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Surgitque opus templi; Sabea ventitat
Regina vt audiat regis sapientiam.
Intelligetis rem cunctam quemadmodum
Peragetur in sacro & pio isto Dramate.

The two meretrices, who dispute about the living child-Tecnophile (its real mother), and Tecnophone (its pretended one)—are not introduced till Act II. scs. i. and ii, and Solomon does not give judgment till Act III. sc. v. Tecnophile is willing to give up her child to save its life; Tecnophone wants it cut in two. Solomon says:Quo fonte vox prolata sit hæc vtraque Aduerto signis profecto certissimis. Viuum suæ matri veræ natum dato ! Hæc vera mater est: id hæc affectibus Docet fluentibus materno ex pectore.

Satelles. Prolem tuam accipe, regis sententia. Tecnophile. Me fortunatam! O rex, tibi gratias ago! And as she says in Act III. sc. vii., "Notandus est dies hic albo calculo." In Act IV. Zabuthus, the friend of King Hiram of Tyre, and his legate enter, and in Act V, sc. iv. the Queen of Sheba. An epilogue winds up the play, Its last six lines

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JOHN DUNS SCOTUS.-The writer of this article in the last volume of the 'Dictionary of National Biography' is evidently a sceptic. After discarding every single statement of previous biographers, he arrives at the conclusion that all that seems to be certain is that in 1513 a monument was erected to his [Duns's] memory in the Minorite Church at Cologne, where he was supposed to have been buried." No doubt a good deal of rubbish is to be found in the sundry accounts of the life of the "Subtle Doctor," and they require very careful sifting; but incredulity can be carried too far, and | then it degenerates into pyrrhonism. Dr. Ennen, the historian of Cologne, quotes a passage from the MS. 'Kalendarium of the Minorites' among the city records, which states that "Johannes Dunsius patria et cognomento Scotus......fuit auditor...... Alexandri Halensis, doctoris Parisiensis," that he was "lector Coloniensis," and died at Cologne "VI. Idus Nov.," 1308, and was buried "in choro Colonie." This is clear enough. Where else would his confratres the monks have buried him but in their own church? Dr. Ennen also quotes a minute description from Crombach's 'Chronicle of Cologne,' which records how the bones of Duns were gathered up on August 16, 1513, and placed in a sarcophagus. It describes the exact spot where they were deposited, and where the monument to his memory was erected by the then

According to the same

head of the convent. chronicle, "Monumentum tegitur ænea lamina grandi cujus extrema pars hoc epitaphium lectoris oculis exhibet:Ante oculos saxum Doctorem deprimit ingenske VA Cujus ad interitum sacra Minerva gemit. Siste gradum, Lector, fulvo dabis oscula saxo, Corpus Joannis hæc tegit urna Scoti. Annus milleno ter centum cùm adderes octo, Postremum clausit letho agitante diem." Hartzheim, another Cologne writer, gives the same epitaph, and adds that Duns is buried "in medio choro retrò aram majorem." I quote the inscription in full, as it is altogether different from the one given in the 'Dictionary.'

Dr. Ennen, writing in 1869, remarked that the monument was then in a sadly neglected condition. Cf. 'Geschichte der Stadt Köln,' vol. iii. p. 836, note. If it has not been touched since, surely our friends beyond the Tweed ought to collect a few bawbees and have it restored. L. L. K.

