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reforms are excellent in themselves. It is unfortunately to be feared that they will, in practice, result in abuses, and that unless the mother country is very watchful those free powers which she has granted to her colonies will become powers of oppression. The deputies whom Martinique and Guadeloupe send to our Parliament serve only to represent the malice, prejudice, and ignorance of the blacks. The weak executive power in France allows itself to be intimidated by these deputies, and sends out to the colonies cowardly and incapable governors, whose indecision of character feeds the more or less barbarous hopes of the Negro majority. It is contemplated to pass a jury law, in the Antilles, which would place the lives of the whites in the hands of their enemies. It is also suggested that French troops be replaced by a local militia, which in a short time would, by force of circumstances, be composed chiefly of Negroes. The hatred of the Negro for the white man is complicated in these islands by the hatred of the poor for the rich. Great caution is necessary for, as things are going, the history of Santo Domingo may easily be repeated, and when the white man is driven from these islands which he has colonized, and the blacks are left alone, Martinique and Guadeloupe will relapse into barbarism.”
DEFENSES OF COLONIES.
The defenses of the small colonies are in most cases supplied by the mother country, while those of the stronger ones are borne by the colonies themselves. The Indian army is entirely supported by the Indian Government, and in the case of the Netherlands East Indies the expenses of the army are also borne by the colony. In Canada the British Government maintains a force of 2,000 men, forming the garrison at the fortress of Halifax, which is considered the "imperial station." In addition to this, however, Canada has a large militia force which may be called out at any time; the active militia, including persons who voluntarily enlist for a three years' term, and are drilled a certain number of days in each year, the total number of this force being 45,000. It is entirely equipped from colonial funds. In Cape Colony the British Government maintains a small military force commanding a series of forts and batteries at St. Simons Bay. The colony maintains a force of mounted riflemen of 1,000 officers and men, and a militia force numbering about 7,000. In addition to this all able-bodied men in the colony between 18 and 50 years are subject to military service beyond, as well as within, the limits of the colony. The Australian colonies, which are now united under the Commonwealth of Australia, formerly maintained each a separate militia force and jointly maintained a small naval squadron and a torpedo service for the protection of the coast. In most cases the naval defense of the colonies is maintained by the home Government and with its own vessels, but in the case of the Australian colonies a separate naval force for local protection is maintained, and in certain other cases the British colonies have contributed certain sums to aid in defraying the expenses of naval protection of the colony. During the war in South Africa the Canadian and Australian colonies sent large numbers of troops to serve as a part of the British army in South Africa. In Ceylon the fortifications have been built by the home Government, and a battalion of British infantry, two companies of British artillery, and two companies of native artillery are maintained by the home Government, but the colony pays 1,845,000 rupees to the Imperial Government as the cost of the garrison. At Singapore the actual cost of the force for defense is defrayed out of the revenues of the colony, the Imperial Government supplying only the guns and ammunition, while the force which garrisons these works of defense is supported by the colony.
IN THE TROPICS.
In colonies whose chief population is composed of natives of the territory thus governed and not natives of the governing country or their descendants, the military force is composed in part of natives and in part of citizens of the governing country, and is officered chiefly by those of the governing country, usually men who have received their training in the military establishments of that country. In British India, for instance, about one-third of the army is European and two-thirds native, and is wholly supported by the colonial government. In the Dutch East Indies the army is wholly supported from colonial funds, while the naval defense is partly colonial and partly belonging to the home Government. In the French colonies a large share of the army is supplied by the home Government, and it is officered chiefly from those trained in the military institutions and army of the home Government.
THE ARMY OF INDIA.
