« AnteriorContinuar »
lived under a high temperature. Taking account of this view of the subject, it is interesting to observe the other statement of M. D'Orbigny, that the Acetabuliferous Cephalopoda appeared first in the Jurassic formation, when they were represented by the Belemnites and six other genera, including the existing genus Sepia and three other living genera, simultaneously with the vast numbers of Ammonites; that all disappeared except the genus Belemnites in the Cretaceous epoch, being represented, however, by different species; and that in the Tertiary strata, the Belemnites disappeared entirely, being replaced by the genus Sepia appearing for the second time, and the genus Beloptera, which appeared, only to pass rapidly away, as it is no longer a living genus. These are unquestionably very remarkable facts; and have on the one hand a tendency to support the doctrine which M. D'Orbigny so strongly supports, of the destruction of one creation and the production of another again and again at successive epochs, whilst, on the other, they may induce a pause in the decision of the palæontologist, as it seems difficult to conceive that any such genera as Sepia, Sepioteuthis, &c., could have been created so far back as the Jurassic age, and then have totally disappeared, to be again created in the Tertiary and existing epochs. I must again maintain that it is more natural to conceive that the link of connexion between the dead and the living has been kept up, although bitherto the region of their habitation, during the long period of time elapsed, has been veiled from observation.
I shall not attempt further to follow the able author of no less than fifty distinct treatises, some of vast magnitude and interest, and all full of ingenuity and knowledge; but I may notice him as the author of that nomenclature which is gaining ground rapidly; and in doing so I will quote, as illustrative of his method, the distribution of the Bryozoa-Cellulina, which he thus details:
Genera. Species. | Etage Néocomien ...
- Aptien .... Terrains
Albien .... Crétacés. Cénomanien ..
5 $593 species. - Turonien ....
Etage Suessonien.. Terrains
58 ...... 312., 312 Fauna. S
The Bryozoa-Centrifugina, which form the other division of the class, he discovered in almost all the geological formations, and he gives their numbers thus :
...... 80 And he concludes from the whole that there were three centres of development of the Bryozoa, the first two composed of B. Cen. trifugina alone,-namely, one in the Carboniferous stage of the Palæozoic, and one in the Bathonian of the Jurassic,—and the other composed of both orders, Cellulina and Centrifugina, in the Senonian stage of the Cretaceous.
Having now, I trust, enabled every one to form a correct judgment of the great and varied abilities of Mr. D’Orbigny, in aid of whose researches the Society has twice awarded the proceeds of the Wollaston Fund, I will close my remarks with the following passage from the report of Messrs. Brongniart, Dufrénoy, and Elie de Beaumont, on his “Geology of South America," as it conveys a sentiment in which all our members will, I am sure, cordially concur:
“ The author's reserve, in treating upon a subject so vast and difficult, cannot but be approved, although no one can fail to perceive that the memoir of M. D'Orbigny has enriched science with a great number of new facts and with many ingenious speculations. New observations may hereafter lead to a modification of some of his theoretical views; but the merit will always be his of having considered a vast subject from a point of observation so elevated as must necessarily cause it to command attention, and lead the way to still further progress. We therefore propose to the Academy that it should express to the author the high satisfaction it has experienced in contemplating the indisputable advancement which has been made towards a knowledge of the geology of South America, by his courageous and persevering researches :">let me also add, towards a knowledge of the geology of all parts of the earth; for his great works on the Palæontology of France deserve such commendation.
ART. XII.—Caricography; by Prof. C. DEWEY.
(Continued from vol. xxiv, p. 48, Second Series.) No. 254. Carex Geyeri, Boott, Lin. Trans., vol. xx, p. 118,
Kunze, No. 55. Illus. Car. Boott, No. 98, Tab. 105. SPICA unica androgyna, superne staminifera cum squamis oblongis obtusis, inferne pistillifera; fructibus 1-4 alternis subremotis tristigmaticis obovatis triquetris ore integris et albis inferne productis vel stipitatis glabris, squamam oblongam magnam amplectentem cristatam subæquantibus; culmis superne foliaceo. bracteatis.
Culm a foot high, slender, sometimes scabrous above, with stiff radical leaves as long as the culm and rough on the edges; spike single, an inch or more long, upper half inch staminate and slender-cylindric with long and oblong close whitish scales; the lower part pistillate, with 1-4 large fruit, which are separate and subrennote or scattered, sometimes 4 fruit along an inch, often fewer and nearer, the upper fruit sometimes one-fourth inch below the staminate; stigmas 3; pistillate scale broad, oblong, clasping, more or less awned, and a little longer or shorter than the fruit.
Mountains of North America; C. A. Geyer, in honor of whom it was named; also, Duffield's Ranch, Sierra Nevada; Dr. Bigelow, Explorations for Pacific Railroad, vol. iv, p. 163.
This species is related to C. phyllostachys, Meyer, which has a shorter and ovate fruit with a scale very long and leaf-like. Its association is with C. Wildenovii, Schk. No. 255. C. decidua, Boott, Lin. Trans., vol. xx. p. 119. Illus.
Car. No. 157, p. 63, Tab. 170. Spicis 3-6 cylindraceis erectis gracilibus atro-purpureis; suprema staminifera brevi-pedunculata clavæ-formi interdum basi vel medio pistillifera, squamis oblongis obtusis vel obovatis doroalbi-nervosis instructa; pistilliferis 1-5 distigmaticis sessilibus bracteatis, superioribus 1-3 brevibus parvis contiguis interdum geminatis apice staminiferis, inferioribus 2 longioribus subremotis foliaceo-bracteatis; fructibus oblongo-ovatis vel obovatis rostel. latis inferne teretibus deciduis nervosis ore integris, squama oblonga obtusa dorso pallida subduplo brevioribus.