I

CHAUCER, 'PROLOGUE,' LL. 166, 203, 146.— The new volume of the Camden Society, the 'Visitations of the Diocese of Norwich, 14921532,' edited by Dr. Jessopp, contains some good illustrations of Chaucer's 'Prologue.' have never seen any explanation of the term applied to the Monk in l. 166, "an out-rydere, that loved venerye" (the editions that I know pass it over), and 1. 45, "to ryden out," said of the knight, did not seem to help. The Abbey of St. Benet's, Hulme, had an officer called the outerider, whose duty seems to have been to look after the manors. Thus, p. 214, in the year 1526, "Dompnus Willelmus Hornyng, oute-rider, dicit quod multa ædificia et orrea maneriorum sunt prostrata et collapsa præsertim violentia venti hoc anno"; and p. 279, in the year 1532, "Dicit quod Dominus Ricardus Norwych, owte-ryder, est negligens in reparando maneria dicti monasterii." On the other hand, "Dominus Ricardus Norwyche owte-ryder," being examined, "dicit quod omnia bene.” It is pretty plain that the out-rider was a monk whose special duty it was to visit the distant manors. In both years at this abbey there was complaint "quod multi canes nutriuntur in domo," "superfluus munerus canum est in domo." In the same house another monk, "Thomas Stonham tertius prior," is devoted to hunting, communis venator," non venit ad matutinas sed vadet venatum incontinenter vel immediate, tam in estate quam in hieme, post matutinas," "solet exire solus ad venatum mane in aurora." I think we might parallel 1. 203, "his bootes souple," by the complaint that Stonham, and also the outrider, "utuntur calceis et caligis" non "ocreis," as at Norwich Thomas Sall utitur calceis contra regulam." At Flixton Nunnery in 1520 injunction was given "priorissæ quod infra mensem proximum sequentem amoveat canes extra monas

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terium excepto uno quem Chaucer's Prioress, with her (1. 146) would have resented.

Norwich.

maluerit," which valley of the Stour, which river separates that "small houndes county on the south from Essex."

O. W. TANCOCK.

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German and EngLISH IN HEBREW LETTERS. -German has long been written in Hebrew letters, possibly hundreds of years, and there is a regular system of transliteration, with which, I should say, the great majority of those who are familiar with Hebrew and German are acquainted. But it was not until quite recently (Oct. 26) that I became aware that English also was sometimes written with Hebrew letters. I was walking through Whitechapel with a French friend, who was desirous of seeing the quarter generally as well as the spots where the recent murders and mutilations had been committed (and I may say that with the help of a guide we were able to make all these spots out), when, in Old Montague Street, I saw a lengthy notice posted up in Hebrew letters. Thinking it was German, I was puzzled for a minute or two, but then I discovered that it was English, and had reference to a public meeting to be held at the "Black Eagle" public-house. A little Jew, with a pleasant, smiling face, came up, and was much amused when he found that I could read it. I do not know whether there is any regular system of transliteration for English. We also saw in two or three shops German notices in Hebrew letters. One ran thus: "Thee und Kaffee zu jeder Tageszeit." In many German cities and towns-especially, I think, in Vienna and Frankfort-on-the-Maine-such notices are very common. I recently procured a so-called Yiddish (=jüdisch) newspaper published in Whitechapel (8, Little Alie Street).

Die - דיא צוקונפט It is called

Zukunft (The Future), and is written in much better German than I expected to find, though the cases and grammar are sometimes a little shaky; and there is but very little admixture of Hebrew words.

It seems strange to us that there should be people knowing how to read to whom German and English are more intelligible in Hebrew letters than in those belonging to these two languages. F. CHANCE. Sydenham Hill.

THE SCENES OF JOHN CONSTABLE'S PICTURES. The writer of an article called 'The Wiltshire

Avon' in the October number of the Art Journal

has sadly and fatally confused the localities of two rivers bearing the same name. He says, speaking of Constable, "He was born at East Bergholt, in the valley of the Avon's greatest tributary." All who have read Leslie's Memoirs of Constable,' and many who have not, know that "East Bergholt is pleasantly situated in the most cultivated part of Suffolk, on a spot which overlooks the fertile

By this unfortunate confusion between the Stour of East Anglia and "the Avon's greatest tributary," not only is the birthplace of Constable removed to celebrated pictures as a distance of 150 miles, but the scenes of such 6 The Hay-Wain,' 'The White Horse,' 'The Corn-field,' and 'The Valley Farm' are all transported to the banks of the Avon :

"Nearly all the most famous spots on the Avon appear on his canvas. The 'Stonehenge,' the Old Sarum,' the 'Salisbury Cathedral' are world-famous. Other scenes appear in his 'Hay-Wain,' 'The White Horse,'The Cornfield,' The Valley Farm.'"

