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as to American thin-skinnedness to English censure. The Rev. Frederick Arnold writes on Dean Burgon,' and Mr. Wakefield continues his Foundation Stones of English Music.' 'Pathos' is the title of an essay by Mr. A. C. Benson, which, however, deals only with pathos of the homeliest sort. The Rev. S. Baring Gould writes in the Gentleman's on The Original Munchausen,' and gives the history of the veritable Baron Munchausen, from whom Raspe took the name. Mr. J. A. Farrer, writing on 'A Heathen Moralist,' gives long_extracts from the Kural of Tiruvalluvar. Mr. W. J. Lawrence gives a long biography of Madame Celeste, and Mr. Norris deals with Gulbram, Dane King, and the Danes at Barking.'-'A Coach Drive at the Lakes,' with its interesting memories, is continued in the Cornhill, in which also appear 'Sketches of Indian Life' and 'The Great American Language.' The last-named article we specially commend to Dr. Murray and his aids.- Good Night to the Season, 'tis over,' in Temple Bar, gives a brilliant and humorous sketch of the past season, illustrated by many curious anecdotes and recollections. A very interesting account is also given of some of 'Our Diplomatists. A very readable Memoir of Alexander Cruden' is signed by our contributor Mr. C. A. Ward.-A poem by Mr. Swinburne entitled Olive,' in that poet's latest vein, opens out the English Illustrated. Under the title of 'A Dead City' Mr. Baker describes St. Davids. The illustrations to this are by Mr. Walter Crane. 'The Morte d'Arthur' is by Mr. F. Ryland, with illustrations by Mr. H. Ryland. Mr. Traill continues his Et Cætera." engraving of Gerard Dow's portrait of himself is prefixed. Under the title of Wardour Street English' Mr. Archibald Ballantyne in Longman's derides the present fashion for using Saxon-English. Canon Butler's pleasant 'Reminiscences of the Lakes in 1844' gives recollections of Wordsworth and Coleridge. A. K. H. B. writes on "The Longest Day' and Mr. Andrew Lang gives his 'At the Sign of the Ship.'-All the Year Round has papers on Ur of the Chaldees' and 'Sketches in Teneriffe,' in two parts.


MR. C. A. WARD continues in the Rookworm his 'Johnson's Tavern Resorts' and Mr. W. Sidney writes on Hermyspus Redivivus.'

PART LIX. of Mr. Hamilton's Parodies gives travesties of the 'Ingoldsby Legends,' the poems of Poe, and American national and patriotic poems.

THE monthly publications of Messrs. Cassell once more lead off with the Encyclopaedic Dictionary, of which Part LVII. comprises from "Piercing-file to "Polacanthus." Under "Pleasure," "Plough," and "Ply" illustrative information of great value is to be found. We can only express afresh our regret that a certain percentage of contributors will not refer to this excellent dictionary before sending queries to N. & Q.'-Part XXXIII. of the Illustrated Shakespeare carries the 'Second Part of King Henry VI.' so far as Act IV. sc. x. Among other illustrations are several of Jack Cade.Old and New London, Part XIII., reaches Billingsgate and the Custom House, and has engravings of both. There are many views of the premises of the City companies, with one of the Steel Yard and neighbourhood in 1540, from Van Wyngard's plan.-Our Own Country, Part XLV., depicts the Isle of Man, with views of Douglas, Peel Castle, Braddo Head, &c.; Rochester and Chatham, with designs of the Castle, the Cathedral, and the Dockyard, and a portrait of Dickens; and the Severn, which is illustrated with pictures of the Wrekin and of Uriconium.-Part VII. of Naumann's History of Music is wholly occupied with early Christian hymnology, of which a full account is begun. A facsimile of a letter of Johann Sebastian Bach, from the original in

the Musical Library at Dresden, accompanies the number.-Part X. of Cookery contains ample information as to salads.-The first volume of the Woman's World is completed, and it will henceforth be enlarged. In the present number Miss Garnett's sensible remarks on The Equality of Women,' 'A Pompeian Lady,' and Miss A. Mary F. Robinson's 'A Walk through the Marais,' part ii., repay attention.

