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said, In the age when the Messiah shall come, the young men will scorn the face of the elders, the elders will stand against the young men, and the daughter against her mother-in-law, and the men of that age will have faces as dogs (impudence), nor will the son revere his father."*

Matt. xii. 34: "Out of the abundance of the heart the mouth speaketh.” Sepher rasiel haggadol, fol. 10, 1: "The tongue uttereth the hidden secrets of the heart, whether they be good or bad."

xviii. 4: "Whosoever shall humble himself as this little child, the same is greatest," &c..

Tanchuma, fol. 36, 4: "R. Ame said, It is great glory to a young man, when he becometh as little children.”

Bava Mezia, fol. 84, 2 (tr. Mishna): "Whosoever maketh himself little on account of the words of the law in this world, he becometh great in the world to come.”

Ver. 7: "Wo unto the world because of offences."

Sohar Genes, fol. 33, col. 132: "Wo to the world, for they are stupid in heart, and with closed eyes, so that they understand not the mysteries of the law."

Ibid. fol. 37, col. 146: "Wo to the world, for they have eyes, and see not."

xix. 17: "If thou wilt enter into life, keep the commandments."

Eccles. xix. 19: "The knowledge of the commandments of the Lord is the doctrine of life; and they that do things which please him, shall receive the fruit of the tree of immortality."

xx. 26, 27: "Whosoever will be chief among you, let him be your servant."

Philo de Ess. "They have no slaves among them, but all are free, and all in their turn administer to others." xxii. 2—10: “Parable of the marriage of the king's son." Sohar Levit. fol. 40, col. 158: "A king made a

* The whole of this is, probably, an enlargement of Malachi iv. 6, and Micah vii. 6.

splendid feast, and said to his servants, Ye have been every day at your homes; one hath pursued his work, another hath gone to his merchandise, a third to his field. But on this day, when ye ought all to take part in my joy, I will not that ye attend to your work, or your merchandise, or your fields, but ye ought all to be in readiness, for the day is mine."

Ver. 7: "But when the king heard thereof, he was wroth; and he sent forth his armies and destroyed those murderers, and burnt up their city."

Tanchuma, fol. 86, 3: “Know that the king is wroth with you, and will send his legions against the city, and destroy it."

Ver. 21:

"Unto God the things that are God's."

Pirke Aboth, c. 111, 7: "R. Eleazar Bartolensis said, Give to him (God) of his own, since whatsoever things thou hast are his."

Ver. 30: "In the resurrection they neither marry nor are given in marriage, but are as the angels of God in heaven."

Berachoth, fol. 17, 1: "Raf frequently had these words in his mouth, In the world to come they will neither eat nor drink, nor beget children, nor carry on trade; neither envy nor hatred nor strife is there; but the just will sit encircled with crowns, and will rejoice in the splendour of the divine majesty."

Sohar Chadasch, fol. 20, 1: "All the souls of the just are in the seventh heaven, and become ministering angels, and celebrate God."

Ver. 36: "Which is the great commandment in the law ?"

Neither Lightfoot nor Schoettgenius quotes any Rabbinical sayings corresponding with the answer of Jesus.*

* Mendelsohn relates the following story, Jerus. vol. ii. p. 110: “Rabbi," said a pagan to Hillel the elder (who lived in the century before Christ) "wilt thou teach me the whole law while I am standing on one leg ?" Hillel replied, "Son, love thy neighbour like thyself. This is the text of the law; all the rest is commentary. Now go thy ways and study."

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Ver. 40: "On these two commandments hang all the law and the prophets."

Deut. iv. 5: "And thou shalt love the Lord thy God with all thine heart, and with all thy soul, and with all thy mind."

Levit. xix. 18: "Thou shalt not avenge nor bear any grudge against the children of thy people; but thou shalt love thy neighbour as thyself."

Matt. xxiii. 8: "Be not ye called Rabbi."

Nedarim, fol. 62, 1 (tr. Mishna). A tradition concerning the words of Deut. xxx. 20: "Let not a man say, I will apply diligently to the study of the law, so that they may call me Rabbi; I will attend to the Talmud, so that I may become an Elder, and obtain a place in the academy. But thou shouldest study from the love of God, and at length honours will be attained."

Ver. 23. "The weightier matters of the law, judgment, mercy, and faith."

Hosea vi. 6: "For I desired mercy, and not sacrifice; and the knowledge of God more than burnt offerings."

Mark vii. 8: "Laying aside the commandment of God, ye hold the tradition of men, as the washing of pots and cups: and many other such like things ye do."

Sota, fol. 4, 2: "R. Serika said from the mouth of R. Eliezer, Whosoever neglecteth his washing, he is rooted out of the world. R. Chija ben Ase said from the mouth of Raf, If any one useth the first water (i. e. before eating) he must raise his hands; but if he useth the latter water, he must hold his hands downward."

Mark xii. 44: "She of her want did cast in all that she had, even all her living."

Sohar, fol. 3, 1: "A poor man's sacrifice is by far the most pleasing to God, for he offereth two sacrifices; one, the sacrifice itself; the other, inasmuch as he offers his own nourishment and blood; for he hath nothing to eat, and yet he offereth sacrifice."

Luke xi. 41: "But rather give alms of such things as ye have, and behold all things are clean unto you."


Isaiah lviii. 6, 7: "Is not this the fast that I have chosen to loose the bands of wickedness.... is it not to deal thy bread to the hungry, and that thou bring the poor that are cast out to thy house? when thou seest the naked, that thou cover him; and that thou hide not thyself from thine own flesh? Then shall thy light spring forth as the morning," &c.

Luke xii. 19, 20: "And I will say to my soul, Soul, thou hast much goods laid up for many years; take thine ease, eat, drink, and be merry. But God said unto him, Thou fool, this night thy soul shall be required of thee."

Eccles. xi. 19: "Whereas he (the rich man) saith, I have found rest, and now will eat continually of my goods; and yet he knoweth not what time shall come upon him, and that he must leave those things to others, and die."

Notwithstanding the striking resemblance thus shewn between a great part of the Gospels and the Rabbinical writings, it is impossible not to acknowledge a general superiority in the former. Not only are particular precepts delivered with greater force, but the whole collection is, for the most part, free from the trifles and absurdities which abound in the latter. Jesus appears to have been well acquainted with the doctrines which proceeded from the Jewish schools; but, unlike the Pharisees, he claimed the privilege of independent thought in selecting, altering, or adding to them; the Messiah was entitled to neglect the usual servile method of literal quotation, and to set his own "I say" above the authority of any Rabbin. A teacher thus assuming an office which could allow him to neglect the charge either of

plagiarism or of heresy, would have at the same time the advantages arising from the use of stores already provided, and those resulting from the free exercise of the mind's own powers. A system of doctrine proceeding under such circumstances from a character like that which we have endeavoured to trace, might be expected to present a remarkable combination both of peculiarities and of excellences. The selection of the most striking features from collections of written aud traditional precepts is, probably, best performed by the quick intuitive sense of powerful minds, unburdened by extensive learning, and whose original energy has not been repressed by an habitual submission to scholastic forms and authorities. The preceptive part of the Gospels appears before us as the result obtained by the sifting of the Jewish scriptures and of the lessons of the Jewish schools by such a mind, and by the infusion of fresh and purer material from its

own resources.

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