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This is too bad. I should not trouble the readers of 'N. & Q.' with this had not the article remained unchallenged elsewhere, though I myself wrote to the editor and asked him either to publish my letter or to forward it to the writer of the article. Apparently he has done neither. The date (1834) of Constable's death is not even accurate. It should be 1837. R. F. COBBOLD. Macclesfield.

BRASEN NOSE COLLEGE.-The eminent contributors from this college may like to see an early reference to the ornament of their gateway :

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"Per id quoque tempus, Gulielmus Smyth, Episcopus Lincolniensis, Margarita exemplo ductus, Oxonii scholasticorum collegium collocavit in aula, quam vulgo vocant Brasyn Nose, hoc est æneum nasum, quod eo loci imago area facie admodum immani pro foribus extet." Pol. Vergil, 'Angl. Hist.,' lib, xxvi. p. 781, Lugd. Batav., 1651.

The twenty-sixth book takes in the reign of
Henry VII.
ED. MARSHALL.

PARALLELS IN POETRY.-One of the closest, and, considering the change of subject, one of the most curious echoes of one poet by another, is the following. Eve, in 'Paradise Lost,' addressing Adam, says :

With thee conversing I forget all time,
All seasons, and their change.
Wesley, hymn 214, addressing Christ, says:—
With Thee conversing we forget
All time, all toil, all care.

C. C. B. CHARLEMAGNE. Great writers are fond of their faculties in reconciling opposites. Popular paradox; it calls forth their powers, and exercises writers (i. e., the common herd) are content to recognize the name Charlemagne as a compound from Carolus Magnus; but we are now told that Carloman, the younger brother, is the true CharleGreat in English. What are the French to do? magne, and that the elder is simply Charles the

A. H.

A NOTE ON 'NOTES AND QUERIES.'- My housekeeper when she brings me my favourite

paper on Saturday mornings persistently says, "Here's your 'Notes and Curies,' sir." Some of your readers will smile at your amusing "alias," and perhaps the hebdomadal blunder will be corrected by the appearance of these few lines in your columns. E. WALFORD, M. A.

7, Hyde Park Mansions, N.W.

Queries.

We must request correspondents desiring information on family matters of only private interest, to affix their names and addresses to their queries, in order that the answers may be addressed to them direct.

CHEVY.-This modern word (often less correctly spelt chivy), meaning "chase," is usually associated with the name Chevy Chase, and supposed to be immediately taken from a schoolboys' game called chevy chase, or simply chevy. I should be glad of any information throwing light upon its history, and of examples of its occurrence before 1840, when General Perronet Thompson wrote ('Exercises,' ed. 1842, v. 50), "The other side are to blame, if they do not, as we should say in the dragoons,' chevy' them back again.' From this it would appear doubtful whether the term came into use from the school playground or from the army. Hoppe says chevy is also used in the sense "scolding, reprimanding." Is this so?

Oxford.

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J. A. H. MURRAY.

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MOON-SPOTS. In a certain work of fiction two persons looking at the moon through a telescope were asked what the moon-spots looked like. One, who was a priest, said the spots seemed to him cathedrals. The other, who was a woman, compared the self-same spots to two lovers. Thus they showed their characters. What was that work of fiction? Its name has gone from me as the dream of Nebuchadnezzar faded away when he awoke. I trust that name lives in the memory of some reader of 'N. & Q.' and that he will tell it to me.

Madison, Wis., U.S.

JAMES D. BUTLER.

HERALDRY.-Will some one qualified kindly answer the following questions in heraldry? 1. Suppose I am sprung from the ducal house of Hamilton through one of its well-known branches. To my ducal ancestor were given arms; but I am

not his lineal descendant. To my more immediate ancestor, the founder of the branch to which I belong (suppose it Rosehall or Gilkerscleugh) were likewise, later, given arms; but I am not his lineal descendant. What arms, if any, am I pro

perly entitled to bear? That is, are all the descendants of any person to whom arms have been granted entitled to those arms. until, in order to distinguish collateral families, new arms are secured? 2. If for any reason the head of a family makes changes in the arms granted his ancestor, does this change affect the arms of all who are descended from this common ancestor; or do collateral branches still bear the original arms, while the lineal representative bears the changed arms? ARTHUR WENTWORTH HAMILTON EATON. New York.

