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the day. of its being signed, or even sooner, if possible. In witness whereof, and by virtue of the full powers granted us for the purpose, we have put our hands and seals to the present treaty.

“Given at Copenhagen, July the 19th, 1780.

“CHARLES D’OSTEN, called SOKEN.
“J. SCHACK RATLAU.
“A. P. COMTE BERNSTORFF.
“O. THOFT.

“ H. EIKSTEDT.

“Acceded to, and signed by the Plenipotentiaries of the court of Sweden, at St. Petersburg, 21st of July, 1780; and by the States-General accepted, November 20th, 1780; and signed at St. Petersburg, January 5th, 1781, with the addition only of 22

ARTICLE XIII.-‘If the respective squadrons, or ships of war, should meet or unite to act in conjunction, the command in chief will be regulated according to what is only commonly practised between the crowned heads and the republic.”

II.

TREATIES AND CONVENTIONS WITH EUROPEAN STATES.

PLAN OF TREATIES.

(Secret Journals of Congress, Foreign Affairs, II., 6, September 17, 1776.)

“Congress took into consideration the plan of treaties to be proposed to foreign nations, with the amendments agreed to by the committee of the whole; and thereupon,

“Resolved. That the following plan of a treaty be proposed to his most christian majesty:

“PLAN OF A TREATY WITH FRANCE.

“There shall be a firm, inviolable, and universal peace, and a true and sincere friendship, between the most serene and mighty prince, Lewis the sixteenth, the most christian king, his heirs and successors, and the United States of America; and the subjects of the most christian king, and of the said states; and between the countries, islands, cities and towns, situate under the jurisdiction of the most christian king, and of the said United States, and the people and inhabitants thereof of every degree; without exception of persons or places. And the terms herein mentioned, shall be perpetual between the most christian king, his heirs and successors, and the said United States.”

ARTICLE I.—(The subjects of France to pay no other duties than natives pay, and to enjoy all the rights and privil; in navigation and commerce which natives enjoy.) “The subjects of the most christian king shall pay no other duties or imposts, in the ports, havens, roads, countries, islands, cities or towns of the said United States, or any of them, than the natives thereof or any commercial companies established by them or any of them shall pay, but shall enjoy all other the rights, liberties, privileges, immunities and exemptions in trade, navigation, and commerce, in passing from one part thereof to another, and in going to and from the same, from and to any part of the world, which the said natives or companies enjoy.” ARTICLE II.-(Reciprocal rights and privileges of American citizens in France.)—“The subjects, people and inhabitants of the said United States, and every of them, shall pay no other duties, or imposts, in the ports, havens, roads, countries, islands, cities or towns of the most christian king, than the natives of such countries, islands, cities or towns of France, or any commercial companies established by the most christian king, shall pay, but shall enjoy all other the rights, liberties, privileges, immunities and exemptions in trade, navigation and commerce, in passing from one port thereof to another, and in going to and from the same, from and to any part of the world, which the said natives or companies enjoy.” ARTICLE III.-(France to retain same rights of fishery in Newfoundland banks and islands, as stipulated in the treaty of Paris, 1763.)—“His most christian majesty shall retain the same rights of fishery on the banks of Newfoundland, and all other rights relating to any of the said islands, which he is entitled to by virtue of the treaty of Paris.” ARTICLE IV.-(France to protect U. S. vessels in her ports and on the high seas near her coasts; and to recover and restore ships taken in her jurisdiction; and her ships of war in convoy shall take U. S. vessels under convoy and protect them, etc.)—“The most christian king shall endeavour, by all the means in his power, to protect and defend all vessels, and the effects belonging to the subjects, people or inhabitants of the said United States, or any of them, being in his ports, havens, or roads, or on the seas near to his countries, lands, cities or towns; and to recover and to restore to the right owners, their agents, or attorneys, all such vessels and effects, which shall be taken within his jurisdiction; and his ships of war, or any convoys sailing under his authority, shall upon all occasions take under their protection all vessels belonging to the subjects, people, or inhabitants of the said United States, or any of them, and holding the same course or going the same way; and shall defend such vessels as long as they hold the same course, or go the same way, against all attacks, force, and violence, in the same manner as they ought to protect and defend vessels belonging to the subjects of the most christian king.” ARTICLE V.—(Reciprocal of IV.)—“In like manner the said United States, and their ships of war, and convoys sailing under their authority, shall protect and defend all vessels and effects belonging to the subjects of the most christian king; and endeavour to recover and restore them, if taken within the jurisdiction of the said United States, or any of them.” ARTICLE VI.-(Neither shall receive pirates into ports; but shall seize them, and restore property taken by them.)—“The most christian king and the said United States, shall not receive nor suffer to be received, into any of their ports, havens, roads, countries, islands, cities or towns, any pirates or sea robbers, or afford or suffer any entertainment, assistance or provision to be afforded to them; but shall endeavour by all means, that all pirates and sea robbers, and their partners, sharers, and abettors, be found out, apprehended, and suffer condign punishment; and all the vessels and effects piratically taken, and brought into the ports and havens of the most christian king, or the said United States, which can be found, although they be sold, shall be restored, or satisfaction given therefor; the right owners, their agents or attorneys demanding the same, and making the right of property to appear by due proof.” ARTICLE VII.-(France asked to protect U. S. vessels from the depredations of the Barbary pirates.)—“The most christian king shall protect, defend, and secure, as far as in his power, the subjects, people and inhabitants of the said United States, and every of them, and their vessels and effects of every king, against all attacks, assaults, violences, injuries, depredations or plunderings, by or from the king or emperor of Morocco, or Fez, and the states of Algiers, Tunis and Tripoli, and any of them, and every other prince, state and power on the coast of Barbary in Africa, and the subjects of the said king, emperor, states and powers, and of every of them, in the same manner, and as effectually and fully, and as much to the benefit, advantage, ease and safety of the said United States, and every of them, and of the subjects, people and inhabitants thereof, to all intents and purposes, as the king and kingdom of Great Britain, before the commencement of the present war, protected, defended and secured the people and inhabitants of the said United States, then called British colonies in America, their vessels and effects, against all such attacks, assaults, violences, injuries, depredations and plunderings.” ARTICLE VIII.-(If Great Britain declare war upon France, the United States not to assist Great Britain in any way.)—“If, in consequence of this treaty, the king of Great Britain should declare war against the most christian king, the said United States shall not assist Great Britain in such war, with men, money, ships, or any of the articles in this treaty denominated contraband goods.” ARTICLE IX.-(France is never to possess any part of the North American Continent, nor the islands about the Gulf of St. Lawrence, the intention being that these shall belong to the United States.)—“The most christian king shall never invade, nor, under any pretence, attempt, to possess himself of Labrador, New Britain, Nova Scotia, Acadia, Canada, Florida, nor any of the countries, cities or towns on the continent of North America, nor of the islands of Newfoundland, Cape Breton, St. Johns, Anticosti, nor of any other island lying near to the said continent in the seas, or in any gulph, bay or river; it being the true intent and meaning of this treaty, that the said United States shall have the sole, exclusive, undivided and perpetual possession of the countries, cities and towns on the said continent, and of all islands near to it, which now are or lately were under the jurisdiction of or subject to the king or crown of Great Britain, whenever they shall be united or confederated with the said United States.” ARTICLE X.—(The citizens or inhabitants of neither nation shall fish in places possessed by the other.)—“The subjects, inhabitants, merchants, commanders of ships, masters and mariners, of the states, provinces and dominions of each party, respectively, shall abstain and forbear to fish in all places, pos. sessed, or which shall be possessed by the other party. The

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