WE much regret to announce the death, at the early age of thirty-eight, of the Rev. Harry B. C. Delevingne, M.A., a constant contributor to our columns, Mr. Delevingne died at his residence, Castle Hill, Berkhampstead, on the 30th ult.

The following letter from Mr. Graham speaks for itself:

"Since you kindly inserted a notice in N. & Q.' (7th S. vi. 100) of the help needed to continue the preparation of the Chaucer Concordance,' most generous assistance has been offered by eleven ladies and gentlemen, who are now at work. There are more than twenty poems and parts of poems awaiting further offers of help, and I feel sure your readers will assist in forwarding the concordance when they know there is such a large amount of work remaining undone. I shall be pleased to answer any inquiries. "W. GRAHAM.

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64, Mount Pleasant Road, Southampton."

Notices to Correspondents.

We must call special attention to the following notices : ON all communications must be written the name and address of the sender, not necessarily for publication, but as a guarantee of good faith.

WE cannot undertake to answer queries privately.

To secure insertion of communications correspondents must observe the following rule. Let each note, query, or reply be written on a separate slip of paper, with the signature of the writer and such address as he wishes to appear. Correspondents who repeat queries are requested to head the second communication "Duplicate."

T. RALPH PRICE.-L'Abbesse de Jouard is the name of the heroine of a drama written by M. Renan. It is also the title of the play.-("Hokey-Pokey.") The derivation from "Oh che poco" is a mere joke. The phrase is an alteration of "hocus pocus," for which consult Skeat's 'Dictionary' and the Encyclopaedic Dictionary.' A not much more sensible conjecture was that "hocus pocus" was a corruption of "hoc est corpus."-("Saracen's Head, Turk's Head.") Consult Larwood's His tory of Signboards' or Peter Cunningham's 'Handbook to London.'

JOHN ALT PORTER ("Marriage Certificates ").-." Rites and ceremonies" is, of course, correct. The other spelling, rights, is probably no more than a clerical error. The origin is the Latin ritus. See Skeat. X.

Only the ass, with motion dull,
Upon the pivot of his skull
Turns round his long left ear.

Wordsworth, Peter Bell,' pt. i. st. 45.


Editorial Communications should be addressed to "The Editor of Notes and Queries'"-Advertisements and Business Letters to "The Publisher"-at the Office, 22, Took's Court, Cursitor Street, Chancery Lane, E.C.

We beg leave to state that we decline to return communications which, for any reason, we do not print; and to this rule we can make no exception.



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NOTES: Helbeck Family, 281-Tea and Scandal-Dumbbell, 282-Epitaph upon Fairfax-A Popular Delusion How Popular Information is Acquired, 283-Belgian BeerAscham-An Ancient Toilet Table-Provincial Pronunciation, 284-Joshua Coffin-Local Superstition Jack Drum's Entertainment'-Mistakes in Dickens, 285-Goltho Registers -Employ-Prototypes of Robinson Crusoe-"Omnibus

interest in many ways. In 1286 (Kirkby's Quest) John de Helbek held land at Bolton-on-Swale and Thomas de Helbeck lands at North Otterington, West Harlsey, and Bretanby. John de Helbeck also owed service to the castle of Richmond for lands at Yafforth (Reg. Hon. de Rich.). It is evident that at this time there were two principal branches of the family, one represented by Thomas Order"-Pendulum Clocks, 286. and the other by John, and that these persons QUERIES:-Hair-powder-Ell-Exorcism-Sir N. Arnold- were closely connected I think the following notes Barnet Fair-Topehall-George Street-Aldermen of Aldersgate Ward-Goose-Hebrew-Latin Grammar-Ludgershall, go to show. Some time about A.D. 1286-1295 John 287-Ancient Ship-Propagandists of Russia-October- de Helbeck married Agnes, widow of Robert de T. G. Wainewright-Comic Publication-Schirmer-Hymn Eskelby, and she and her husband were living in

