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this woe; or that measure of time in which this woe is to be accomplished. During the time of a prophetic hour, day, month, and year, these four nations would all be engaged upon the stage of action in succession, and accomplish the judgments of God here intimated; but after the expiration of this prophetic term, the calamities occasioned by the wars of these nations, though they might continue with great severity in Pagan countries, would no Ionger amount to the measure of a woe in Christendom. According to the system of computation, most assuredly displayed under the direction of Providence, by the pious prelate Bengelius, the sum total of these prophetic numbers will amount to 212 # years. And no doubt, it required centuries in an ordinary course of Providence, where nothing is forced by a miraculous power, for so many nations to join into one religious community ; to raise em

one nation to dominion and glory after the other; and to bring so many nations and armies upon the great theatre of the world, as would amount to two hundred millions of horsemen. This amazing number dúo jugsodes uiveredww, St. John supposed, might appear almost incredible to some readers, he therefore expressly affirms, I heard the num. ber of them. But when we consider the immense theatre and periphery of these nations, and of the Saracen empire at the commencement of this period, upon which all these nations and tribes of nations were in continual motion, to invade and subdue each other, as the waves upon a tempestuous sea; if we credit the accounts given in profane history, of the astonishing armies, and trains of armies, which these Asiatics were accustomed to bring into the fields of battle ; this number will by no means appear so improbable, during a period of 262 years, and amidst such general revolutions in the world. Bajazet is said to have had an army of fourteen, and Tamerlane of sixteen hundred throusand men; and what amazing armies must have been those of Temudschin, who often cut down three and four hundred thousand of his prisoners of war, in a day ! But this period of 212 # years only determines this woe, and the armies may be counted to the destruction of these dynasties.

This trumpet commences at the close of the second interval, called for in the text, A. D. 801. If we now add the ordinary time of this trumpet, h. e. 50 years, which has a more particular reference to the preparation of the angels, this second woe will commence A. D. 851, and terminate A. D. 1063; all which perfectly corresponds with the dates of the remarkable events alluded to, on the page of profane history.

The empire of the Saracens had attained the zenith of glory and grandeur, when the Khalif Al Raschid died in the beginning of this period, and divided his vast dominions among his three sons. Al Amin obtained Syria, Erak, Arabia, Mesopotamia, Assyria, Media, Palestine, Egypt, and what we now call the states of Barbary. Al Mamun took possession of Persia, Kerman, India, Khorasan, Tabresta, Zablestan, and the enormous province of Mawarennahr. Al Kasem was to govern Armenia, Natolia, Georgia, Circassia and the large countries along the Black Sea. What an enormous empire in circumference what a stupendous power, almost capable of engrossing the whole earth ; and yet by this division, the Khalif Al Raschid laid the foundation for its downfall, and the ruin of his Khalifat for ever. His three sons waged intestine wars against each other, for the right of succession ; and the last of them who maintained his throne, governed by his prime ministers, with an unsteady hand, from 813 to 833. During his reign, Ibrahim, one of his governors, laid the foundation for the government of the Aglabido at Kairwan, whilst he lost the Easterly provinces by the imprudence of his general Taher. In short, the whole Khalifat, from this time gradually lost its bond of union and

this once mighty fabric assumed the appearance of an antiquated castle, tottering to ruin. Hamun Al Raschid was the last Khalif who possessed this vast empire entire; and a hundred years after his death, his successors had lost all these countries, and merely retained a Papal power in the Mahomedan community with the city and province of Bagdad.' These four nations, the Arabians, the Turks, the Tar. tars and the Persians, divided the empire among themselves, established kingdoms and principalities upon its ruins, by immense wars, blood and slaughter. As they had all received Mahomedism, and discarded Polytheism and idola.' try, the former religion of these nations; they joined a fanatic fury against the Church of Christ, with a flaming enthusiasm for the propagation of the religion of Mahomed, to their thirst for dominion and glory. So numerous were the martyrs, and so many the apostates from the Christian faith, that these infidels had almost crushed the religion of Jesus in Asia.