QUOTATION FROM CICERO WANTED.-Can any one tell me where it is written in the works of Cicero that the planter of a tree is a benefactor of mankind? W. J. BIRCH.

INN SIGNS.-About half way between Stamford and Grantham, on the Great North Road, there is, or was, a well-known inn called "The Ram Jam.” I should like to know what "Ram Jam" means, and what was depicted on the signboard? C. E. GILDERSOME-DICKINSON.

Eden Bridge.

[See 5th S. iii, 246.]

WIND.-There is a scrap of old Latin, I do not know where from, that runs, "Nulla enim propimodum regio est, quæ non habet aliquem flatum ex se nascentem, et circa se cadentem." Is there any truth in this; and, if there is, who wrote it? C. A. WARD. Walthamstow.

ARBUTHNOT'S RESIDENCE.-It is stated in 'Gulliver Decyphered' ('Works,' i. 81) that Arbuthnot, who was introduced at court under the name of "Johnny," lived in Burlington Gardens. Can the house be identified at the present time?

W. F. PRIDEAUX.

CORKOUS.-Having no dictionary showing the meaning and derivation of the above adjective thus used, "a wide flat corkous meadow," perhaps some correspondent would kindly enlighten me. C. S. K.

JEANNE DE CASTILLE.-What is the history of "La Vengeance de Jeanne de Castille," of which there was a picture in the Glasgow Exhibition? CELER ET AUDAX.

[Not having seen the picture, we can only ask if the subject is the box on the ears which that queen gave to a maid-of-honour she brought from Portugal, and who developed into a rival.]

RUSSIAN TROOPS ATTACKED BY WOLVES.-Can any reader refer me to an account of a body of

Russian troops attacked by wolves, which I have often seen mentioned ? H. M.

HERALDIC.—I have an old silver seal and small signet ring, both of which are engraved with arms, and should be much obliged if any reader of 'N. & Q.' could identify the families to which the bearings belong. The seal has a shield with helmet and mantling, and the date 1639 at the sides. Arms Argent, a fesse gules between three buglehorns, 2, 1, in chief, and as many ducks swimming in water in base. Crest: a demi-forester blowing a horn. The ring bears a shield divided into three parts per pale and surmounted by a mitre. 1. Argent, two lions passant in pale, on a chief the Virgin and Child, or perhaps "Prester John." 2. Quarterly, 1 and 4, a chevron inter three negroes' heads; 2 and 3, a chevron inter three stage' heads cabossed. 3. A cross moline between five martlets (arms of the Confessor); on a chief the royal arms (France and England quarterly) on a pale between two mullets. The last does not appear to be very old, possibly the commencement of the century. W. ANNETTS WELLS.

BRANDINGS.-Dr. Pusey, in his Introduction to the Prophet Jonah' ('Minor Prophets,' Oxford, 1860, 4to., p. 252, col. 2), explains the words, "the earth, its bars around me for ever," as, "perhaps the coral reefs which run along all that shore," quoting the following passages as his authorities:"Considerable quantities of coral are found in the adjacent sea."-W. G. Browne, writing of Jaffa, Travels,' p. 360.

"Coral reefs run along the coast as far as Gaza, which cut the cables two and leave the ships at the mercy of the storms. None lie here on the coast, which is fuller of strong surfs (brandings) and unprotected against the frequent West winds."-Ritter, ii. 399, first ed.

I do not find the word brandings in this sense in the 'N. E. D.' or elsewhere. What and whence is it? W. E. BUCKLEY.

'A CURIOUS DANCE ROUND A CURIOUS TREE.' -Will some kind expert inform me who is the author of the above book? Mr. Dexter, in his notes to the 'Dickens Memento,' says that W. H. Wills is the author. Mr. Percy Fitzgerald, in his 'Bookfancier,' is of opinion, I believe, that Dickens did write it. I have not been able to pursue the subject much further, and being a humble student do greatly doubt. I had a copy in my hand a few days back; the dealer was asking 57. 10s. for it, I think. W. H.

