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bankruptcy, these voluntary payments TM

Senator, Willard Saulsbury, be anything Experience and theory alike show that, but in name a colleague of the new ap- however much elective school boards pointee.

may serve special interests, they are not Senator Du Pont was at one time in the interest of the public. President of the Du Pont Powder Com- Among many excellent recommendapany. His business activities in connec- tions by the Association was that better tion with the Equitable Life Building, opportunities for education be given to with hotel ownership, and with financial children in rural districts and to that corporations are well known. An act of end larger units of administration be public utility and generosity was his adopted. gift of nearly $3,000,000 for the construc- The new President of the Association, tion of a fine boulevard from one end of unanimously chosen, is Miss Charl O. the State to the other. His early train. Williams, Superintendent of the Shelby ing was as a mining engineer and in County Schools, Memphis, Tennessee, street railway construction.

whose portrait we have pleasure in prePolitically General Du Pont has been senting herewith. active in local party matters, but there

seems to be no evidence that he has THE NEW LORD CHIEF Keystone

been a forceful influence in questions of JUSTICE OF ENGLAND T. COLEMAN DU PONT, U. S. SENATOR country-wide importance.

Y an odd coincidence, not long be FROM DELAWARE

fore a new Chief Justice of the cause the constitutional limit is too low

THE NATIONAL EDUCATION United States Supreme Court was apto pay teachers the high salaries now ASSOCIATION

pointed there was chosen a new Lord required; but, instead of proving our

THE recent annual meeting at Des Chief Justice of England. The man
Moines of the National Education

selected for this high, though not in are rather a proof of the extent of our Association, now sixty-four years old,

Great Britain the highest, judicial office resources." was stimulative of discussion on specific

is Sir Alfred Tristram Lawrence, or, as All taxation must be burdensome and questions affecting schools and teaching

he has been known by virtue of his posiall citizens must find themselves ex.

everywhere in the country. Several tion on the High Court of Justice since tremely embarrassed in a State where thousand teachers met as representative

1904, when he was made a knight, the cotton, which cost thirty cents to raise, of several times their number. Natu

Hon. Mr. Justice Lawrence. He is the is selling for ten cents, and rice, which rally, then, as in all recent annual meet

son of a surgeon; received his educatia i cost two dollars a bushel to raise, canings of the Association, the interest cen

at Trinity College, Cambridge; and was not be sold even at fifty cents, while tered on Federal relations to education.

Recorder of Windsor till his elevation to lumber has declined in proportion. DeAgain the Association earnestly indorsed

the bench of the High Court of Justice. spite these hardships, Mr. Rose assures the Smith-Towner Bill and the plan of a

Hereafter, as Lord Chief Justice Lawus that "there is not the slightest disDepartment of Education with its secre

rence, he will preside over the King's position on the part of any considerable tary in the President's Cabinet.

Bench. body of our citizens to repudiate any

The reason given in the resolutions

To Americans the office of Lord Chief just debt, and no section of the State is

was that education would be submerged bankrupt or in danger of bankruptcy."

if it were made one part of a Welfare Nevertheless there has undoubtedly Department. This fear seems to us unbeen some unwise expenditure if not

founded, and President Harding has squandering of public money on road rightly protested against the tendency to building in Arkansas as well as other

increase departments instead of linking States. The Arkansas situation makes

together activities of like kind. It must President Harding's aphorism especially always be remembered that our schools timely: "What we need is less govern

both financially and in their government ment in business and more business in

do and must depend chiefly on town, government.”

county, and State control and support.

It is fit and necessary that a unified THE NEW SENATOR FROM

country like Belgium should have a DELAWARE

Cabinet Minister as head of its educaPOLITICAL perturbation in both parties tional system; with our local home rule

ideas in such matters, the case is quite ernor Denney's appointment of General different. The Federal Government has T. Coleman Du Pont as United States a valuable function in co-ordinating : nd Senator. The appointment is looked at making efficient the work of education as a peculiar bi-party deal. The new and in promoting the teaching of AmeriSenator is a Republican, while Senator can patriotism and community citizenWolcott, whose resignation made the ship. But it is not at all clear that the vacancy, is a Democrat, and resigned for only or the best way is to work through the express purpose of accepting the the machinery of a department. position of Chancellor of Delaware. As Equally dogmatic was the assertion of a result there have been protest and dis- the Association that all school boards, satisfaction both among Democrats op- even in the largest cities, should be

(C) Harris & Ewing posed to Wolcott as Chancellor and Re- elected by popular vote. One of the

MISS ('HARL 0. WILLIAMS, NEWLY publicans opposed to General Du Pont worst political evils in America is the

CHOSEN PRESIDENT OF THE NATIONAL as Senator. Nor will the other Delaware present great excess of elective officers.




