« AnteriorContinuar »
dissolved in main sought were detec
ing gas in solution. On boiling the water the carbonates of lime, magnesia and iron, held in solution by the carbonic acid, are thrown down, and by a slight concentration, sulphate of lime is also precipitated. In the boiled water chlorids of sodium, calcium and magnesium, were detected. Crenic and apocrenic acids were in vain sought. A trace of organic matter was found dissolved in the water. The only alkali present is soda in the state of chlorid of sodium. No trace of potassa was discovered after a careful search. Mr. H. C. Lawrence kindly undertook the concentration of eleven and a half wine gallons of the artesian water, which were boiled down to half a gallon; a concentration in the ratio of 23 to 1. In the solid residue and filtrate, I detected phosphate of lime, hydrofluoric acid, alumina and a very faint trace of oxyd of manganese. A small trace of iodine was discovered in the mother liquid, both by the starch test and by chlorid of palladium. With the starch test the characteristic blue tinge could not be developed by chlorine water, the excess of chlorine decolorizing the extremely minute quantity of iodid of starch; but it was readily brought out by nitric acid. The result of the bromine test by Fresenius's method was doubtful.
Quantitative analysis.-The quantitative analysis gave the following results:
Per mill Mean of two exp., sulph, acid determination, .....
0.5621 o " chlorine,...
3.7807 Sodium by calculation, (loss,) ...............
2.1782 " ( experiment, .................
2.1683 Peroxyd of iron, mean of two exp., .....
0.0085 Silica, .................................
0.0080 Lime-total, .........................
0:5386 " after boiling the water, in the precipitate, ....
0·1149 " " " " " in the solution, .......
0.4255 Magnesia-total, ........
0.2005 after boiling the water, in the precipitation, ...... 0·0039
“ “ “ in solution, ............ 0.2088 Sulphur, carbonic acid, and nitrogen as stated below. These data calculated according to the ordinary rules give the following result: Composition of the White Sulphur water of the Lafayette Artesian well.
Water of March 25th, 1858.—Temperature 550-56° F. Density, 1.00523.
In a wine pint
Grams. Cub. centim. Cubic inches. Sulphuretted hydrogen, .....
6.3594 0.1841 Ditto water of April 8, .
0.0145 9.9154 0.2870 Carbonic acid, .........
0·0997 52.683 1.5253 Nitrogen, ..............
In 1000 parts by Grains in a wino weight.
pint. Residue by evaporation, Pure water, .......... 992:75 7274.446 Solid ingredients, ......
7.25 53.124 2000-007327-570*
INGREDIENTS BY ANALYSIS.
Carbonate of lime, ..............
1:503 Carbonate of magnesia, ......
0.0069 0.050 Peroxyd of iron with alumina, ...... Phosphate of lime, fluorid of calcium,.. Y 0.00857 0.062 And a faint trace of manganese, ...... Silica, .....
0.0080 0.058 Sulphate of lime, ................
0.9555 7.002 Chlorid of calcium,.........
0.0635 0.465 Chlorid of magnesium,......
0:5059 3•707 Chlorid of sodium, ......
5.5402 40:596 Trace of iodine and organic matte Bromine doubtful,.......
7.2937 53:443 I have recalculated the analyses of the principal sulphur waters of the United States to the same measure, a wine pint, and tabulated them as follows, for the sake of a ready comparison: (see table on following page).
By reference to the table, the great analogy is at once apparent which exists between the Lafayette water and that of the Kentucky Blue Lick. They contain, with a few trifling exceptions, the same ingredients. The exceptions are the sulphate of potassa and chlorid of potassium, contained in the Blue Lick alone, and the chlorid of calcium, contained above in the Lafayette water. The latter water contains less sulphuretted hydrogen, and carbonic acid, and less solid matter. It is curious that the common salt bears almost exactly the same ratio to the rest of the salts in both waters.
79 : 53 :: 64 : x=42 The common salt (x,) in the Lafayette waters, is by experi. ment nearly 41.
In round numbers one and a half pints of the Lafayette water contain as much common salt as one pint of the Blue Lick water. The magnesia salts bear a greater proportion to the rest of the salts in the Lafayette water than in the Blue Lick.
* This is the weight of a wine pint of the artesian water; the weight of the same measure of pure water being 7291.11 grains.
| Equivalent to carbonate of the protoxyd of iron 0:0061 per mille.
Tabular view of the principal Sulphur Waters of the United States. Expressed in grains in the wine pint.
| Bro. 11
temporal Density. Lime. Magn. Lime. / Mag. Potas. Soda. | Calc. Mag. (Pot'm Sodium Magnesium. analyst.
3.81|| 9.50 2.83
Chilton. (Sylvan Spring, .......
3.35 2.0 10.051.62
12:18 |trace. Chilton. Virginia, Greenbrier White Sulphur,
|| 1.15 7.744 5:588
Rogerg. Kentucky, Blue Lick, .. 620 1.007 12.957 0.017 4.25
4.049 0.174 64:107||0·005 0·030. Peters. | Indiana, Artesian Well, Lafayette, 1550-560 1.00523||1:5030:050 117.002
10.465.3•7071 (40.596/trace. I ll Wetherill.
Name of analyst.
Cubic inches of gas in a wine pint.
Carbonic Nitrogen. Oxygen.
wine pint. Sharon, J Sulphur Spring,......... 0.144
1.00 N. Y. Magnesia Spring,........ 0064
17.05 Middle Spring,..........
6.60 N. Y.
1.32 Lower Spring, ..........
0:50 (Sylvan Spring........
