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words of Sir William Fraser, “I found myself in a room, the remembrance of which will live so long as the English language. It is 120 feet long, 54 broad, and about 13 feet high; the floor smooth enough to be danced on to-night."

Sir William tells us that this room answers precisely to the description given to him by the lady who had been present at the ball; that it is immediately in the rear of the Duke of Richmond's house; that it stands in the Rue de la Blanchisserie; and that in 1815 it belonged to a coachbuilder. We are further told that this room is capable of holding at least four hundred persons.

Shortly after the appearance of Sir William Fraser's very straightforward and, to my mind, convincing letter, a lady wrote to the Times, and pointed out that N. & Q.,' 4th S. iii. 261, contained a note by MR. O. W. BINGHAM, which runs as follows:

"I had a recent opportunity of inquiring of a person, than whom none was more likely to be informed, and although he could not give me the number of the house, he appeared to me to identify it with that in the Rue des Cendres. He said it was in a small street near the Jardin Botanique, and leading out of the Rue de la Blanchisserie; and added that the room in which the ball was given was the gallery of a late coach-builder's

NOTES ON BOOKS:-Nutt's 'Studies on the Holy Grail'-shop, thus rather destroying the illusion of
'Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society.'
Notices to Correspondents, &c.



The window'd niche of that high hall." This lady further refers us to Major Cotton's little book, 'A Voice from Waterloo,' where, at p. 13, we are told that the Duchess of Richmond's house was No. 9, Rue des Cendres, Boulevard Botanique, near the Porte de Cologne. Thus it will be seen that we are in possession of corroborative evidence, gathered from fields wide apart. But, as might have been expected, grave objections were raised against Sir William Fraser's theory, and, among others, Lord De Ros wrote to the Times to say that his mother, who was present at the Waterloo Ball, assured him that the room in which the ball took place was on the ground floor, and that its size did not by any means correspond with the dimensions of the room which Sir William Fraser has discovered-a fact which, Lord De Ros says, is further proved by a ground-plan of the Duke of Richmond's house in the possession of Lady De Ros.

On Aug. 25 there appeared in the Times a letter, written by Sir William Fraser, which is worthy of attention. Sir William tells us that, some time before leaving England, he conversed with a lady who danced with his father at the Duchess of Richmond's ball in June, 1815. From the descriptions given by that lady, Sir William was induced to search for the Duke of Richmond's house in the Rue de la Blanchisserie at Brussels. After considerable trouble the site of that house was found in the Rue des Cendres. It is now covered by a large hospital, one of whose wings formed part of the duke's house. After examining the garden behind this wing in vain for traces of a ball-room, Sir William observed, above the wall I think that a moment's consideration will of the hospital, the roof of high building, which minimize the value of that ground-plan as evihe was told is the brewery of the Rue de la Blanch-dence. Here is no question of the size of the isserie. On inquiry at the brewery the proprietor said that he knew nothing anent a ball-room, and on being further questioned as to how this brewery came into his possession, said that his father had purchased it from a coach-builder of the name of Van Asch. Here, then, was a clue. "Had the coach-builder a depôt ?" inquired the visitor. "Yes; a very large one. It is now my granary." Thereupon Sir William and the proprietor mounted to the first floor of this granary, where, in the

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Duke of Richmond's rooms. The ball was held in a room belonging to a coach-builder adjacent to the family residence. All the ground-plans in Brussels would not throw light beyond their own immediate spheres. I take it that the coachbuilder lent his room; that a covering was made to connect it with the Duke of Richmond's house ; and that, for one night only, the two edifices were practically joined.

On Sept. 25 Dr. James Martin, of Woodview,

Portlaw, wrote to the Times, enclosing a copy of a letter that he had received from the Lady Louisa Tighe, which I will give in full :—

"Dear Dr. Martin, In answer to your letter, I beg to inform you that the ball was given in my father's house, and in the room which we used as our schoolroom, where we, the children, had our meals, and it was also our playroom. The dancing was in the room I mention. I was allowed to sit up and see the ball......The room was a long one, with several windows looking towards the stables. It was a room on the ground floor, and the dining-room and my father's study all on the same floor, but the dining-room and study looked out to the pretty garden, which reached the ramparts, and was extensive. In that garden there was a house which seemed to be a store for carriages. It was some way from the house, and concealed by large horse-chestnut trees and small shrubs, but not used by our family, and I am quite certain the ball took place in our schoolroom, as I remember it well, and all the sad scenes of wounded men brought into Brussels after the battle of Waterloo."