[See Athenæum, Jan.-June, 1887, p. 129.] PLACE-NAMES.-There are in the parish of Hendon (Middlesex) three districts or hamlets called respectively the Burroughs, the Hyde, and the Hale, and of these names I have been unable to ascertain the origin with any degree of certainty. The first I have occasionally found spelt Borrows

and Burrows, but this form is certainly an error. The name has been in use for at least two centuries and a half. As to the Hyde, this place-name occurs in many parts of the south of England, and I have taken it as being derived from hide a measure of land. The Hale I derive from A.-S. heal=a shelter. Hale Farm is to be found in Tottenham parish, and there is Hale End in Essex and Halesworth in Norfolk. Information on the subject will greatly oblige. Ě. T. EVANS.

63, Fellows Road, N.W. PATRICK.-There was a famous barometer-maker Is it ascertainable where he lived? of this name. C. A. WARD.

Walthamstow.
MS. OF 'SIR ROGER DE COVERLEY.'-Is the

original manuscript of 'Sir Roger de Coverley' as
it appeared in the Spectator preserved; and, if so,
where?
F. G. DUKE.

Hill Wootton, Warwick.

THE FIRST PUBLISHED WORK OF GEORGE BORROW. In a recent catalogue of a London bookseller there is a copy of "Romantic Ballads, translated from the Danish, and Miscellaneous Pieces. 8vo. 1826." An added note says this is presumably Borrow's first work, as he was only twentyone when it was published. Was not Borrow the translator from the German of 'Faustus: his Life, Death, and Descent into Hell,' published in 1825 ? Some of the numerous readers of 'N. & Q.' I dare say will know. W. NIXON. Warrington.

CHAINS OF STRAW. In the colloquy of Erasmus, De Perigrinatio Religionis Ergo, translated by N. Bailey, the following sentence occurs

with shells scollop'd, full of Images of Lead and Tin, "But what strange Dress is this? It is all over set off and Chains of Straw Work, and the Cuffs are adorned with Snakes Eggs instead of Bracelets." What is the meaning of "chains of straw," and of what shrine and pilgrimage were chains of straw symbols? I should be obliged for information on this subject. In neither of Mr. J. G. Nicholls's edition of this colloquy is an explanation given. His note is, "This allusion I am unable to explain, as I do not find such emblems elsewhere mentioned." Perhaps some reader of 'N. & Q.' can help. PAUL Q. KARKEEK.

"LORD BATEMAN.'-Can any of your readers tell me where I can find the music of the 'Ballad of Lord Bateman'? Any other particulars would be acceptable. E. F. S.

MAJOR OTHO HAMILTON.Is there any way by which I can find the descendants of Major Otho Hamilton, who spent most of his life on this continent, dying in Ireland in 1770 He left two sons: 1, John, colonel of the 40th Regiment when

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he died; 2, Otho, captain of a company in the 40th Regiment, afterwards colonel of the 59th, who died in 1811, leaving a son Ralph, an officer; and 3, a daughter, married to General Dawson of the Engineers.

ARTHUR WENTWORTH HAMILTON EATON. New York.

GREEN, THE INVENTOR OF THE STADIA.—In 1778 William Green, a London optician, is stated to have invented the stadia, a tube provided with three parallel horizontal wires for measuring distances by means of the visual angle. Can any one kindly inform me where it is possible to find a description of this instrument or of its inventor? In Germany the credit of the invention is assigned to Reichenbach, who in 1810 constructed a telescope with distance-measuring wires. Reichenbach visited England in 1797, and it is probable that he saw Green's invention, or a description of it, and applied it to his own distance-measurer.

BENNETT H. BROUGH.

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HOW TO RESTORE FADED PENCIL MARKS.Urgently needed, the formula for restoring faded blacklead pencil writing. I met with such a recipe years ago, and copied it, but, alas! it has disappeared amongst a heap of MSS. afar off, and there is not a Cooley or other similar works to refer to. H. DE S.