In India the army consists of 214,928 officers and men, of which number 74,288 are Europeans and 140,640 natives. Of the European section 53,688 are infantry, 13,407 artillery, and 5,670 cavalry; of the native section 111,925 are infantry, 22,932 cavalry, 3,695 sappers and miners, and 2,088 artillery. The native troops are officered in part by Europeans and in part by natives; the total number of European officers in command of the native troops being 5,178 of all ranks. With the construction of roads and railways throughout India the facilities for concentration or mobilization of troops have been greatly increased. A regular transport service now exists, and a method for the supply of animal carriage, hospital service, and other field establishments sufficient to place a large army promptly in the field. The entire cost of the Indian army, both native and European officers and men, is borne by the Indian Government. In the Native States, in which the Indian princes still rule, but with the advice of a British officer stationed at their courts, there are so-called armies numbering 350,000 men, but they are badly equipped and poorly disciplined. In view, however, of the fact that native chiefs have offered large sums of money toward the cost of imperial defenses, the Indian Government has elaborated a scheme for the training of a picked contingent of troops in certain of the Native States, and with a view to enabling the chiefs to bear a direct share in the defense of the Empire a special contingent known as "Imperial service troops," numbering 18,000 men, have been organized and are now under instruction of British officers. A naval and coast defense is also maintained by the Indian Government, including torpedo boats and a submarine mine flotilla, troop vessels, surveying ships, inland steamers, etc. The expense of these is borne by the Indian Government, as is also the expense of the British Government's naval vessels permanently stationed in Indian waters.
The Indian army is described by Sir W. W. Hunter in his Indian Empire, 1892, as follows:
"The constitution of the Indian army is based upon the historical division of British India into the three presidencies of Bengal, Madras, and Bombay. There are still three Indian armies, each composed of both European and native troops, and each with its own commander in chief and separate staff, although the commander in chief in Bengal exercises supreme authority over the other two. There may also be said to be a fourth army, the Punjab frontier force, which until 1885 was under the order of the lieutenant-governor of the province.
"The Bengal army garrisons Bengal proper and Assam, the Northwestern Provinces and Oudh, a portion of Central India and Rajputana, and the Punjab. In 1877-78 its total strength was 104,216 officers and men, of whom 63,933 were native troops. In 1890-91
the Bengal army numbered 130,375 officers and men, of whom 84,053 were native troops. In the Bengal native army the distinguishing feature is the presence of 12 batteries of artillery, and an exceptionally large proportion of cavalry, both of which arms are massed in the Punjab.
"The Madras army extends beyond the limits of that presidency into Mysore, the Nizam's domains, the central provinces, also to Burma across the Bay of Bengal, and to the Andaman convict settlements. In 1877-78 its total strength was 47,026 officers and men, of whom 34,293 were native troops. In 1890-91 the Madras army numbered 46,072 of all ranks, of whom 32,123 were natives. In the Madras native army the distinguishing features are the large proportion of sappers and miners, the small proportion of cavalry, and the entire absence of artillery.
"The Bombay army occupied Bombay proper and Sind, the native states of central India, and the outlying station of Aden in the Red Sea. In 1877-78 its total strength was 38,355 officers and men, of whom 26,645 were native troops. In 1890-91 the Bombay army numbered 41,771 officers and men, of whom 28,672 were natives.
"The total established strength of the European and native army in British India in 1877-78 (exclusive of native artificers and followers) consisted of 189,597 officers and men, of whom 64,276 were Europeans and 124,871 were native troops. The four chief arms of the service were thus composed: (1) Artillery, 12,239 Europeans and 901 natives; (2) cavalry, 4,317 Europeans and 18,346 natives; (3) engineers, 337 Europeans (all officers) and 3,239 natives; (4) infantry, 45,962 Europeans and 102,183 natives. In 1890-91 the total European and native army in British India consisted of 218,218 officers and men, of whom 73,370 were Europeans and 144,848 were native troops. The artillery consisted of 12,723 Europeans and 3,757 natives; the cavalry of 5,679 Europeans and 23,348 natives, besides a bodyguard of 199 troopers; engineers, 254 Europeans (all officers) and 4,015 natives; infantry, 53,701 Europeans and 113,529 natives. British staff officers, invalid and veterane stablishment, etc., 1,013. Total Europeans, 73,370." The Statesman's Year-Book for 1901 gives the Indian army as 74,288 Europeans, including 3,616 officers of all grades, and 140,614 natives, including 1,578 officers.