Here, then, we have a real difficulty. Lady Louisa Tighe was in the Duke of Richmond's house at the time of the ball, and so was Lady De Ros, her sister. Both ladies have a distinct recollection of the locale of the immortal scene, and yet they are not of one mind as to whether the ball took place in the Duke of Richmond's house or at a coach-builder's adjoining. I think we may take it that the Lady De Ros would be more likely to be accurate than her younger sister, who was still in the schoolroom. In April, 1884, I approached Lady De Ros through the Duke of Richmond, with a view to settling once and for ever one of two very difficult Byronic points. I had, of course, like every other gaping tourist, been shown the "Salle de Reception in the Hôtel de Ville at Brussels, where, according to those pests the town guides, I had been assured that the Duke of Brunswick's "prophetic ear' had caught the sound of his own doom. And yet I was not happy. Feeling sure that the Duchess of Richmond would not have given a ball in the Hôtel de Ville, I determined to apply to a lady who was actually present on that occasion. On April 9, 1884, Lady De Ros very kindly wrote down the following words, which I shall treasure all my life long:

"The ball given by my mother the Duchess of Richmond, 15 June, 1815, took place in the Rue de la Blanchisserie, where we lived, in the lower part of the town of Bruxelles. There was no park attached to it, but a moderate-sized garden. The house had belonged to a coachmaker, and the warehouse in which he kept his carriages was converted into a long narrow room, in which the ball took place. In 1868 I looked in vain for the house and the street, and, after many inquiries, was told that the house had been pulled down, and the street no longer existed, or if it did its name was changed.


It further appears, by the evidence of Lord William Pitt Lennox, published by Sir William

Italics are mine.

Fraser in the Times (September), that the ball which his mother had given, and at which he was present, did "not take place at the residence of the duchess, but in some sort of an old barn at the back or behind."

Thus it will be seen that the theory of Sir William Fraser is borne out by strong contemporary evidence. I congratulate him on having made a discovery, and on settling a point which has perplexed us long. RICHARD EDGCUMBE.

33, Tedworth Square, S.W.


It was usual about fifty years ago, in taverns in Devon and Cornwall, for certain men who were well known in their districts as famous song-men to be given free entertainment if they sang to amuse the company gathered about the fire. A few of these old song-men linger on toothless and decrepit, and from them I have begun to collect the traditional ballads and songs they sang formerly. Some of them can neither read nor write. The profession-if so it may be called-was in many cases hereditary, and those who remain learned most of their songs from their fathers. I have collected already about eighty with their tunes, and am comparing the latter with the melodies in Durfey, the Compleat Dancing Master,' and other early collections, so far with the result that I am convinced we had in the west of England an independent school of melody. I have, so far, been able to track a very few tunes. I shall be obliged if any of your readers can help me to trace some of the ballads. I give one to begin with:


As I walked out one morning,
The fourteenth of July,

I met a maid, she ask'd my trade,
And thus I did reply:
"It is my occupation, love,

To journey up and down
With scythe upon my shoulder, for
To mow the meadows down."
She said, "Thou lusty mower,

There's work I trow for thee; I'll find the task that thou dost ask If thou wilt follow me.

There is a pretty meadow

That's kept for thee in store, Besprent with dew, I tell thee true; 'Twas never mown before. "And in that gentle meadow

Are neither hills nor rocks ;

I pray thee mow, and do not go
Until the hay's in pokes."

I answered: "Lovely maiden,
With thee I cannot stay,
For I must go elsewhere to mow
Another field of hay.

"And if the grass be all cut down
In the country where I go,

Then it may be I'll come to thee,
I'll come thy hay to mow.
I'll come before the break of day,
And if I be alive,

The herbage sweet about thy feet
Shall fall before the scythe."

Now summer days are over,

Now harvest too is o'er,
The gallant mower 's far away,

He cometh here no more.

And where he stays I cannot tell,
Away beyond the hill.
Alas, alas! the meadow grass

Is growing, growing still,

It will be noticed that there is a confusion as to who speaks. S. BARING-GOULD.