2:58 0.62 0-67
0.181 Kentucky, Blue Lick, ...
0-045 10:137 trace.2.216 79.104 | 0.834 16.837 Indiana, Artesian Well, Lafayette,
0:062 0.058' trace. ! 63.443 || 0:184 to 0.287 1.828 | 0-616
The sulphuretted hydrogen of the Lafayette water is equal in quantity to that ingredient in the Greenbrier White Sulphur water of Virginia, and varies as in that water. I established this fact by many and careful sulphur determinations of the Lafa. yette water by the chlorid of arsenic test upon water taken at the spring. I have also made frequent careful density determinations of the water during a period of six months, and have found the specific gravity invariably to the third decimal point, proving an invariable mineral composition for the water during that time.
The Lafayette water has been used with great success in the diseases for which sulphur waters are applicable.
I have noticed in the neighborhood of this city several chaly. beate springs. A very fine one is situated upon the shore of Barnett's creek, which flows through the celebrated battle-ground of Tippecanoe at a distance of seven miles from Lafayette. The temperature of the water was 53° when that of the air was 84°. It strikes a dark color with extract of galls, has a strong chaly. beate taste, and coats the stones over which it flows with an ochreous deposit.
ART. XXX.-on the Measurement of the Strice of Diatoms; by
W. S. SULLIVANT and T. G. WORMLEY.
No characters are so constant for distinguishing the species of diatoms as those drawn from the striæ on their frustules. The accurate measurement of these striæ has not received the atten. tion, particularly among European microscopists on the continent, that might have been expected from the general interest taken in the study of these beautiful organisms.
Attention appears to have been first directed to this subject in Silliman's Journal for 1849-50, by the late distinguished Professor J. W. Bailey of West Point, and Mr. De La Rue of London, in their papers on the marking of Pleurosigma Spencerii, the measurements of which, made by the latter gentleman, remaining to this day a reliable standard for comparison. In 1853 the first volume of Smith's admirable synopsis of British Diatomaceæ appeared, in which the striation of numerous species, is, for the most part, correctly determined. Next in order of time is the paper of Messrs. Harrison and Sollitt, read (1854) before the British Association for the Advancement of Science, giving measurements (widely different from those in Smith's Synopsis) of several well known species.
next foll.thie Tóroth of eaches express the specimen
noteasurementervers. 17, parent
The above, including the second volume of Smith's Synopsis, embraces about all the information on record, relating to the subject of these papers, known to the writers.
The measurements of the larger portion of the following species were made on authenticated English specimens. The fig. ures affixed to each species express the number of transverse striæ in the dooth of an inch (:001'), as determined by us; next following and in parentheses are the measurements, if any, of other observers. In not a few cases it will be seen that our measurements accord very nearly with those in the Synopsis, not differing more than might be expected in observations of this kind : besides it is well known that the striation of each species varies within certain limits peculiar to the species. In other cases, however, there are discrepancies between our meas. urements and those in the Synopsis, too great to be accounted for in this manner.
Nitzschia sigmoidea, 72 to 75; (85, Smith); (105, Harrison and Sollitt).-N. obtusa, 54; (56, S.).—N. plana, 50; (56, S.).— N. linearis, 73.-Stauroneis linearis, 65.-Cocconeis Thwaitesii, 54; (72, S.).—Amphora membranacea, hoop 53, valve 36; (80, S.).—Cymbella cuspidata, 35; (30, S.).-C. Scotica, 45; (42, S.). --Navicula lanceolata, 40; (44, s.).— N. firma, 42; (42, S.).—N. ambigua, 38; (36, S.).—N. sphærophora, 40; (42, S.).—N. lævissima, 51 ; (48, s.).—N. rhomboides, 70 ; 185, s.). —Pinnularia Johnsoni, 48; (56, S.).-Fragillaria virescens, 40; (44, S.).-F. Capucina, 40; (40, s.).—Colletonema vulgare, 72; 172, s.).—C. eximium, 56; (56, S.).—Achnanthidium coarctatum, 34; (40, S.). -A. lanceolatum, 33 ; (40, S.).—Amphipleura inflexa, 52; (52, S.).—A. pellucida: we have not been able even to "glimpse" the striæ on this diatom. Messrs. Harrison and Sollitt in their paper above cited, estimate the striæ at 125 to 130 in .001":Himantidium pectinale, valve 27, hoop 48; (v. 27, h. 48, S.).— Pleurosigma macrum, 70; (85, S.).-P. angulatum, 45' to 50; (52, S.); (75, H. & S.).—P. Spencerii, 48 to 50 tr., 55 long.; (52 tr., 55 long., S.); (120 to 200, Bailey).-P. attenuatum, 36 tr., 32 long. ; (40 tr., 30 long., S.).—P. fasciola, 56; (64, S.); (90, H. & S.).-P. littorale, 40 tr., 22 long. ; (50 tr., 24 long., S.).P. acuminatum, 45 tr., 40 long.; (52 tr., 40 long., S.).—P. strigosum, 42; (44, S.).—P. Hippocampus, 38 tr., 32 long. ; (40 tr., 32 long., s.). - P.lacustre, 42; (48, S.).-P. quadratum, 45; (45, S.); (70, H. & S.).—P. speciosum, 42; (44, s.).-P. prolonga. tum, 55; (65, S.).—P. strigile, 30 tr., 35 long. ; (36 tr., 40 long., S.).-P. elongatum, 48 to 50; (48, S.); (60, H. & S.).—P. distor. tum, 60; (75, S.).—P. formosum, 36 'tr., one set of oblique striæ 24, the other 30; (36, S.).—P. decorum, 45 tr., 36 oblique; (36, S.).—P. intermedium, 56; (55, S.).-P. Balticum, 36; (38, S.).