" Delaware has accompanieda Cors



Justice of England is something of a

Japan has been where she can see very mystery. He need not be a lord, and is

clearly the effect of the contact between not really “Chief" of the judiciary.

the Occidental and the Oriental. Her Unless the Lord Chief Justice is al

nearness to these problems gives her a ready a peer or receives a peerage he

special interest in them. Her national has not even a seat on the Supreme

safety is involved in them. Her concern Court of England; for that consists of

at the suggestion that she engage with peers in the House of Lords who have

four other Powers, all of them Occiheld judicial office. It is the Lord Chan

dental, in a discussion of these problems cellor who presides over the House of

ought to surprise nobody. Lords and who is also an officer in the

What is surprising is that any one Cabinet. Thus the Lord Chief Justice

should suppose that Japan would jump of England enjoys no such status as

at the chance to discuss matters vital that of the Chief Justice of the Supreme

to her with nations to which they are Court of the United States. Over Scot

not in the same sense vital. Americans land and Ireland the Lord Chief Justice

certainly ought to understand Japan's of England has no jurisdiction at all.

point of view. For over a century the Moreover, there is no tribunal in the

United States has held firm to the docUnited Kingdom that can invalidate a

trine that affairs in the Western Hemistatute by Parliament on the ground

sphere are of special concern to the peothat it is unconstitutional; all that any

ple of this country and attempts on the court can do is to interpret the law.

part of the nations of the Old World to Directly under the House of Lords,

gain territory in the New would be rewhich furnishes the Supreme Court of


garded as unfriendly. The analogy beGreat Britain, there is a Court of Ap

tween the relation of the United States peal, over which the Master of the profession, and many a judge has thus

to the rest of the hemisphere and the Rolls presides. Next there is a High developed his experience.

relation of Japan to Asia is very far Court of Justice. This court consists of

Mr. P. W. Wilson, correspondent in from perfect, but it is close enough to enjudges who may sit in London or go on America of the London “Daily News,"

able Americans, if they wish, to undercircuit at assizes. The High Court is who has furnished us with most of these

stand how the Japanese feel about such made up of three divisions:

facts about the English courts, writes a proposal as this of a conference at (1) The Chancery division deals "In the only case in which indi

Washington. wholly with cases involving property, rectly I have ever been interested in a

Japan, however, is not the only counand each judge bas his own court. legal proceeding, many years ago, the

try to which problems of the Far East (2) The King's Bench division han- solicitor was one called David Lloyd

carry a menace of conflict. Every nation dles more general cases, and here the George, the counsel engaged was Rufus

which is seeking foreign markets and Lord Chief Justice arranges assizes and

Isaacs, afterwards the Earl of Reading, has established its commercial outposts generally adjusts business.

and the judge was Lawrence. The effect in China and elsewhere among the dense (3) The Probate, Divorce, and Ad- of two days' hard work by these eminent population of Asia must recognize the miralty division deals with the subjects men was exactly one farthing damages,

possibilities of war in the problems of indicated, a rather strange assortment which my friends had to pay. One of

the Pacific. The competition for foreign of damages due to collisions, both nautithese collaborators is to-day Prime Min

markets has repeatedly led to political cal and matrimonial. Over this court

ister of the British Empire, another is action dangerously bordering on the ag. there is a President.

Viceroy of India, and the third is Lord gressive and bellicose. The effort of Frequently the appointment of the Chief Justice."