I made these

There is not, so far as I am aware, any accurate description of the various early editions of the "Anatomy of Melancholy.' This being the case, shall perhaps be doing a service by transcribing the following memoranda for publication in 'N. & Q' Much more might and ought to have been added. They are, however, I believe, trustworthy so far as they go. All the books described have been personally inspected by me. notes at a time when I had thoughts of issuing an annotated edition of that learned and amusing book. The notes remain, perhaps for use at some future time by other hands than mine. I found that the work could not be carried out by any one, however zealous or painstaking, who did not live in London or at Oxford. The number of quotations is vast beyond my powers of computation. No private library contains a quarter of the volumes Burton laid under contribution, and for an edition such as I had in my mind it would have been necessary that the references to all these should have been verified.

First edition, 1621, 4to.—

"The Anatomy of Melancholy, what it is, with all the kindes, cavees, symptomes, prognostickes and severall cures of it. In three maine partitions, with their seuerall Sections, Members, and Svbsections. Philosophically, Medicinally, historically opened and cvt vp. By Democritus Junior. With a Satyrical Preface, conducing to the following Discourse. Macrob. Omne meum, nihil meum. At Oxford Printed by John Lichfield and James Short, for Henry Cripps. Anno. Dom.


The title-page and dedication two leaves. There are no verses following them. The conclusion to the reader three unpaged leaves, dated "From my studie in Christ Church Oxon. Decemb 5. 1620"; one page of errata; no index. The British Museum copy has the press mark C. 45. C., and an autograph inscription on the back of the dedication, 1621 Ex dono Roberti Burton authoris Ædis huiusce alumni." The press mark of the Bodleian copy is "Mason AA. 500.”

Second edition, folio.—Title same as before,

with the addition of "The second Edition, corrected and augmented by the Author"; the same motto from Macrobius, below which is the arms of the University of Oxford, with the letters AC. OX. separated by the shield; the imprint same as before, but with the date 1624; title and dedication two leaves; 557 pp.; index. British Musem pressmark 8408. 1.

Third edition, folio.-Engraved title; two leaves of verses, one dedication; 646 pp.; four leaves of index; one leaf of errata; one leaf with imprint of Henry Cripps. There is, I think, a copy in the British Museum, but I have not a note of the pressmark. The pressmark of the Bodleian copy is M. 5. 2. Art. It is imperfect, wanting the two leaves of verses. On the title is "Rob Burton" in the author's handwriting. The copy in the Library of Lincoln College, Oxford, pressmark G. viii. On the last board there is, in the author's hand :

"1628. Ex dono Rob. Burton authoris.

Nunc opus est, tanta est insania transeat omnis
Mundus in Anticyras, gramen in Helleborum.
R. B."

Anticyra was noted in ancient times for the hellebore that grew there, which was reckoned a specific from mental complaints, in the hope of receiving for madness. People used to go there who suffered benefit from the medicinal plant. This is the first edition which contains the engraved title. The plate is in much better condition than in any of the subsequent issues.

Fourth edition.-Engraved title, verses concerning it beginning "The distinct squares"; dedication one leaf; verses two leaves; 722 pp.; index five leaves. On the back of last leaf, "Oxford printed by John Lichfield Printer to the Famous Vniversity, for Henry Cripps Ann. Dom. 1632.” British Museum copy (pressmark 715. i. 12) has written on the title, "E. Lib. Tho. Gent Civ. Lond. & Ebor 1735."


Fifth edition, 1638.--One leaf of verses; engraved title; one leaf of dedication; two leaves of verses; two leaves of synopsis; 723 pp.; errata on last page of index. British Museum pressmark 8408. 1. The copy in the library of Corpus Christi, Oxford, has an inscription in Burton's hand, "Ex dono Roberti Burton authoris 1638. mense Julio."

Sixth edition. Frontispiece, at the bottom "London, printed & are to be sould by Hen. Crips & Lodo. Lloyd at their shop in Popes head alley 1652"; dedication one leaf; verses three leaves; 723 pp. On the last leaf of index is a notice that the author has died "since the last impression," signed "H. C." The imprint at the end is dated 1851. British Museum pressmark 715. i. 13; Bodleian, Bliss. 2. 272. This copy has 1651 on the engraved title, as well as at the end. In the Library of the University of Leiden there is a very fine copy of this edition. It has 1652 on the title,

and 1651 at the end, as is also the case with an inferior copy purchased at the Manwaring sale, Coleby Hall, Lincolnshire, about thirty-six years ago, and now in my possession.

Seventh edition, 1660.-On the engraved title is,

"London, Printed for H. Cripps and are to be sold at his shop in Popes-head allie, and by E. Wallis at the Hors-shoo in the Old Baley 1660."