Culm a foot or more high, triquetrous and quite rough on the edges above and leafy towards the base, and sheathed, rather slender; staminate spike single, short-pedunculate, often pistil. late at the base and sometimes in the middle, longish and clubform, with staminate scales oblong, obovate, obtuse and white on the keel ; pistillate spikes 1-5, erect, sessile, rough-bracteate, sometimes 1-3 short approximate to the staminate, and stami. nate also at their apex, and two longer and remoter below, sometimes only 2 or 3 pistillate spikes of which the upper is near the staminate and the other more remote; stigmas 2; fruit oblong, ovate, or obovate, short rostrate, entire at the orifice, nerved and tapering below, but scarcely stipitate; pistillate scale oblong obtuse pale on the back, and near twice the length of the fruit.
First found in Terra del Fuego; afterwards with the preceding, by Dr. Bigelow, as noticed in the same work. My specimens are from the latter locality.
NOTE.—As the authority of Willdenow led to the confounding of C. paleacea, Wahl., with C. crinita, Lam., it is important to say how the confusion has been ascertained and the mistake corrected. This has been done by Dr. Boott in his “Illustrations of the Genus Carex," a title so unpretending of a magnificent work on Caricography, finely characterized by Prof. Gray in the July number of this Journal.
Wahlenberg gave a specimen of his C. paleacea to Mr. Tuckerman, who passed it to Dr. Boott. It proved to be the C. maritima, Vahl., and of course, was very far from C. crinita, Lam. But our botanists had long before found a plant, which was figured by Schk. as one form of C. crinita, and they were thence led to call another apparent form of it, var. paleacea, as being the C. paleacea, Wahl. ; Schk. supported the same mistake. Having thus corrected the mistake of Willd. and error of Wahl. and of Schk., Dr. Boott saw that our so-called var. paleacea is the real C. crinita, Lam. Hence, the other form of it must be the variety, if it belongs to it. But Dr. Boott shows the manifest difference between them, and gives to this the name C. gynandra, appropriated to it by Schweinitz as early as 1824. The true C. crinita, Lam. then is ascertained, and another species is named. This and its synonyms will be as follows: No. 256. C. gynandra, Schw., An. Tab. Boott Illus. Car., No.
48, Tab. 50. C.crinita, Schk., fig. 125, Tab. Eee, not of Lam. Dew., Sill. Journ., vol. x, p. 270, and Am. Auth. Var. gynandra, Schw., and Tor., and others.
With the change of names in Sill. Journ., vol. x, p. 270-1, as indicated above, the description there is definite and adequate, as shown by the specimens sent by me to Dr. Boott.
I have not often seen the peduncles of the lower spikes so long as on Dr. Boott's figure. The spikes too are generally larger, often somewhat ventricose in the middle, with more staminate flowers at their tapering summit, and more densely fruited than those presented, or more like fig. 125, Schk. The geographical range is greater than shown by Dr. Boott's speci. mens, and extends over much of New England, New York, and far into Pennsylvania.
The separation, long desired by some, of this species from C. crinita, has thus been accomplished.
It is thus made easy to settle the synonyms of C. crinita, common in American authors. C. crinita, Lam. Boot, Illus. Car., No. 47, Tab. 49. Schk., fig.
164, Tab. Ttt. Muh. Gram., p. 229. C. leonura, Wahl. Sartwell Exsic. Car., No.58. Var. paleacea, Dew., Sill. Journ., X, p. 270-1. Tor. Mon., 401. Carey and Gray's Manual, p. 549.
Changing the names in Sill. Journ., vol. x, p. 270-1, as already indicated, the description there will distinguish the true C. crinita. Dr. Boott's figure fully and finely shows this species, and is far superior to fig. 164, Schk., above mentioned, though I had in 1826 referred this species to it. The long and slender, whipform, densely flowered spikes, with the long and rough-awned pistillate scales, and the roundish or obovate or oval fruit, short-beaked and ventricose, form distinctive characters. They describe C. crinita, Lam., there called var. paleacea.
Var. minor, Boott, as above.
Spikes smaller and shorter, 1-2 inches long, often nodding, or erect, rather loose-flowered, commonly with a long lanceolate and rough-awned scale.
These characters are plain on my specimens of this variety.
This species differs from C. gynandru, Schw., in having smooth, and not scabrous sheaths of the leaves, more slender and longer pistillate, spikes more closely fruited, as well as in the fruit and scale.
Dr. Boott's enthusiasm, position and extensive collection of Carices, as well as his acute discrimination, enable him to make other corrections, some of which at least will much interest our students of this vast and difficult genus. I advert to one more, viz., the proper designation of the species so long known over the country as C. anceps, Muh. The proper extension of the species is another consideration on which there may be difference of opinion. It was so named by Mublenberg, in letters to Willdenow, on account of its two-edged peduncles of the spikes, and was published by Willd. under that name, though Muh. afterwards published it as C. plantaginea, and yet referred it to Schk.'s figure of C. anceps. In 1826 I referred it to the synonym, C. striatula, Mx., without any consideration of the priority of the name. Several varieties of it were described, and much later Mr. Carey, in Gray's Bot., named one of them (under C. anceps) var. striatula, very appropriately. In 1857, Dr. Gray, in his Manual of Botany, referred it to C. laxiflora, Lam., and, in 1858, Dr. Boott published the reasons for this reference in his Illustra
well as hise of which at
us. I advere known overe