European Powers, partly successful, to Lord Chief Justice of England is politi.

dismember China and to get monopoliscal—the appointments of Lords Russell


tic privileges of trade and a political and Reading are instances of this. Once

control in her territory has led to conappointed, however, the "Lord Chief" is


troversies so acute as to be alarming. supposed to forget his political opinions |XCEPT Japan, all the countries in. Some of the roots of the World War are and associations. He is not supposed to vited by President Harding to a to be found in the soil of Asia. Some sit in the Cabinet or to hold any other conference in Washington on the doubt has been expressed whether it is office—the Ambassadorship of the Earl limitation of armaments and the prob- wise on this account, as well as from of Reading at Washington was purely lems of the Far East have accepted the Japan's point of view, to expand the proan extraordinary war measure.

invitation with evident gratification. posed conference from one concerning When Lord Reading resigned, his post Japan too has accepted, but somewhat the limitation of armaments alone to was claimed, as the usual promotion, by grudgingly. Willing enough to discuss one to include the dissentious questions the Attorney-General, Sir Gordon Hew

the problem of limiting armaments, of Far Eastern policy. So involved are art. who, however, could not be spared Japan is very reluctant to engage in a these questions that some of the Japfrom the Attorney-Generalship.

general discussion concerning affairs in anese newspapers go so far as to include When Sir A. T. Lawrence was ap- her quarter of the globe.

the question of Japanese immigration pointed to the bench by that stout Tory, Japan's reluctance is easy to under into America as one of the vital quesLord Chancellor Halsbury, there was at stand. Her position as the dominant tions of the Pacific, and one that should first criticism on the ground that Sir naval and military Power of the Far be discussed if any Pacific question is Alfred's knowledge of law could hardly East is in many respects uncomfortable.

included in the conference. Of course, be called profound. But it has often She is very close to the seat of trouble. if President Harding has in mind that been found in England that the best Passive China and cumbersome Russia by means of this conference he can bring place to learn one's law is on the bench, have long been and continue to be the nations to work together, so as to sitting as a judge, listening to the argu- sources of temptation to rapacious get all that is good out of the plan monte of the most brilliant men in the Powers and of danger likewise. And a League of Nations without ad'


to the League itself, he would like to see the conference expand in this fashion; but it is feared in some quarters that the conference may expand so greatly as to lessen the practical value. If Japan has to postpone any reduction of her fleet until she knows where she stands about the Pacific, other nations will act in the same way, it is argued, and we shall get nowhere.

From the point of view, therefore, of many who are strongly interested in reducing armaments and the consequent intolerable cost of Government, as well as from the point of view of Japan, the argument against including Far Eastern problems in the proposed conference at Washington seems very strong. From these points of view it would seem bet. ter to proceed at once to the discussion of the needs of limiting, or even reducing, armaments and to postpone the more dissentious and dangerous questions to a later time.

Men, however, do not fight because they are armed; they arm themselves and fight because they have a mutual quarrel in their minds and hearts. The cave man lived in a more constant state of warfare than the modern man, though his weapons were but sticks and stones. Warfare between nations cannot be stopped simply by depriving the nations of their customary instruments of war. The surest way to secure peace is not to substitute feebleness for strength, but to substitute reason and justice for unreason and injustice. Canada and the United States live in peace with one another, but it is not simply because they have mutually disarmed; they have mutually disarmed because they have istablished a sufficiently common understanding and a sufficiently common rule of justice to make it natural for them to live at peace. If there is to be any effective and lasting limitation of arma. ment or reduction of armament, it will be because the nations will have found a way of agreeing among themselves and of arriving at a commonly accepted rule of law.

It is for this reason that President Harding's decision to include the dangerous and difficult questions of the Far East at the conference in Washington is to be welcomed. The more difficult and dangerous they are, the more necessary is it that they should be settled. If there is involved in these questions the danger of wrong and injustice, the nation that stands for justice and right has no business to enfeeble itself; and if there is involved in these questions mutual misunderstanding between nations who are equally sincere in their desire for justice, the nation that enfeebles itself will do nothing thereby to in the understanding of others. And

an in particwar needs to understand

and to be understood by her Western West, and the Middle West often seeks neighbors. Her position is not like that the magnificent inspiration of a city like of the United States in the Western New York. This is natural, and wholeHemisphere. If she were to apply to some, and good. For a great city has herself and Asia a real Monroe Doc- become great through this very process trine, she would receive in that the sup- of absorption. It is bromidic to say that port of the United States; but her pol- one seldom finds a born New Yorker in icy is not the policy of the Monroe Doc- New York. Every inhabitant has come trine. The Twenty-one Demands she from some small community, with has made upon China and the course dreams and ideals and enthusiasm in she has pursued in occupying Shantung his heart, and thrown these magical cannot be interpreted in the words in possessions in the vast whirlpool; plungwhich President Monroe stated the atti- ing desperately into the currents himtude of America toward European ag. self, to sink or to swim gloriously to gression in this hemisphere. Japan success. The city gets the best and needs to be understood by others, but noblest of all these seekers after glory. she needs too to understand. It will be The city, then, having taken unto itself for her good as well as the good of the the finest product that the country has world to face together with the nations to offer, necessarily enriches its spiritual of the Occident the questions that are and mental dominions. The stuff of so vital to her. And the more vital they high dreams floats over it like a garare to her, the more necessary it is for ment; and the hopes and prayers and her to take part in this conference. tears of youth are forever singing and