of Cleanthes-Verses by Simon Patrick-St. Rowslo, 288

Fi-fi- Glory of Two Crowned Heads'-Budaeus-"A silver

1305; in that year John de Helbeck was surety lining"-Robinson Family, 289. for Hugh de Lowther, knight of the shire for REPLIES:- Count Lucanor,' 289-Dual Origin of Stuart Westmoreland (Parl. Writs). In 1315-6 he granted Family-Skikelthorpe, 290-Caravans - Chaucer-Cholyens to John de Cauncefield and Isabella his wife lands

-Tennyson Family The Birds of Manchester '-Amsterdam Coffee-House, 291-Miss Foote-Dr. Guillotin-DeSoapy Sam-Dr. Bury-Tooth Brushes, 292-Expressions in "The Long Pack'-Death of Clive, 293-Geo. Hanger-De Foe-Breaker-Glover's Derby' Literature of Church

Bells, 294-Scotch Coal-Outleet-Rewe-Peace) of 1642

999 Years

"History of the Robins,' 295-Perjury-Chedreux-Lease for Continental, 298 Santa Sophia - Gisors Byther's Plan of London Diddle-Charlemagne-Noy, 297-Westminster Library-Larboard-Skip, 298-BristolAn Interesting Manor-Authors Wanted, 299. NOTES ON BOOKS:-Anderson's History of Mortlake'—

Ragozin's Assyria-Nichol's Francis Bacon-Morley's

'History of English Literature.' Notices to Correspondents, &c.



in Eskelby, Kellok (sic), and Crosseby, co. York (Harl. Charters, 51D 53), for which a fine was passed in the same year, which specifies the lands as being in settlement on John de Cauncefield and Isabella and their heirs (York Fines, 9 Edw. II.). The Cauncefields were of North Lancashire extraction, and in 1286 John de Cauncefield held considerable lands in Friton and Howthorpe, in Ryedale Wapentake, Yorks, of the Mowbray fee. There seems to have been a succession of disputes in connexion with the land settled on John and Isabella de Cauncefield. John de Helbeck had enfeoffed John de Thornton and Alex. de Eggeburgh, who were both clerics, of some portion of the property out of which they granted to the LAND, AND RICHMONDSHIRE. hospital of St. Leonard's at York a rent of twelve The only account of this old north country marks (Dodsworth MSS., 120 b, 66 b). John de family which I have been able to find is in Nichol- Cauncefield died before A.D. 1320, and Thomas de son and Burn's History,' published in 1777, where Cauncefield, of Ampleforth, his son and heir, was the descent is roughly carried down to Isabella, living in 1335, when he confirmed the grant of the daughter and heir of Thomas de Helbeck, who, rent of twelve marks. In 1321, however, we find circa A.D. 1314, by marriage with Richard de proceedings by Thomas de Hellebeck versus John Blenkinsop, carried the estates, or some portion of de Thornton, and at the same time by John de them, into the latter family. Has the pedigree Thornton and Alex. de Eggeburgh against William before the date of this match received more modern de Eskelby (Pat. Roll, 15 Edw. II.). Two years nvestigation? The family was of some import-after this, viz., in 1323 (17 Edw. II.), the Harcla nce, holding under the Viponts. It is stated that family had, apparently by force majeure, got posSir Thomas de Hellebeck, who lived in 1251, in session of this manor, for in that year John de addition to the Westmoreland property also held Harcla gives to his wife Emeiarda or Emunda (sic, lands in Richmondshire, and that his son Thomas, dower in the manor of Eskelby twenty-five acres of but query if she was not the widow of Andrew) living temp. Edward I., married Avicia, daughter land, and she is subsequently stated to have held of Adam de Hencastre, and had issue, with others, Thomas, son and heir, who was the last of the the whole manor (Add. MSS., 26,719-35). This direct male line, and whose daughter and heiress John was brother to the well-known Andrew de Isabella married Richard de Blenkinsop. There Harola, Earl of Carlisle (executed at Knaresborough appears to be little on record relating to the Rich- in 1322/3). After his fall and in the first year of mondshire estates, and the following collected the new king's reign (1 Edw. III., 1327) the folnotes may therefore be worth preserving, and I lowing petition appears on the Rolls of Parlia trust they may elicit from some of your readers further facts in connexion with the various families named and their possible relation to each other, for although the notes are somewhat fragmentary they apparently contain the outlines of transactions of