THE ARMY OF THE DUTCH EAST INDIES,
The army of the Dutch East Indies is purely colonial. It consists of about 45,000 officers and men, of which number 16,000 are Europeans, 22,000 natives, and 5,000 Amboinese-natives of the island of Amboyna, one of the Dutch East Indian group of islands. No portion of the regular army of the Netherlands is allowed to be sent to the colonies, but native soldiers are permitted to enlist in the colonial service, and they form the nucleus of the army of Dutch India. The natives and European soldiers are not divided into separate corps, but generally mixed together, though in separate companies in the same battalions. The artillery is composed of European gunners, with native riders, while the cavalry are Europeans and natives. The commissioned officers are all European, with the exception of a few natives of high rank, but in each of the companies composed of natives about one-half of the noncommissioned officers are natives and one-half Europeans. A military academy is maintained in Java, and schools for soldiers are attached to every battalion of the army. The navy is partly colonial and partly belongs to the royal navy, and its expenses are therefore divided between the mother country and the colony. The personnel of the navy in the Dutch East Indies numbers about 3,300 men, of whom two-thirds are Europeans.
THE MILITARY IN THE FRENCH COLONIES.
In the French colonics the proportion of troops supplied by the governing country is larger than in the British or Dutch colonies, and a larger share of the expense is borne by the home Government. The funds expended by the French Government for its military service in the colony are not included in the 4,000,000 francs which are charged against "colonial service" in the budget, but are included in the budgets of the war and marine, respectively. In Algeria, which is conducted as a province of France, the military force consists of about 57,000 men, of whom more than one-half are French and commanded by French officers. In Tunis the army of occupation numbers about 20,000 men, the entire force being maintained by the French Government, the Tunisian army numbering but about 600 officers and men. In Madagascar the force consists of about 17,000 officers and men, about equally divided between French and natives. The French budget for 1901 allows 29,147,000 francs for military expenditure in Madagascar. Only 364 men are maintained on the local budget of Madagascar. In French Indo-China the military forces number about 29,000, of which number about 12,000 are French and 17,000 are natives, officered almost exclusively by French, though among the native forces the minor officers are natives.
"The army must above all be restricted to its natural function, i. e., of protecting the colony against foreign enemies and great rebellions at home, of chasing armed bands of robbers if they exist, and protecting against them the peaceful people," says M. de Lanessan. "Its natural place, therefore, is near the frontiers and in all those places where great movements of rebels are likely to spring up. Under no conditions, however, must it be charged with the internal and external police of the native population; but wherever this becomes necessary a special police force placed under its orders should be employed.
"Besides the army there must always exist a police force which should have as its basis the colonial gendarmerie, and should be charged with obtaining clandestine information regarding and exercise preventive surveillance over evil-minded persons, under the direct orders of the governor.
"The civil administrators or residents must not be deflected from their political and administrative functions by the excessively military rôle, such as they have been playing in Indo-China and at the western coast of Africa. If the military appears to be necessary for the maintenance of order in their district, it is not advisable that they should be its direct chiefs nor that they should direct its operations.
"The military should be placed under orders of special chiefs, who in their turn should report to the commander of the gendarmerie, so that both in the civil as well as the military territories the police might be directed by people who have received a special education required for the service. The police is a mechanism of particular nature, requiring specially prepared men; but of course it should always be at the disposal of the political and administrative authorities, as well as the military establishment, as is provided by the organic statute of the gendarmerie.
"In the matter of internal police of the villages and their protection by the native authorities the greatest possible regard should be paid to local customs. In the countries subject to our protectorate and even in the colonies subject to our direct control, but where the Europeans are only small in number and where there exist local administrations sufficiently organized, it would be well to make the latter responsible for the maintenance of order and tranquillity by placing under their control such a police force as they were accustomed to before our occupation, and by limiting ourselves to overseeing and controlling the organization and work of this force.
"The entire police should be in the hands of the colonial governor, through the intermediary of the commander of the gendarmerie, just as in France the entire police is subject to and ultimately dependent on the Government. The governor should also have supreme authority over the army and all administrative departments, because he personally represents all the ministers of the whole Government and is responsible to the latter for everything that happens in the colony. In order that he may be able to meet such wide responsibilities he should be given an authority commensurate with his responsibilities.”
THE ELECTIVE FRANCHISE IN THE COLONIES.
The extent to which the right of suffrage is granted to residents, and especially to natives of colonies, differs very widely with the varying circumstances. In colonies of the temperate zones, the "habitation colonies," as they are designated by Sir Charles Dilke, suffrage is in most cases universal and for all classes of officers other than the governor-general and in most cases the members of the higher legislative bodies.