AUTHORS OF QUOTATIONS Wanted.— Exact reference to "Do the duty which liest nearest thee which thou knowest to be thy duty; thy second duty shall already have become clearer" (Carlyle). NELLIE MACLAGAN.

The grave is but a covered bridge,
Leading from light to light through a brief darkness.
A. CLIFFORD THOMAS.

Replies.

THE ROSE, THISTLE, AND SHAMROCK.
(7th S. vi. 207, 311.)

Further as to the adoption of the thistle as the badge of Scotland :—

"When the Danes invaded Scotland it was deemed unwarlike to attack the enemy during the night, instead of in a pitched battle during the day; but on one occasion, says the tradition, the invaders resolved to avail themselves of the stratagem, and, in order to prevent the least noise of their approach, marched barefoot. They had thus neared the Scottish camp unobserved, when a Dane, unluckily, stepped with his naked foot upon a superbly prickled thistle, which made him vociferate loudly. His cry discovered the assailants' approach;

the Scots sounded to arms and defeated the foe with great slaughter; and the thistle was forthwith adopted fortunate deliverance."-Palaces, &c, of Mary, Queen Scots,' p. 29.

as the emblem of Scotland in commemoration of this

I do not know to what the following lines of
Hamilton refer, but they may be serviceable :-
The thistle,

Exalted into noble fame, shall rise
Triumphant o'er each flower, to Scotia's bards
Subject of lasting song, their monarch's choice;
Who, bounteous to the lowly weed, refused
Each other plant, and bade the thistle wave,
Embroidered in his ensigns, wide displayed
Along the mural breach.

With reference to the botanical status of the

Scotch emblem, from which something may be, perhaps, gathered, a writer in 1832 says:

"I have frequently seen the cotton thistle (Onopordum acanthium) cultivated in gardens in Scotland as the vicinity of London had a very different plant given to genuine Scotch thistle. A Scotch nurseryman in the him as the national flower of his country. He did not, however, recognize it as the milk thistle (Lilybum but gave strict orders to his foreman to have it carefully marianum), a very common weed around the metropolis, attended to. It appears to us, however, that it is no less vain to hunt after the actual botanical representatives of these national floral emblems than after the griffins, dragons, and blue lions of heraldry. Yet I think some very common species ought to be fixed upon rather than that which is rare, and on this principle the spear thistle (Cnicus lanceolatus) seems the best entitled of any to be the emblem of Scotland; the cotton thistle I never met with wild in the country except near gardens where it is commonly reared as the real Scotch thistle......and the milk thistle I only saw once below the rocks of Dumthither by Mary, Queen of Scots-while the spear thistle barton Castle-said by tradition to have been brought abounds by every road side. The usual heraldic figure, however, I confess, is more like the musk thistle (Carduus nutans)."

There is also a very interesting inquiry into this branch of the subject in Leighton's 'Flora of Shropshire.'

As to the shamrock, Mr. Bichino, in the Journal of the Royal Institution, May, 1831, says :

"The term shamrock seems a general appellation for the trefoils or three-leaved plants. Gerard says the meadow trefoils are called in Ireland shamrocks...... The Irish names for Trifolium repens are seamaroge, shamrog, and shamrock. In Gaelic the name Seamrag is applied by Lightfoot to the Trifolium repens; while in the Gaelic dictionary......this word is prefixed as a generic term to many plants-Seamrag chapuill, purple clover; Seamrag chré, male speedwell; Seamrag m'huire, pimpernell. I conclude from this that shamrock is a generic word common to the Gaelic and Irish languages.'

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He infers from Fynes Morrison (1598) that the shamrock was a spring flower :

"Yea the wilde Irish in time of greatest peace impute covetousness and base birth to him that hath any corn after Christmas, as if it were a point of nobility to consume all within those festival dayes. They willingly eat the hearbe shamrocke, being of a sharp taste, which as they run, and are chased to and fro, they snatch like beastes out of the ditches."

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