ment :

"Thomas de Swinborne, Thomas de Helbek, Isabella one of the heirs married to Richard de Blenkinsop, another daughter married to C. Swinborne, Thomas de Swinborne another of the heirs, Thomas de Swinborne, and Richard de Blenkinsop and Isabella his wife pray

remedy for the manor of Eskelby, in the county of York,
whereof the said Thomas de Helbeck was outed by the
great power of Andrew de Arcla, which by forfeit are de-
volved into the King's hands. It is answered, Let cer-
tain persons in the Chancery be assigned to enquire," &c.
-Rot. Parl., vol. ii. p. 437.

In the Pipe Roll for co. York, 13 Edw. III. (1339),
there is mention of land in Eskelby
"which was
of John Harcla, in the custody of the King by
reason of the minority of the heir of the said John,"
demised from Easter 5 Edw. III. up to the lawful
age of the heir (Dodsworth MSS., vol. xvii.
fol. 170b); and two years later we again meet
with old acquaintances, for by deed witnessed by
Nicholas de Langton, Mayor of York, on June 20,
1342, Henry de Harcla, Knt., son and heir of John
de Harcla, quit claims to the Master of St. Leo-
nard's at York, John de Thornton, and Alexander
de Eggeburgh all his interest in this property. It
is worth mentioning that in 1392, just fifty years
later, and seventy-six years after the settlement
made by John de Helbek in 1316 on John de
Cauncefield and his wife, another John de Caunce-
field is found as one of the defendants in a suit
brought by one Richard de Eskelby, the subject of
which, beyond the fact that it relates to lands in
Yorkshire, cannot now be discovered.


H. D. E.

hundred and seventeenth Spectator, in his delight-
fully "fusionless " diary, notes that he had "
a dish
of Twist" at the coffee-house. What was this?
There is a coarse tobacco called "Twist"; but did
our forefathers at any period speak of a dish of
tobacco ?

The French as a nation are not, and I suppose never were, great tea-drinkers; and yet the poet Jacques Delille (ob. 1813), who seems to have been as domestic in his tastes and habits as Cowper, in a passage in his poem 'Les Trois Règnes,' quoted in Chapsal's 'Modèles de Littérature Française,' mentions tea and coffee as though he considered them entitled to equal honours :—

Mon coeur devient-il triste et ma tête pesante,
Eh bien pour ranimer ma gaîté languissante,
La fève de Moka, la feuille de Canton,
Vont verser leur nectar dans l'émail du Japon.
Dans l'airain échauffé déjà l'onde frissonne,
Bientôt le thé doré jaunit l'eau qui bouillonne,
Ou des grains du Levant je goûte le parfum.
In another passage Delille breaks out into
absolute enthusiasm over coffee :-

C'est toi, divin café, dont l'aimable liqueur,
Sans altérer la tête, épanouit le coeur.
Whether this couplet was written before or after
'The Task,' I do not know. It is curiously like
the well-known passage I have quoted above.
Delille was well read in English literature; he
translated 'Paradise Lost' and the 'Essay on Man';
but it may be merely a coincidence. Again:

Viens donc, divin nectar, viens donc, inspire-moi, Je ne veux qu'un désert, mon Antigone, et toi. We must remember that it was French-made coffee that inspired these lines. A single cup of average English coffee would have quenched the poet's enthusiasm effectually.