In the tropical colonies, those in which government is largely through bodies named by the home Government, the elective franchise is usually restricted to local questions-in some cases to the election of a part of the legislative body of the colony, and in most cases to the election of members of local boards for the government of cities, towns, and rural communities. This power is usually restricted through regulations which limit the voting power to persons having certain qualifications, either educational, property holding, or taxpaying.
In India the local self-government acts of 1882-1884 extended the elective principle in a greater or less measure all over India. In all the larger towns, and many of the smaller ones, the majority of members of committees are elected by the taxpayers, everywhere the majority of these committees consisting of natives, and in most cases all members are natives. In the rural districts the local boards which are in charge of roads, schools, hospitals, etc., are elected, and in the village organization the headmen and other officers are chosen by vote of the adult male population.
In Java the village officers are elected, but those of higher grade, especially those upon whom the Dutch Government relies chiefly to carry out the details of its administration, are members of ruling families which have for generations controlled their districts. In the British colonies other than India and the self-governing colonies, the franchise is regulated by local legislation, and varies greatly according to circumstances. In British Guiana the franchise is extended to every person who has, during six months' previous to registration, had an ownership of not less than 3 acres of land under cultivation, or of a house of the annual rental value of not less than £20; or occupancy or tenancy of not less than 6 acres of land under cultivation, or a house at an annual rental value of not less than £40; or an annual income of not less than £100; or have paid direct taxes of £4 3s. 4d., coupled with residence. In Ceylon the general officers are appointed, but the village headmen, who are the channel of communication between the Government and the people, are elected by the inhabitants of the village. In Cyprus a part of the legislative body is chosen by Mohammedan and a part by the non-Mohammedan residents of the island. The British subjects who have resided five years in the islands may also exercise the franchise. The qualification for franchise consists in the payment of any class of taxes. In Fiji the government is administered through an appointed legislative council, and a large share of self-government has been conceded to the villages and district council of the natives, the members of which are elected by the natives; in the principal towns the governing body is elected by the taxpayers. In Jamaica there is a property qualification for voters, and out of a population of about 600,000 there are about 23,000 qualified voters, who elect members of the parish organizations for the enactment of local laws and administer the work of construction of roads, markets, sanitation, waterworks, etc. In Mauritius the qualification for the elective franchise is the ownership of immovable property worth 300 rupees, or movable property worth 3,000 rupees, or the payment of rent amounting to 25 rupees per month, or license of 300 rupees annually, or the receipt of a salary of 50 rupees monthly.
THE CIVIL SERVICE IN THE COLONIES.
The method of selection and maintenance of civil service in the colonies is interesting and important. In no part of a government service can there be greater necessity for careful selection of men or for careful training for such service. Located at a long distance from the seat of the home Government, removed in many cases from close official observation and scrutiny, free to a great extent from the opportunity of criticism by individuals or the press or both, and subjected to peculiar temptations through opportunities for profit by business or administrative work, it is necessary that the persons chosen be of the highest moral qualifications; while the fact that they must rely more on their own judgment than those who are constantly under supervision or who have constant opportunity for consultation requires that they be possessed of high intellectual qualities and good training. The further fact that without an acquaintance with local conditions, laws, and customs in the colony they are of comparatively little value increases the importance of retaining them permanently in the service in case they prove faithful and capable.
It is upon these grounds that the successful colonizing nations of to-day have established (1) a system of thorough training for candidates for their colonial service; (2) a system of civil-service examinations of a character which assures a high grade of intellectual training and knowledge; (3) a probationary service in which the fitness of men who pass examinations is further tested; (4) the permanent retention in the civil service of those who enter it and prove successful in its work; (5) a system of promotion which will be incentive to faithful and energetic service in whatever grade the individual may be employed; (6) retirement with a fixed rate of payment at a given age or at the end of a stated term of service.
TRAINING SCHOOLS FOR COLONIAL CIVIL SERVICE.
