mination of be imprisoned for a period of not exceeding six months, treaties.) at the discretion of the court. The payment of such ad


not covered by

sels of other

tions after ter

vance wages or allotment shall in no case except as herein provided absolve the vessel or the master or the owner thereof from the full payment of wages after the same shall have been actually earned, and shall be no defense to a libel suit or action for the recovery of such wages. If any person shall demand or receive, either directly or indirectly, from any seaman or other person seeking employment, as seaman, or from any person on his behalf, any remuneration whatever for providing him with employment, he shall for every such offense be deemed guilty of a misdemeanor and shall be imprisoned not more than six months or fined not more than $500.

(b) It shall be lawful for any seaman to stipulate in his shipping agreement for an allotment of any portion of the wages he may earn to his grandparents, parents, wife, sister, or children.

(c) No allotment shall be valid unless in writing and signed by and approved by the shipping commissioner. It shall be the duty of the said commissioner to examine such allotments and the parties to them and enforce compliance with the law. All stipulations for the allotment of any part of the wages of a seaman during his absence which are made at the commencement of the voyage shall be inserted in the agreement and shall state the amounts and times of the payments to be made and the persons to whom the payments are to be made.

(d) No allotment except as provided for in this section shall be lawful. Any person who shall falsely claim to be such relation, as above described, of a seaman under this section shall for every such offense be punished by a fine not exceeding $500 or imprisonment not exceeding six months, at the discretion of the court.

(e) This section shall apply as well to foreign vessels while in waters of the United States, as to vessels of the United States, and any master, owner, consignee, or agent of any foreign vessel who has violated its provisions shall be liable to the same penalty that the master, owner, or agent of a vessel of the United States would be for similar violation.

The master, owner, consignee, or agent of any vessel of the United States, or of any foreign vessel seeking clearance from a port of the United States, shall present his shipping articles at the office of clearance, and no clearance shall be granted any such vessel unless the provisions of this section have been complied with.

(f) Under the direction of the Secretary of Commerce the Commissioner of Navigation shall make regulations to carry out this section. [This section shall not apply to fishing or whaling vessels or yachts-Dec. 21, 1898, sec. 26-but this section shall apply to all vessels engaged in the taking of oysters-June 28, 1906, sec. 4.]

99. Wages and clothing exempt from attachment.

Sec. 12. ginning Nov. 4,

No wages due or accruing to any seaman or apprentice Mar. 4, 1915. shall be subject to attachment or arrestment from any (Effective becourt, and every payment of wages to a seaman or ap- 1915.) prentice shall be valid in law, notwithstanding any previous sale or assignment of wages or of any attachment, encumbrance, or arrestment thereon; and no assignment or sale of wages or of salvage made prior to the accruing thereof shall bind the party making the same, except such allotments as are authorized by this title. This section shall apply to fishermen employed on fishing vessels as well as to seamen: Provided, That nothing contained in this or any preceding section shall interfere with the order by any court regarding the payment by any seaman of any part of his wages for the support and maintenance of his wife and minor children.


Feb. 18, 1895.
Apr. 11, 1904.

R. S., 4537.

R. S., 4600.

Dec. 21, 1898.
Sec. 21.

Mar. 4, 1915.
Sec. 8.

ginning Nov. 4, 1915.)

The clothing of any seaman shall be exempt from attachment, and any person who shall detain such clothing when demanded by the owner shall be deemed guilty of a misdemeanor, and shall be imprisoned not more than six months or fined not more than five hundred dollars, or both.

No sum exceeding one dollar shall be recoverable from any seaman, by any one person, for any debt contracted during the time such seaman shall actually belong to any vessel, until the voyage for which such seaman engaged shall be ended.

