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must prevent our laying much stress on particular coincidences, the close resemblance of a large proportion of the Gospel precepts to many of those found in these books, leads us to infer that such precepts were not unknown to the Jews in the time of Christ, and might have proceeded very naturally from one assuming at that time the office of public instructor.

Matt. v. 3: "Blessed are the poor in spirit, for theirs is the kingdom of heaven."

Prov. xv. 32: "Before honour is humility."

xvi. 19: "Better to be of an humble spirit with the lowly, than to divide the spoil with the proud."

xxix. 23: "A man's pride shall bring him low, but honour shall uphold the humble in spirit."

Micah vi. 8: "What doth the Lord require of thee but to do justly, and to love mercy, and to walk humbly with thy God?"

Pirke Aboth. c. iv. 4: "Rabbi Levites Jafnensis said, Let it be thy chief desire to be of an humble spirit, for the hopes of man are as a worm."

Sanhedrin, fol. 43, 2: "R. Jehuda ben Levi said, Whilst the temple stood, if any man offered a holocaust, he obtained the reward of a holocaust; if an oblation, he obtained the reward due to an oblation. But if a man be of an humble spirit, the Scripture considers him as having offered all sacrifices."

Tanchuma, fol. 84, 4: "The law is not with those of a large spirit, but with him whose mind is contrite."

Matt. v. 4: "Blessed are they that mourn, for they shall be comforted." Psalm cxlvii. 3: "He healeth the broken in heart, and bindeth up their wounds."

* One of the sixty-one Tracts of the Mishna.

Isaiah lxi. 1-3: "The spirit of the Lord is upon me, because the Lord hath anointed me to preach good tidings unto the meek, to comfort all that mourn, to give unto them beauty for ashes, the oil of joy for mourning."

Matt. v. 5: "Blessed are the meek, for they shall inherit the earth.” Psalm xxxvii. 11: "But the meek shall inherit the earth, and shall delight themselves in the abundance of peace."

Ver. 6: "Blessed are they which do hunger and thirst after righteousness, for they shall be filled."


Isaiah lviii. 10, 11: "If thou draw out thy soul to the hungry, and satisfy the afflicted soul, . . . the Lord shall guide thee continually, and satisfy thy soul in drought, and make fat thy bones, and thou shalt be like a watered garden, and a spring of water whose waters fail not."

Ver. 7 "Blessed are the merciful, for they shall obtain mercy.”

Schabbath, fol. 151, 2: (tract of the Mishna) "Whosoever hath mercy on men, on him also God hath mercy. But he who sheweth no mercy to men, neither to him will God shew mercy."

Ver. 8: "Blessed are the pure in heart, for they shall see God."

Psalm xxiv. 3, 4: "Who shall ascend into the hill of the Lord? and who shall stand in his holy place? He that hath clean hands and a pure heart."

Isaiah xxxiii. 15, 16: "He that walketh righteously, and speaketh uprightly... he shall dwell on high."

Philo de Essæis: "They have attained the highest holiness in the worship of God, not by sacrificing animals, but by cultivating purity of heart."

Ver. 10: "Blessed are they which are persecuted for righteousness' sake, for theirs is the kingdom of heaven.”

Synopsis Sohar, p. 92: 92: "It is pleasing to the righteous to suffer afflictions on account of God, for thus are they freed from this state of exile."

Ver. 14: "Ye are the light of the world."

Aboth R. Nathan, c. 24: "When Rabban Jochanan

ben Zaccai* was near death, he wept loudly. His disciples said to him, Rabbi, thou high pillar, light of the world, weighty hammer, why dost thou weep?"

Matt. v. 16: "Let your light so shine before men, that they may see your good works, and glorify your Father which is in heaven."

Prov. iv. 18: "But the path of the just is as the shining light, that shineth more and more unto the perfect day."

Mechilta, fol. 27, 2: "Simeon ben Eliezer said, When the Israelites do the will of God, then his name is glorified in the world."

Ver. 18: "For verily I say unto you, Till heaven and earth pass, one jot or one tittle shall in no wise pass from the law, till all be fulfilled."

Schir haschirim rabba fol. 26, 1: “R. Alexander said, Although all men in the world should gather together to whiten one plume of the raven, they could not effect it. So, although all men should assemble to abolish Jod, which is the least letter in the law, they could not succeed."

Ver. 22: "Whosoever shall say, Thou fool, shall be in danger of hell fire."