In reading Congreve's 'Way of the World' lately I was amused to find how soon tea became popularly associated with scandal, a partnership which has, I fancy, not even yet been dissolved. Mirabell, in Act IV. scene i., says to Mrs. Millamant :"Lastly, to the dominion of the tea-table I submit but with proviso, that you exceed not in your province; but restrain yourself to native and simple tea-table drinks, as tea, chocolate, and coffee: as likewise to genuine and authorised tea-table talk-such as mending of fashions, spoiling reputations, railing at absent friends," and so forth.'

As tea was at the date of the play (1700) comparatively new, and was even then an expensive luxury, it would seem that there must be a natural sympathy between tea and scandal. Can any one point out a still earlier allusion to the union of this "" happy pair"?

A friend, to whom I mentioned the above passage, asks me, Why did our forefathers invariably speak of a dish of tea?" I suppose there was no reason other than sic volebat usus. When did people begin to speak of a cup of tea? They must have begun by Cowper's time-"the cups that cheer but not inebriate," in "The Task,' 1785. Did our ancestors ever say "6 a dish of coffee"? Pope, in "The Rape of the Lock,' canto iii., speaking of coffee, says, "And frequent cups prolong the rich repast." A passing character in The Way of the World,' I. ii., orders "two dishes of chocolate." The Retired Citizen, in the three

Ropley, Alresford.


P.S.-Since writing the above I have met with a dish of coffee" in Swift's 'Polite Conversation.' dish of tea Meg Dode, in 'St. Ronan's Well,' speaks of "a " more than once.

DUMB-BELL.-It seems strange that this name should have been given to a thing which has not the slightest resemblance to a bell. In 'N. & Q.,' 2nd S. xii. 45, SIGMA says that the origin of the name is probably little known. It comes "by analogy from a machine consisting of a heavy flywheel with a rope passing through and around a spindle projecting from one side, secured by stanchions, and set in motion like a church bell, till it acquired sufficient impetus to carry the gymnast up and down." SIGMA adds that a specimen of the machine, no longer in use, existed at New College, Oxford. It was probably such an apparatus as that described by Addison in No. 115 of the Spectator (1711). He says:—

"I exercise myself an hour every morning upon a

dumb-bell that is placed in a corner of my room, and pleases me the more because it does everything I require of it in the most profound silence. My landlady and her daughters are so well acquainted with my hours of exercise, that they never come into my room to disturb me whilst I am ringing."

Franklin, writing to a friend in 1787 ("Life of Benjamin Franklin,' &c., by Bigelow, 1881, vol. iii. p. 370), speaks of his using a machine similar, apparently, to that mentioned in the Spectator. He says: "I live temperately, drink no wine, and use daily the exercise of the dumb-bell." Observe, not dumb-bells. By the beginning of the present century the dumb-bells as we now know them had come into use. In 'The Miseries of Human Life,' 1807, p. 38, Mr. Sensitive enumerates among exercises "to keep yourself alive......rolling the gravel walks......cutting wood......working the dumb-bells, or some such irrational exertions."

That the use of what we now call a dumb-bell should have superseded the cumbersome machine above described is natural enough; but it is curious that a name quite applicable to the machine should have been transferred to an implement utterly unlike it, merely because both were used with the same object of aiding bodily exercise.


EPITAPH UPON LORD FAIRFAX.-The accompanying I have found in a bundle of old tracts. It is on a foolscap sheet, and of the period of Fairfax's death. It seems worthy of a place in 'N. & Q.':


upon Thomas Late Lord Fairfax.

Written by a Person of Honour.


Under this Stone doth lye

One Born for Victory.

Fairfax the Valiant, and the only he,
Who e're for that alone a Conquerour would be.
Both Sexes' Virtues were in him combin'd,
He had the fierceness of the manliest mind,
And all the meekness too of Woman-kind.
He never knew what Envy was, or Hate;
His Soul was fill'd with Worth and Honesty,
And with another thing quite out of Date,
Call'd Modesty.