In order to trace these four angels in their progress, and to bring their several exploits into a more immediate and distinct view; I will here mark the different dynasties established by each of these nations in the Asiatic part of the Khalifat, as regarding their geographical and chronological existence, within the limits of the Saracen empire in Asia.

1. ARABIAN DYNASTIES,

1. Of the Taherides in Khorasan 820-872. 2. Of the Hamadanides in Syria and Mesopotamia

892-1014. 3. Of the Fatimides in Syria 969-1171. 4. Of the Okailides in Erak or Chaldea 990_1086. 5. Of the Mardasides in Syria and Mesopotamia 1014

1084.. 6. Of the Asadites in Chaldea 10361150.

7. Many inferior dynasties have been established, more

especially by the house of Ali in Arabia, and in other parts of the Saracen empire during this period.

11. PERSIAN DYNASTIES,

1. Founded by the Barmakides in Persia 801. 2. Soffarides in Khorasan, Tabarestan, Sedschestan,

Fars and Dschebal 872—902. 3. Samanides in Mawarennahr, and in Persian coun

tries 874—1000. 4. Dailemites in Dailem, Gilan, Dechordschan, Taba

restan, and in almost all Persia, 927—-1012. 5. Buides in Persia, Bagdad, (in the character of Emir ,

Al Omrah) Erak, Kuzistan, Oman, Mosul, Diar

bekr, 933—1055. 6. Merwanish Kurdes in Syria and Mesopotamia 984

1085.

III. TURKISH DYNASTIES,

1. Founded by the Telunides in Syria 868-905. Dur

ing the reign of the Khaliff Motassem 841, the Turks. made their first successful efforts against the Khalifat. Motawakkel lost his life by his Turkish lifeguard 861, and Mostain by the same A. D. 862, his throne. Achmed was the first Turkish governor, who made himself sovereign lord in the empire and founded the Telunidan state in Egypt and in part of

Syria, A. D. 868. 2. Ichschidides in Syria 935—968. 3. Gaznevids in a part of India, in Persia and Mawa.

rennahr, 975—1183.

IV. TARTAR DYNASTY.

That fierce and warlike people, which under the command of Togrul Bek, or Tangrolipix, established a great

and powerful empire in Asia since A. D. 1037, upon the ruins of the Arabian Khalifat, have been incorrectly called Hungars, Huns, and Turks. Their native country is not the province Turkestan, to the East of the Caspian Sea, properly the country of the Turks; but their country is that vast region between the rivers Irtisch and Sihon, They are a Tartar tribe, who were compelled by the perpetual invasions of the Chinese and the people of Cathay, to leave upper Asia, and remove to the South; which they accomplished under their great commander Seldschuk, by whose name they distinguished themselves and their dynasty in succeeding times. At first they acted as auxiliaries to the Khan of Turkestan, but soon after an open rupture, invaded his country with fire and sword. They, at last, settled themselves near the city Bochara in Mawarennahr, and received the Mahomedan religion. Here Mahmud found them A. D. 999. when he established the Gaznevids dynasty upon the ruins of the Samanides, and permitted them to settle in Khorasan against the advice of his ministers, which he soon regretted as an impolitic measure. Togrul Bek began his heroic career A. D. 1034, at the head of his warlike Tartars, and by a number of well improved victories, subdued all the countries from the little Buckharia and the Indus, to Jerusalem and Nice in Bythynia, and died A. D. 1063, sole lord of this vast and well established empire.

Here we stop. This trumpet only refers to the judgments of God against the nations of Asia, and the seventh trumpet proclaims the judgments against the nations in Europe. The conquests and establishments of the Ottoman empire, are not included in this trumpet; we shall meet with it in'ch. xii. under the emblem of a flood of water, which the serpent cast forth after the woman, in order to carry her away. ..

If we now take a retrospective view of this tremendous scene of revolutions in Asia, during a time of more than

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