100. Desertion of seamen abroad.

It shall be the duty of all consular officers to discountenance insubordination by every means in their power and, where the local authorities can be usefully employed (Effective be- for that purpose, to lend their aid and use their exertions to that end in the most effectual manner. In all cases where seamen or officers are accused, the consular officer shall inquire into the facts and proceed as provided in section forty-five hundred and eighty-three of the Revised Statutes; and the officer discharging such seaman shall enter upon the crew list and shipping articles and official log the cause of such discharge and the particulars in which the cruel or unusual treatment consisted and subscribe his name thereto officially. He shall read the entry made in the official log to the master, and his reply thereto, if any, shall likewise be entered and subscribed in the same manner.

R. S., 5280.

101. Desertion of foreign seamen in the United States.

On application of a consul or vice-consul of any foreign government having a treaty with the United States stipulating for the restoration of seamen deserting, made in writing, stating that the person therein named has deserted from a vessel of any such government, while in any port of the United States, and on proof by the exhibition of the register of the vessel, ship's roll, or other official document, that the person named belonged, at the time of desertion, to the crew of such vessel, it shall be the duty of any court, judge, commissioner of any circuit court, justice, or other magistrate, having competent power, to issue warrants to cause such person to be arrested for examination. If, on examination, the facts stated are found to be true, the person arrested not being a citizen of the United States, shall be delivered up to the consul or vice-consul, to be sent back to the dominions of any such government, or, on the request and at the expense of the consul or vice-consul, shall be detained until the consul or vice-consul finds an opportunity to send him back to the dominions of any such government. No person so arrested shall be detained more than two months after his arrest; but at the end of that time shall be set at liberty, and shall not be again molested for the same cause. If any such deserter shall be found to have committed any crime or offense, his surrender may be delayed until

the tribunal before which the case shall be depending, or
may be cognizable, shall have pronounced its sentence,
and such sentence shall have been carried into effect.
103. Arbitration before shipping commissioner.

Sec. 16.

In the judgment of Congress articles in treaties and Mar. 4, 1915. conventions of the United States, in so far as they provide for the arrest and imprisonment of officers and seamen deserting or charged with desertion from merchant vessels of the United States in foreign countries, and for the arrest and imprisonment of officers and seamen deserting or charged with desertion from merchant vessels of foreign nations in the United States and the Territories and possessions thereof, and for the cooperation, aid, and protection of competent legal authorities in effecting such arrest or imprisonment and any other treaty provision in conflict with the provisions of this Act, ought to be terminated, and to this end the President be, and he is hereby, requested and directed, within ninety days after the passage of this Act, to give notice to the several Governments, respectively, that so much as hereinbefore de-* scribed of all such treaties and conventions between the United States and foreign Governments will terminate on the expiration of such periods after notices have been given as may be required in such treaties and conventions. Upon the expiration after notice of the periods re- Sec. 17. quired, respectively, by said treaties and conventions and of one year in the case of the independent State of the Kongo, so much as hereinbefore described in each and every one of said articles shall be deemed and held to have expired and to be of no force and effect, and thereupon section fifty-two hundred and eighty and so much of section four thousand and eighty-one of the Revised Statutes as relates to the arrest or imprisonment of officers and seamen deserting or charged with desertion from merchant vessels of foreign nations in the United States and Territories and possessions thereof, and for the cooperation, aid, and protection of competent legal authorities in effecting such arrest or imprisonment, shall be, and is hereby, repealed.

103. Arbitration before shipping commissioner.

R. S., 4554.

Every shipping-commissioner shall hear and decide any Aug. 19, 1890 question whatsoever between a master, consignee, agent, or owner, and any of his crew, which both parties agree in writing to submit to him; and every award so made by him shall be binding on both parties, and shall, in any legal proceedings which may be taken in the matter, before any court of justice, be deemed to be conclusive as to the rights of parties. And any document under the hand and official seal of a commissioner purporting to be such submission or award, shall be prima-facie evidence thereof.

In any proceeding relating to the wages, claims, or dis- R. S., 4555. charge of a seaman, carried on before any shipping-commissioner, under the provisions of this Title [R. S., 4501–

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