If, as a result of President Harding's rising and falling where the great town call, the principal Allied Powers come thunders its perpetual song. to a better understanding of the perplex. | “Surely an architect could find all he ing problems of the Orient, the settle. sought, all he needed, in the lofty skyment of the question of armament will scrapers that literally ascend to the be comparatively easy.

clouds in the terrible towers that reach up as if to kiss the very heavens. A

poet could not walk on Fifth Avenue at ONE BIG FAMILY dusk and fail to find the wonder his soul

was seeking. A musician must hear AID the Young-Old Philosopher: “I strange symphonic chords, unknown to have always rather envied the peo- you and me, in the eternal footfalls on

ple who live in small cities and hard agate pavements. Painters and towns; for there must be a satisfaction sculptors must be thrilled by glimpses in walking down street and meeting an of sunsets at the end of narrow streets acquaintance, if not a friend, on every and in all those mammoth buildings thoroughfare. The whole community closely packed together that shine and constitutes one big family, and when gleam in the sun. For the artist the Robinson's son goes off to war Smith city, as well as the country, is an endknows of it and cares very deeply. It is less panorama which never wearies, but so with any other happening which con- always inspires; and the man of busi. cerns vitally the spirit of the place. ness, too, though he may be inarticulate

"I find that people read more in these about the beauty around him, drinks it localities than they do in a great me. in, unconsciously absorbs it, and is all tropolis; and, while there is not the the better for his spiritual gluttony. inspiration and glamour of two operas “The finest that America has to offer being sung at once, there are many is frequently concentrated in great other compensations. I have never cities; but that does not mean that the seen more ardent interest in the real highways and byways, the little offtheater than one discovers in, say, a city roads of the land, are emptied of their like Indianapolis; and when a grand best. New blood, strong fiber, are alopera troupe swings out into the great ways springing up, always being woven; West it meets with a welcome that it and out of the strength of the growing never had before. Because such visits generation in these beautiful and solid

rare they are doubly appreciated.. communities is born the nobility of toSo people flock to lectures and concerts, morrow-whether in big cities or smaller and thrive on the itinerant culture that towns. And just as at times the tides modern conveniences have made possi- of the city throw back to the prairies ble. They know all about a visiting and mountains innumerable multitudes celebrity long before he or she arrives. who weary of the pavement's roar, so Half the audience could give a list of all the prairies and the mountains continue Galsworthy's or Walpole's books, for in- to hurl their passionate, aspiring youth stance. Is this so in a hodgepodge place toward the tumult of the town. like New York? I doubt it.

**This means that, wherever we are, "But one need not belittle Manhattan the same kind of people exist. They in praising the so-called provinces. The have come from far and near, from best young blood of the South, the Far North and South, and East and West,



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503 and they are all in search of some El

measure would be one effective means of Dorado; all are looking upward to the

preventing improvement where improvestars, and finding life the splendid ad

ment is needed. venture it was meant to be."

The bonus measure is unjust to the veteran whether disabled or not. Ex:

perience has proved that such a distri. CAN IRELAND SAVE

bution of money brings no permanent ITSELF?

good to the mass of the recipients and

does do harm. If such a bonus had been BDURATE hostility and sectional

given immediately upon the return of distrust between Irishmen is the

the men to civil life, it might have one obstacle to peace in Ireland.

bridged many a gap between unemployEngland is honestly anxious to set up

ment and regular occupation. a broad form of Home Rule and to grant


time, however, is past. Such unemployDominion privileges within reason and

ment as exists to-day is not due to the within the Empire. The efforts of the

temporary condition consequent upon wise conciliator General Smuts and the

discharge from the Army, but to a genwillingness of the English Prime Minis

eral situation which would be not re ter to put conciliation before punish

lieved by the distribution of money but ment and meet the leaders of a selfCentral News

aggravated. styled "Republic" standing for secession


Those veterans who imagine that opbased on violence have brought about

position to the bonus is due to public the conference. But what can be ex- the people of Ireland to establish rela

parsimony are greatly mistaken. It pected to result when the Ulster leader, tions of neighborly harmony.