England, Netherlands, and France maintain systems for the preparation of men for their colonial service, by which a class of highly educated young men, trained with a special view to this line of life work, is constantly available. In Netherlands and France special training schools are maintained by the Government, open only to those who have passed through certain collegiate courses, and in these are required the lines of study which are looked upon as especially valuable in fitting men for colonial service. In England an equally high training is assured by the rigid civil-service examination which is required, especially for entering the Indian service. The rules governing the civil-service examination for the Indian service are given herewith, and an examination of them will make apparent the high intellectual training requisite for entrance into the Indian "covenanted civil service." This term, the "covenanted civil service,"
arose from the fact that the abuses by persons in the civil service in India in former years made it necessary for the East India Company during the closing years of its existence to require of its civil servants a "covenant" that they would not engage in trade, receive presents, or subscribe for pensions for themselves or families. This system is still followed by the English Government. (The rules governing the examinations for the Indian service are printed on another page.) The regulations printed in the Colonial Office List for 1901, which pertain to the selections for the civil service in the Crown colonies, specifically states that "all salaried public officers are prohibited from engaging in trade or connecting themselves with any commercial undertaking without leave from the Government, approved by the secretary of state. As a general rule this prohibition will be made absolute. No paid officer can be permitted to be the editor of a newspaper or take active part in the management of it."
AN AMERICAN VIEW OF COLONIAL CIVIL-SERVICE REQUIREMENTS.
The necessity for a special civil service for the Tropics is discussed by Mr. A. Lawrence Lowell in the introduction to his Colonial Civil Service, 1900, as follows:
"The requirements for a civil service in tropical or Asiatic colonies are quite different from those for the home civil service. At home, except for special branches of administration requiring a high degree of technical knowledge, such as the Army or the Navy, an intelligent man can easily learn in a comparatively short time to do the Government work fairly well. In the post-office, for example, everyone knows in a general way, or can readily understand, what is wanted, and the work can be done after a fashion by new men of good capacity. In most branches of the home administration, therefore, a constant change of employees produces inferior service, but does not stop the wheels of government altogether, and does not involve a danger of national ruin.
"In an Asiatic colony, on the other hand, where the duty of the official consists, for the most part, in ruling over districts containing many thousands of natives, an untrained man suddenly appointed would be perfectly helpless, however great his natural capacity. He knows neither the language nor the customs of the people, nor does he comprehend their thoughts; and the consequence of his ignorance may be disastrous. Well-meaning but inexperienced officials could easily provoke an insurrection like the Indian mutiny without being in the least conscious that they were drifting into danger. Hence the administration of the colony can be intrusted only to men who have mastered the language and all the conditions under which the government must be carried on. But Oriental and Western civilizations are so different that years must pass before an official becomes thoroughly efficient; and no man of parts will undertake those years of preparation if he is liable to be thrown back on the world to start life all over again after he has proved himself a valuable public servant. The colonial civil service must therefore be a lifelong career.
"The career must be begun young, and that for two reasons: First, because it is only in youth that new languages and a comprehension of strange civilization can be acquired rapidly and well; and second, because, if the selection of colonial officials is made after men have begun to be established in life, those who have already shown an ability to succeed will not abandon an assured career for another in which, though the reward is great, success is problematical. The men who apply will be those whose previous ventures in life have not been the most fortunate; and the colonial service can not afford to accept the failures in other vocations. Hence colonial officials must be recruited at the time when young men are choosing their occupations in life, and as the service means leaving home for a tropical climate, and what are to most persons uncongenial surroundings, men of strong qualities, moral, intellectual, and physical, must be tempted into it by large pay, security of tenure, and liberal pensions.
"On these principles all the progressive nations of the world are agreed, and the completeness with which they act upon them in practice is proportionate to the length of their experience. France has tried recruiting her colonial officials from her home civil service, but she has given it up; and, in fact, Leroy-Beaulieu, the great French writer on colonies, ascribed a capital importance to the mistakes of his country in this matter.
"In passing it must be remarked that it is unnecessary, and frequently it is inexpedient after the organization has been completed, to select the executive head of the colony from the permanent civil service. In the great English dependencies in the east the governor is, as a rule, an eminent English statesman appointed for five years only. His duty is to bring to bear on colonial problems large political views, and a world-wide experience of life while his relation to the colonial officials is like that of an English minister to the permanent staff of his department. He relies upon them for technical information and a knowledge of the native life, and he acts as a link between them and the Government at home. All this is true of the Dutch colonies also.
