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combine with them. Still, however, almost every chapter in the Koran shews the immense difficulties which he had to encounter from his more sceptical followers, because he wrought no miracles in proof of his mission. He is compelled to use evasions, to make vain excuses, and to menace those, who persisted in demanding such divine attestations, with miracles of vengeance. As new difficulties arose, he added new chapters to his book, with a most imposing confidence: and, when the new revelation contradicted any of those previously given, he did not scruple to say that God had changed his mind; in direct contradiction to what has been called his belief of predestination! He also pretended to work miracles: but he very wisely performed them, either entirely in private, or among a few select friends; so that the report of them was the only proof to men in general of his mision. Every delusion was practised; and he seems fully to have entered into the spirit of the maxim, Si populus vult decipi, decipiatur. After he had made himself master ' of Medina, he assumed in his new revelations, a 'fiercer and a more sanguinary tone.-He was ' now commanded to propagate his religion by the sword, to destroy the monuments of idolatry; 'and, without regarding the sanctity of days or months, to pursue the unbelieving nations of 'the earth. In the first months of his reign, he practised the lessons of this holy warfare: the 'martial apostle fought in person at nine battles 'and sieges; and fifty enterprizes of war were ' achieved in ten years, by himself and his lieu
' tenants. In the exercise of political government, Mohammed was compelled to abate of the 'stern rigour of fanaticism, and to comply, in some measure, with the prejudices and passions ' of his followers, and to employ even the vices of men, as the instruments of their salvation.The use of fraud and perfidy, of cruelty and injustice, were often subservient to the propagation of the faith and Mohammed commanded ' and approved the assassination of the Jews and 'idolaters, who had escaped in the field of battle. By the repetition of such acts, the character of 'Mohammed must have been gradually stained; ' and the influence of such pernicious habits, 'would be poorly compensated by the practice of the personal and social virtues, which are necessary to maintain the reputation of a prophet, among his sectaries and friends. Of his last years, ambition was the ruling passion; and a 'politician will suspect, that he secretly smiled (the victorious impostor,) at the enthusiasm of
❝ his youth, and the credulity of his followers. In 'the support of truth, the arts of fraud and fiction may be deemed less criminal; and he would have started at the foulness of the means, had ' he not been satisfied of the importance and jus'tice of the end.'-(Gibbon.) The reader will know how to appreciate such a confession as this, from the infidel author of The History of the 'Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire;' and how to allow for his base insinuations. Let the reader compare the apostles's words, "As we are "slanderously reported, and as some affirm that
we say, Let us do evil, that good may come; "whose damnation is just;" and learn the principles of our holy religion, so opposite both to the conduct of Mohammed, and the insinuations of Gibbon.
After the death of Mohammed, many most absurd miracles were said to have been wrought by him but, if his successors had used no other 66 weapons of warfare," than either his Koran or his miracles, Mohammedism would soon have expired with its departed founder.
Such a sensual and worldly religion, however, enforced by the sword of numerous, victorious, and disciplined armies, full of enthusiastical devotees of their new faith, had little need of miracles to secure its success among the adjacent nations; considering their enfeebled and distracted state. Indeed, it must have been a most stupendous miracle, which could have arrested its progress and it is most wonderful, that with such means, and such armies and commanders, it did not, as an overwhelming deluge, spread far more extensively its most destructive effects. But he who said to the ocean, "Hitherto shalt "thou go, and no further, and here shall thy proud " waves be stayed," limited and stopped its progress; exactly at the time and in the manner that had been predicted by the apostle many ages before. Since that period, the cause has at least been stationary for some ages: and there are at present (directly contrary to the prospects which Christianity presents, at a far later period of its
existence,) many symptoms of its declining influence, and indications of its approaching ruin.
I shall rejoice, if this compendious statement may excite younger, and more learned men, who have access to books, which in my retired situation I have not, to investigate this subject more fully. For, though Christians have hitherto seemed little aware of it, Mohammedism, with the superficial (that is, with a vast majority of mankind,) is the most specious and dangerous rival of Christianity on earth; and requires far greater study and labour to expose it, than have yet been employed. The most of what has been done has been done by papists: but
Non tali auxilio, nec defensoribus istis,
Compare then the state of the nations in which Christianity triumphed, and in which Mohammedism triumphed, as to learning, policy, and religion; the opposite nature of the holy religion of Jesus, and of the unholy imposture of Mohammed; and the means by which each succeeded : and, I trust, it must be allowed, that the success of Mohammedism does not afford so much as the shadow of an argument against the divine mission of the holy Jesus.
I believe, I might now leave the whole of what Mr. C. says on this subject, (p. 29. 1. 30.) to its doom, as requiring no further answer. The doctrine of the Trinity, (p. 29. 1. 31.) and that of antitrinitarians, cannot be disposed of, or the controversy settled, by such remarks. The Jew
laughing at Christians and Turks; (p. 30. 1. 6.) the lawsuit; (1.7.) the castle, &c; (l. 17.) are surely so stated as to be displeasing even to considerate Jews. It is indeed grievous, that, in subjects of infinite importance, men can so egregiously trifle; and divert themselves and one another, in the great concerns of eternal salvation or damnation. In this lawsuit there is no judge; the parties, witnesses, and deciders, are all the same three companies; viz. the Jew, the Turk, and the Christian; and the Jew of course decides in his own behalf. But how will God decide at last?"Do ye think that I will accuse you to the "Father: there is one that accuseth you, even "Moses in whom ye trust for had ye believed "Moses ye would have believed me; for he "wrote of me." I trust this will be proved in the course of the present work.
The Christian indeed, heartily believes that the law of Moses is "the law of God :" but he distinguishes between what was introductory to the Messiah's coming, and what is of permanent, nay, of eternal obligation: but the Mohammedan equally allows the truth of Christianity, as of the Mosaic law: he distorts both of them, and endeavours to maintain his system on the ruins of both. Mohammed never attempts to adduce any thing from the Old Testament, without adding, altering, leaving out part, and polluting the rest. Perhaps the power of falsehood in marring the beauty, purity, and simplicity of scriptural narrative, does not appear more striking in Hesiod's dreams about
1 John v.