comes no more strongly than from those Sir James Craig, remarks that he has Extremists and irreconcilables have

who regard no debt of the country so nothing to do with South Ireland or had their day; what Ireland needs to be

great as that which it owes to the men with Mr. De Valera's negotiations, and freed from is not imaginary English

who served it under arms. The evil in that Ulster has declared by the “largest oppression but actual Irish factional

the bonus does not consist in the fact majority ever returned in any general hatred.

that it costs money. It will not be cured election in any part of the world"

through such devices as getting money against the Sinn Fein no-partition issue? THE INJUSTICE OF

by collecting interest on the foreign When we remember that Sir James be


debt. It is wrong in principle, and its fore going to London made a fiery speech at the Boyne celebration in which requires some courage to do some

greatest wrong is that it adds a new inhe said, “What we have we hold" and thing which is bound to be miscon

justice to what injustice the veterans "We have nothing to give away at the

strued. In asking Congress to post

have already suffered. conference," it is clear that the trouble pone, virtually to defeat, the bill to give

The interesting fact, as reported in a bonus to each man who served in the

the New York "Times,” has in arranging a reasonable compromise

been does not lie with one side only. On the war President Harding ran the risk of brought out at this time by Brigadier

General C. C. Sniffen, who was one of other hand, De Valera continues to give losing the respect and liking of men

whom he honors. out his insistent claim for self-determi

Out of desire to do

President Grant's secretaries, that in nation by Ireland as a unit. The early the just thing, he has acted in such a

1875 President Grant himself, whose sessions of the London "conversations" way as to incur the displeasure of the

sympathy with veterans was undisputed, show no evidence of advance toward a very men whom he has served.

vetoed a bonus bill on the ground that common ground.

Gradually, we hope, the men who are

while impoverishing the Treasury it Nevertheless friends of law, order, urging the enactment of the bonus legis

would fail to benefit the veterans and and peace in Ireland believe that much lation will come to see that the end they

would be a measure of relief only for of this is merely fencing by both sides

have in view will be attained more cer- claim agents and middlemen. The prin. for the best terms obtainable. The com

tainly and more quickly by other means. ciple that was sound in Grant's time is mon people of Ireland in both sections The end they have in view is justice for

sound to-day. are heartily sick of shooting and rioting the men who were serving their country

The three articles we publish in this and want authority established and

while other men were serving them- issue under the general title "What the political freedom, such as Canada and

selves; but injustice is never remedied Country Owes the Veteran” state some South Africa have, assured.

facts which we think point the way to While it

by injustice. And the bonus measure is almost seems as if at London an irre- a measure of injustice.

a proper policy. That policy includes, sistible force had met an immovable

It is unjust to the disabled veterans. first, generous support for the helpless; body, yet there is hope, and strong hope,

Money that is given to the well and second, adequate compensation for disthat a way out may be found. Whether strong and prosperous cannot go to the ability; third, training for those disthe solution is in the adoption in South

relief of those who are ill and weak and abled men who can be taught means of Ireland of a Parliament such as Ulster impoverished. The distribution of bill- self-support; fourth, the maintenance for now has (both to deal separately and

ions of dollars indiscriminately will pre- all the men of the principle of insurance directly with the British Government),

vent the discriminating use of money rather than the old and bad practice of or in the acceding by Ulster to the idea

for the relief of those who need relief. pensions; and, fifth, such measures of of an all-Ireland

Governmental economy and efficiency as Government whose It is no answer to say that such relief powers should be so restricted as to se

has not been as effective as it should would restore as rapidly as possible concure Ulster's liberty, or in some other

have been. The way to remedy that is ditions of production from which all the plan, the London conference knows that not to prevent adequate relief by using veterans capable of productive industry De Valera spoke truth when in accept

the money otherwise, but to correct the would benefit more largely than from ing his invitation to the conference he

mistakes that have been made and to any conceivable bonus or succession of asserted that it is the genuine desire of

use the money intelligently. The bonus bonuses.



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