"Assuming that a colonial service must be a career, to begin in youth, and is to continue for life, the question naturally presents itself how the selection of young men is to be made. There aro two methods of doing this: On the one hand, an arbitrary choice by the authorities, limited more or less by the requirement of certain qualifications, a method which has certainly its advantages, but entails unavoidably, to some extent at least, the evils of patronage and favoritism; and, on the other hand, a free competition of some kind among voluntary candidates. Either one or the other of these systems, or some combination of the two, must be adopted. During the last half century the progressive nations of Europe have been coming to use the competitive system to a greater and greater extent, although the forms in which it has been introduced differ very materially from one another.
"A second question that presents itself is how the young men who have been selected shall be prepared for their work; how far their training shall take the form of academic studies, and how far of an apprenticeship in the colony itself."
AN ENGLISH VIEW OF THE CIVIL SERVICE IN THE BRITISH COLONIES.
Mr. Alleyne Ireland, who spent several years in British colonies, and who has recently been commissioned by the University of Chicago to visit and report upon the colonies of the Orient and the Philippine Islands, in his volume, Tropical Colonization, 1899, says: "The civil service of the British tropical colonies is highly organized and highly paid, and the fact that anyone who enters the service has an assured position for the rest of his working days (subject to his continued good conduct and efficiency), with practically no limit in the direction of promotion and at the end a handsome pension, serves to attract the very best class of men that England can give. In the British tropical colonies the ranks of the higher officials are made up somewhat as follows: Governor, chief justice, puisne judges, attorney-general, colonial secretary, solicitor-general, registrar-general, comptroller of customs, colonial engineer, postmaster-general, receiver-general, auditor-general, and administrator-general. The salaries of these officials, as those of all others, are paid by the colonies. In the matter of appointments the colored natives of the various colonies are very fairly treated. I know of no instance of the governor of a colony being a colored man; but short of that colored men are to be found occupying good positions in all branches of the colonial service, as magistrates, medical officers, custom-house officials, land surveyors, etc. It may be interesting to my
readers, in view of the fact that the United States is now forming a colonial service, to know what salaries are paid to some of the officials in the British tropical colonies. In British Guiana, which contains a population of 300,000, the salaries of some of the higher officials are: Governor, $24,000; chief justice, $9,700; attorney-general, $7,300; colonial secretary, $7,300; immigration agent-general, $7,300. In Ceylon the salaries are (calculated at 3 rupees to the dollar): Governor, $27,000; chief justice, $8,300; attorney-general, $6,000, and colonial secretary, $8,000. It may be thought that these salaries are large, but it should be remembered that smaller salaries would fail to attract to the service men of the high standard so necessary to successful administration. Again, although a high salary will not keep a dishonest man from following his evil inclinations, the Government is enabled by the offer of high salaries to secure a wide field of selection amongst a class of men who are constitutionally high-minded and honest; but even if the matter be placed on the lowest possible ground, that of pure self-interest, it will be readily perceived that the advantages of belonging to the service are sc great that few men will be foolish enough to risk their career on the slender chance of their malpractices remaining undiscovered. One can not but be struck in traveling in the British colonies by the absolute confidence placed by all classes in the honesty of the public servants. In most of the colonies, and more especially those enjoying representative institutions, the acts of public servants are subjected to the most detailed criticism; but although I have heard occasional accusations of incompetence or laziness I have not heard, even from the most violent crities, any suggestion that a public servant was corrupt. It seems to me that had England achieved nothing else, she might rest satisfied with having supplied her dependencies with such a class of public servants as have bred the belief in the many races under her flag that the public funds are devoted to public purposes only, and that the most powerful planter, the wealthiest merchant, is no more in the eyes of the law than the humblest cooly or the meanest peasant. It is useless, however, for me to convey any adequate impression of the excellence of the British colonial service. Only those who have lived in contact with these administrative systems can appreciate the sterling qualities of the men who are devoting their lives to the cause of good government.”
OFFICIAL PATRONAGE IN THE COLONIES.