He ne're seem'd Impudent but in the Field, a place Where Impudence it self dares seldom shew its Face.

Had any Stranger spy'd him in a Room
With some of those he had Overcome,
And had not heard their Talk, but only seen
Their Gestures and their Meen,

They would have sworn he had the Vanquish'd been
For as they brag'd and dreadful would appear,
Whilst they their own ill luck in War repeated,
His Modesty still made him blush to hear
How often he had them defeated.


Through his whole Life the part he bore Was wonderful and great,

And yet it so appear'd in nothing more,
Than in his Private last Retreat:
For 'tis a stranger thing to find

One Man of such a Glorious mind,
As can despise the Power he has got,
Than Millions of the Sots and Braves,
Those despicable Fools and Knives,
Who such a pudder made,
Through dulness and mistake,

In seeking after Power, and get it not.

When all the Nation he has won,
And with expence of Blood had bought
Store great enough he thought
Of Fame and of Renown,

He then his Arms laid down,
With full as little Pride

As if he had been of the Enemy's side, Or one of them could do that were undone. He neither Wealth nor Places sought, For others, not himself he fought;

He was content to know,

For he had found it so,

That when he pleas'd to Conquer, he was able,
And leave the Spoil and Plunder to the Rabble.
He might have been a King,
But yet he understood
How much it is a meaner thing

To be unjustly Great, than Honourably good,


This from the World did Admiration draw,
And from his Friends both Love and awe:
Remembring what he did in Fight before.
His Foes lov'd him too,

As they were bound to do,

Because he was Resolv'd to fight no more.
So blest of all, he dy'd;

But far more blest were we,

If we were sure to live till we could see

A man as great in War, as Just in Peace as he.

A POPULAR DELUSION.—As a story as false as the sinking of the Vengeur is taking root in the congenial soil of the religious feelings of the British middle classes, 'N. & Q.' should at once "spot" the photograph of the "Bishop of St. Alban's expounding the Bible to the Princess of Wales," which is now sold in the fancy shops, surrounded by an elaborate illuminated text. Any one can see that the book which forms the centre of the group is not a Bible, and the illuminati know that it is a photographic album. It is a pity that the princess's kindly feeling towards the venerable prelate should be perverted into such a piece of religious bad taste. EDWARD H. MARSHALL, M.A.


HOW POPULAR INFORMATION IS ACQUIRED.I take the following from the Scottish People, May 26. Its charming ingenuity opens out quite a new and promising field for etymologists :

"Tin-can: Can-teen.-As a curious illustration of the changes words undergo that of canteen may be cited. It is, as everybody knows, a vessel in which soldiers during a campaign carry water or other fluids. When the Duke of Marlborough's army was in Flanders they called this vessel a tin can. The French adopted

the vessel into their army, and, in accordance with the genius of their language, they placed the adjective after the noun, making it can-tin, pronounced canteen. In this form the English again took the word from the French,

and canteen it must ever remain."


BELGIAN BEER.-The perusal of an interesting volume by W. T. Marchant, 'In Praise of Ale,' has reminded me of the following stanzas on Belgian beer, which I copied some time ago from the Revue Générale of Brussels. Although not permitted to drink beer myself, I can appreciate the praise of our national beverage; but it is difficult to conceive the idea of Belgian beer inspiring a poet :Surtout point d'engouement pour l'ale ou la bavière Empruntant du lointain un éclat mensonger! Faro, Saison, Louvain naissant dans la frontière ; Buvons-les sans souci des bières de l'étranger. Faro que deux sous noirs nous procurent sans peines, On pourrait t'appeler le vin des malheureux : Tu composes le sang qui reveille ses veines; Tu réchauffes son sein par tes flots savoureux. L'espagnol estima si haut ton excellence Que d'un de ses beaux vins il te donna le nom, Si du crâ de faro l'on n'a plus souvenance, La bière a conservé son antique renom.