Sohar, Exod. fol. 50, col. 299: "R. Chiskias said, Whosoever calleth his neighbour resho, wicked, he is thrust into hell (Gehenna)."

Ver. 24: "First be reconciled to thy brother, and then come and offer thy gift."

Berachoth, fol. 23, 1 (tr. Mishna): "Be not as the fools, who sin, and offer a sacrifice, but yet do not the works of repentance."

Ver. 25: "Agree with thine adversary quickly, while thou art in the way with him, lest," &c.

Sohar chadasch, fol. 22, 2: “R. Tanchum said, Come and see. How much ought a man to beware of sins, whilst the ways to repentance are yet open to him, before the way be closed!"

* He presided at Jafna soon after the fall of Jerusalem.

Matt. v. 28: "Whosoever looketh on a woman to lust after her, hath committed adultery with her already in his heart."

Sepher Rasiel haggadol, fol. 9, 2: "If, therefore, thou restrainest thy soul, and lookest not on women, thy reward shall be double."

Bammidbar rabba, sect. 9, fol. 203, 3, and Tanchuma, fol. 61, 2: "Our Rabbins said, 'If a woman, whilst she is with her husband, directs her heart to some one else whom she hath seen in the street, there is no greater adultery."

Ver. 29: "It is profitable for thee that one of thy members should perish, and not that thy whole body should be cast into hell.”

Targum Hierosol. Genes. xxxviii. 26, in Jalkut Rubeni, fol. 65, 1: "Judah speaks thus, It is better for me that I should be burned in this world with a little fire, than that I should be burned in the world to come with the devouring flame."

Ver. 34, 37: "I say unto you, Swear not at all, .... let your communication be Yea, yea; Nay, nay: for whatsoever is more than these, cometh of evil."

Philo de Essæis: "They lead a life of continued purity, unstained by oaths and falsehoods."

Josephus de Ess.: "Whatsoever they say also is firmer than an oath; but swearing is avoided by them, and they esteem it worse than perjury; for they say that he who cannot be believed without swearing by God, is already condemned."

Bammidbar rabba, sect. 22: "God said to the Israelites, Think not that ye are allowed to swear by my name, even though ye swear rightly."

Midrasch ruth rabba, sect. fol. 42, 4: "R. Huna said in the name of R. Samuel ben Isaac, The yea of the righteous is yea, and their no is no."

Ver. 36: "Thou canst not make one hair white or black."

Sepher Rasiel Haggadol, fol. 10, 2: "In the days of thy youth, who hath made thy hair black? If thou shouldst wash it with all kinds of nitre and borith, thou

canst not make one hair black, nor canst thou whiten one hair; and yet in thy old age all thy hairs become white."

Matt. v. 38, 39: "Ye have heard that it hath been said, An eye for an eye, and a tooth for a tooth, but Is I say unto you, that ye resist not evil.”

Prov. xx. 22: "Say not thou, I will recompense evil; but wait on the Lord, and he shall save thee."

Prov. xxiv. 29: "Say not, I will do so to him, as he hath done to me."

Ver. 39: "Whosoever shall smite thee on the right cheek," &c. Bava Kama, fol. 92, 2 (tr. Mishna): “For what is the proverb which is commonly said? If thy neighbour calleth thee ass, place upon thyself an ass's saddle. For thus it is written, Genesis xvi. 8, Return to thy mistress, even though thou be much vexed by her."

Ver. 42: "Give to him that asketh thee, and from him that would borrow of thee turn thou not away."

Eccles. iv. 5: "Turn not thine eye away from the needy."

Deut. xv. 8: "But thou shalt open thine hand wide unto thy poor brother, and shalt surely lend him sufficient for his need."

Jos. de Ess.: "Every one of them gives what he hath to him that wanteth it."

Ver. 43: "Ye have heard that it hath been said, Thou shalt love thy neighbour and hate thine enemy."

Midrasch Tehillim, fol. 26, 4: "R. Isaac said, Shew not benevolence nor mercy to the Gentiles."

Pesachim, fol. 113, 2 (tr. Mishna): "R. Samuel ben Isaac says from the mouth of Raf, that it is allowed to hate him in whom any one observes a base action, although not to give witness against him."

Aboth R. Nathan, c. 16: "Let not a man accustom himself to say, Love the wise men, and hate their disciples; love the disciples, and hate the rude multitude; but love all men, and hate the Epicureans, who impel men into errors."

Taanith, fol. 7, 2 (tr. Mishna): "Speaking of the

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