Mr. C. P. Lucas, in his introduction to the 1891 edition of Lewis's Government of Dependencies, says on this subject: “The system of official patronage is year by year contracted rather than extended. The civil service is recruited by open competition in India and some of the large Crown colonies. In the self-governing colonies the governors alone are appointed from England, and the wishes of the colonists, whether well-founded or not, are respected in making the appointments. It can not be seriously maintained that the standard of public life at home suffers from the fact that a certain number of posts in the smaller colonies are still in the gift of the secretary of state. The evil of appointment of natives of the dominant country to offices in the colonies without due regard to their qualifications now exists but only in a very slight degree, and in order to counteract it the principle of open competition has been adopted in regard to India and the eastern colonies. On the other hand, the introduction of this principle has tended to the perpetuation of another of the evils mentioned, namely, the exclusion of natives of the colony from offices in their own country. Most foreign or colonial possessions of European nations have two classes of native-born residents, a colored race and Europeans who have been born and bred in the colony,, while a further class is formed by the intermixture of the two. Under the old Spanish system one of the evils most complained of was that Spanish creoles were excluded from offices in favor of Spaniards sent out from Spain. This last-named evil does not exist in the British Empire, for where the English colonial element is strong-that is, in the self-governing colonies-the whole patronage, with the exception of the appointment of the governor, has been taken away from the home Government and handed over to the colonies. In the case of India, on the other hand, it is mainly a question between Indians and Englishmen sent out from England, and here the tendency of open competition which gives no preference to either race is, as a matter of fact, to exclude the native Indian. Earnest attempts have been made to modify the system so as to prevent such exclusion, but the broad fact remains that if the most approved principle for selecting the best men is adopted in its entirety, it results in almost unadulterated European rule.”
THE PREPARATION OF DUTCH OFFICIALS FOR THEIR WORK.
Java, says M. Le Clercq, "is administered by a hierarchy of officials constituting a select body. Having passed first through the school of Delft or the University of Leyden, which are, so to speak, the nurseries of colonial administrators of the civil branch, they then undergo a special examination either in Holland or Batavia, the programme of which is fixed by the minister of colonies. This programme varies according to the service for which application is made. For the higher posts it is necessary to take the "great examination of functionaries" (groot ambtenaars examen), which bears on matters mainly technical and comprises principally the history, geography, and ethnography of the Dutch Indies, the civil and religious laws, the political institutions and the customs of the natives, and the Malayan and Javanese languages. The examination is practically made up of two successive ones separated generally by an interval of two years, the second examination embracing the same subjects as the first, but going deeper and more extensively into the subjects. The candidates for judicial functions must be doctors of law, and, moreover, pass a techuical examination in the Malayan and Javanese languages, the Moslem law and the customs of the Dutch Indies, the public law and colonial institutions. The vacancies are annually filled by the minister of colonies, who, after consulting with the government of the colony, publishes in the official gazette the number of candidates who are permitted to report to the governor-general to be appointed either for administrative or judiciary positions. The final choice is then made according to the standing obtained in the examination. The chosen candidates are entitled besides first-class passage to an allowance to cover the cost of equipment, and after their arrival at the Indies to a provisional compensation pending their definite appointment, for they are not immediately given important places, but have first to discharge a preparatory service under a comptroller or assistant resident, who initiates them into the practice of colonial affairs. The salaries of the civil officials are fixed either by the King or the governor-general. These salaries are at least treble the amount paid for positions of similar grade in the mother country and a pension guarantees to them a secure retreat after an assured career. The members of the India council, I think, are paid 36,000 florins (or over $14,000), the provincial governors, 20,000 florins (over $8,000); the residents, from 12,000 to 18,000 florins (or from $4,800 to $7,200); the assistant residents receive 7,000 florins (or $2,800); the residential secretaries, 4,000 to 6,000 florins (or from $1,600 to $2,400); comptrollers, 3,600 to 4,000 (or $1,450 to $1,600). There is not a justice of the peace or court sheriff, however modest, that does not get a better salary than our highest magistrate. In the large cities of the colony, as, for instance, Batavia or Soerabaja, a lawyer of good standing makes at least 50,000 florins (over $20,000). As is seen, the official body that presides over the destinies of Java is skillfully organized, carefully selected, and liberally compensated. It is constituted, so to say, of the cream of the youth in the motherland. Owing to the severe selection to which it is subject, it is possibly the most perfect colonial service in the world.