I believe these verses are by Jules Nollée. J. MASKELL. ANTONY ASCHAM.-The 'Dictionary of National Biography' attributes only one work, 'Of the Confusions and Revolutions of Governments,' to the murdered diplomatist. Fell, in his 'Life of Hammond,' p. 56 (ed. 1662), writes :

"When that unexampled Villany [the trial of Charles I.] found this Excuse, that it was such as could be pleaded for, and men in cool blood would dare to own and justifie, he [Hammond] affix'd his Reply to the suggestions of Ascham and Goodwin."

The allusion here is clearly to the 'Vindication of Dr. Hammond's Humble Address to Lord Fairfax and his Council of War,' which is a joint reply to John Goodwin's 'Obstructors of Justice' and to 'The Original and End of Civil Power,' by "Eutactus Philodemius." This suggests a suspicion that "Eutactus Philodemius "Antony Ascham, a suspicion which is strongly confirmed by a comparison of this treatise with Ascham's acknowledged work. "Philodemius" likewise published a rejoinder to Hammond.

C. E. D.

AN ANCIENT TOILET (?) TABLE.-A friend of mine possesses an antique-looking ivory table, measuring about 3 ft. 6 in. by 2 ft., of which he knows nothing, and concerning which I can only make guesses. I give a description of this curio, and trust that among the multitude who read N. & Q'some one may be found to unravel the history of this interesting piece of furniture.

The top of the table has an oval piece of glass inserted nearly its whole length (say 2 ft. 10 in.), underneath which are the following, all in carved

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ivory a medallion representing the bust and shoulders of an elderly man, with long, flowing curls (not unlike the wigs of the time of Charles II.), and the name "Ludovicus." Facing this is another medallion, representing the bust and shoulders of a lady in the dress of Henry VIII.'s time, the head-dress being somewhat in the style of that worn by Mary, Queen of Scots. The name underneath this reads "Mariæ Stuaria" (?). Each medallion is surmounted by a French imperial crown. Between the medallions is a device representing a trophy of flags, two shields, one with a dolphin displayed, the other with a fleur-de-lis, and under this the legend Montjoye St. Denis." Shields bearing fleurs-de-lis are placed at the four corners, and between them are satyrs, figures holding crowns of flowers, angels blowing trumpets, &c. At each corner, in the depth of the top, is an eagle very like that on the modern French coins. The legs and other parts of the table are elaborately covered with scales of ivory, with here and there figures and shields of fleurs-de-lis. Each claw of the legs represents a dolphin, which device is repeated many times in other parts of the table. The ivory carving underneath the glass is beautifully white, but all the rest of the work is more or less discoloured, though otherwise in good preservation. There are two small drawers in the table.

Queen of Scots, on their marriage? The "LudoWas this a present to Francis II. and Mary, vicus "" goes against this supposition, as also the apparent age of the person represented, not to speak of the absence of the Scottish arms, &c. Could the medallions represent Louis XII. and Mary, the sister of Henry VIII.? Louis was fiftythree when he married Mary, and lived three months after his marriage. The table is French in every detail; but one would expect Mary's arms to be shown were my latter supposition correct. F. R. WEST.

10, Sydenham Road, Dundrum, co. Dublin.

PROVINCIAL PRONUNCIATION. (See 7th S. vi. 210.)-SIR J. A. PICTON writes, "It is a mistake to suppose that our dialect and tones are derived from our parents, except to a very limited extent. They are the results of daily intercourse with those about us, whose language, intonation, and peculiarities are insensibly imitated." This is a large and curious subject, which cannot, I think, be so summarily despatched.

I have known the adult issue of Irish parents, living in England, and wholly among English people from earliest babyhood, marked by a strong and unmistakable brogue. I have known the children of English parents, who had lived from their cradle in Italy, among Italians, and used Italian as their vernacular, yet never lost such an amount of English accent as betrayed their origin.

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