There are two copies in the British Museum, 715. 1. 14 and Grenville 19,650. There are also two copies in the Bodleian, L. 3. 14.; Jur. B. Subt. 202.

Eighth edition.

"London Printed for Peter Parker, at the sign of the Legg & starr in Cornhill over against ye Royal Exchange 1676."

The engraved title is from a new plate, and badly executed. The text is in double columns. There is a copy in the Royal Collection in the British Museum, 40. f. 15.

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be said that this is a passage which deserves annually to be read "upon St. Crispin's Day," and commemorative of it in the North of England shoemakers used to have a holiday upon the recurrence of the day of the patron saint of the craft.

The Shakspearian estimate of the British loss cannot, of course, be correct, and is set much below the mark, which seems really to have been about 1,000, or 1,500:

Edward the Duke of York, the Earl of Suffolk,
Sir Richard Ketly, Davy Gam, esquire:
None else of name: and of all other men
But five-and-twenty.-'Henry V.,' IV. viii.
Macaulay has also a fine allusion to the anger of
the British lion in his chivalrous poem the
Armada ':-

So glared he when at Agincourt in wrath he turned to bay, And crushed and torn beneath his feet the princely Is it known who Davy Gam was, and whether his hunters lay. The above is, I believe, the last of the old descendants are yet existing in Wales; or is he editions of the work. No reprint appeared in the rescued from oblivion by this solitary mention of last century, but there have been many issues in his name? Not only was Agincourt immortalized recent days. The work grew under its author's by Shakspeare, but one of his contemporaries, who hands. I have ascertained that the editions pub-him-in 1563-Michael Drayton, author of the was also Warwickshire born, just one year before lished during his life do not any of them contain a complete text. Any future editor should make the fifth or sixth edition the basis of his work, as these are perfect, and are freer from misprints than succeeding issues. To do the work properly, however, it would be necessary in preparing the text to have all the editions published during the author's lifetime consulted, as they contain various readings that it is important to note.

For some reason (why I do not know) the first edition, in quarto, is considered a very rare book, and fetches high prices when it occurs at sales. Í think, however, it must be rather common, as I have seen many copies of it. On the other hand, the second edition (the only folio issue without the engraved title) seems really very scarce. I have only seen four copies of it.

Bottesford Manor, Brigg.


BATTLE OF AGINCOURT: DAVY GAM.-Henry V. seems to have been one of the most popular sovereigns that ever reigned in England, and recently, on October 25, St. Crispin's Day, the memory was recalled of this "famous victory" and also of another instance of British valour, the deathcharge of the six hundred at Balaclava. Agincourt reminds us of the days when "England was but a fling, save for the crooked stick and grey goose wing." Shakspeare, in one of the finest passages of the historical plays, 'Henry V.,' IV. iii., has described the courage of Henry V. on the eve of the great battle, which seems to have increased proportionately with the difficulties it had to face. It may

'Poly-Olbion,' wrote a fine poem in sixteen stanzas on the victory of Agincourt, and which is not so generally known as it deserves to be.

Nor has the other passage of British arms—the death-charge of Balaclava-wanted a poet, even our Laureate, who has sung 'The Charge of the Light Brigade' in stirring numbers in one of the most spirited efforts of his muse. There is also So it is a very fine march of the same name. 'freshly remembered," and, like Agincourt, "familiar in our mouths as household words." JOHN PICKFORD, M.A.

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Newbourne Rectory, Woodbridge.

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SURNAMES. The following passage I have quoted from Mr. L. Lloyd's Scandinavian Adventures,' 1854. It may not impossibly throw some light on the origin of a class of English surnames concerning which there has been much speculation, and more than one foolish guess has been accepted for truth in certain quarters :—

"Few of the Swedish peasants have surnames, and in consequence their children simply take their father's if the father's name be Sven Larsson, his sons', in conChristian name in addition to their own. For example, sequence, would be Jans or Nils Svens-son; and his daughters', Maria or Eliza Svens-daughter. The confusion that this system creates would be endless, were it party is usually attached to his name. In the army, and not that in all matters of business the residence of the to prevent the confusion that would otherwise arise, the common soldiers therefore are designated by fictitious (generally monosyllabic) names; as, for instance, names of birds, beasts, trees, &c."-I. 366n.

I have occasionally, though but very rarely, met with "daughter" as a name-ending in early Eng

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