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XII. Period of probation.-Probationers will be required to qualify by passing the necessary departmental examinations (as well as the riding test, if necessary, see Rule VIII) within two years of their arrival in India.
XIII. Liability of probationers to removal.-Any probationer who may fail to pass the prescribed examinations within two years, or be found unfit for police duties, will be liable to removal from the service. Any probationer so removed from the service will be furnished with a free passage to England, provided he utilizes such passage within three months from the date of such removal.
XIV. Salary after probation.-When probationers have passed the qualifying examinations (as well as the riding test) they will, if otherwise approved, be appointed assistant superintendents of police, and their salary will be raised to Rs. 300 a month.
XV. Leave and pension.-Officers joining the Indian police under these conditions will find the leave rules which apply to them in Chapter XIII, and the pension rules in Part IV of the "Civil-service regulations." Abstracts of the regulations referred to will be found in the following pages.
XVI. Articles of agreement.-Probationers will be required to sign articles of agreement describing the terms and conditions of their appointment prior to embarkation for India.
Mathematics (I).-The extent of the examination will be as follows: Arithmetic, algebra up to and including the binomial theorem, the theory and use of logarithms; Euclid, Books I to IV and VI; plane trigonometry up to and including solution of triangles and mensuration.
Mathematics (II). Further questions on the syllabus of mathematics (I): Elementary solid geometry, including Euclid, Book XI, propositions 1 to 21, Euclid, Book XII, propositions 1 and 2, geometrical conic sections, the elementary properties common to the ellipse, parabola, and hyperbola; dynamics and statics, uniform and uniformly accelerated rectilinear motion, uniform circular motion, motion of projectiles (not requiring a knowledge of the parabola), equilibrium of forces in one plane and of parallel forces, the center of mass, and the construction and use of the simpler machines.
Latin.-Passages selected from the authors usually read in schools will be set for translation into English. Passages from English authors will be given for translation into Latin prose and verse, but candidates will be allowed in the place of verse composition to answer questions of a simple character, which will test whether they possess a fundamental knowledge of the grammar of the language and such elementary acquaintance with Roman history as is required for the intelligent study of the books they have read.
Greek.-Passages will be set for translation into English from the authors usually read in schools, and in other respects the examination will proced on the same lines as in Latin.
French.-Translations of unseen passages from French into English, and from English into French; the passages for translation will be taken mainly from standard authors, and a few simple questions may be asked on the passages set, as to the structure and character of the language, and allusions of obvious and general interest. The viva voce examination will include dictation. Three hundred marks will be allotted to colloquial knowledge of the language.
German. The passages for translation will be taken mainly from standard authors, and in other respects the examination will proceed on the same lines as in French.
English composition.-Candidates will be tested by precis writing as well as by an essay. The standard of positive merit will be looked for in logical arrangement of thought, and in accuracy and propriety of expression, but large deductions of marks will be made for faults of writing and spelling.
Candidates are also warned that, for similar faults in the use of the English language, similar deductions will be made from the marks obtained in other subjects.
Geometrical drawing.-Practical plane geometry; the construction of scales; and the elements of solid geometry, and of simple orthographic projection. Great importance will be attached to neatness and exactness of drawing.
Geography. Simple questions in descriptive and general geography.
English history. The general paper in this subject will be confined to events subsequent to the Norman Conquest. It will test whether the candidates are accurately acquainted with the facts of English history, and also possess an intelligent knowledge of the meaning of the facts. The paper on the special period will be confined to distinctly modern history. It will require from the candidates more minute knowledge than the general paper.
Natural science subjects.-The standard of examination in these subjects will be such as may be reasonably expected from the education given at schools possessing appliances for practical instruction, such as a laboratory, etc. A considerable portion of the marks will be given for proficiency shown in the practical part of the examination. A knowledge of the metric system will be expected.
Chemistry. The laws of chemical combination and decomposition, and the preparation, classification, and properties of the principal metallic and nonmetallic elements, and of such of their compounds as are treated of in inorganic chemistry. In the practical part of the examination only the more ordinary apparatus and the less dangerous reagents will be supplied, and no candidate will be allowed to bring his own apparatus or reagents.
Heat.-The elementary portion of the subject.
Physics.-The elementary properties of electricity, magnetism, light, and sound.
Geology.-Chiefly economic, including the recognition of the more familiar minerals and rocks, and their properties and uses.
SIR JOHN STRACHEY ON THE INDIAN CIVIL SERVICE.
Sir John Strachey in his work, India, says: Although the highest offices of control are necessarily held by Englishmen, by far the greater part of the actual administration is in native hands. Excluding the 765 offices held by members of the covenanted service, and excluding also all posts of minor importance, nearly all of which are held by natives, there are about 2,600 persons in the superior branches of the executive and judicial services, and among them are only about 30 Europeans. These are facts which are often ignored in discussing the question of the admission of natives to a larger share of public employment. Notwithstanding the constantly increasing demands for improved administration, the strength of the covenanted service recruited in England has been reduced in the last twenty years by more than 32 per cent, and further gradual reduction is in progress. During the same period the number of natives employed in the executive and judicial services has gone on constantly increasing, and with exceptions so rare that they deserve no consideration they now hold all offices other than those held by the comparatively small body of men appointed in England. Under orders passed in 1879 by the government of Lord Lytton no person other than a native of India can be appointed to any post in the executive or judicial service carrying a salary of 200 rupees a month and upward without the previous sanction of the governor-general in council. These orders are still in force, and how completely they have been carried out is shown by the fact just stated that these branches of the service are practically manned entirely by natives of India.
"The organization of our
THE NATIVE OFFICERS.
great and highly efficient native civil service is one of the most successful of the achievements of the British Government in India. Native officers manage most of the business connected with all branches of the revenue and with the multifarious interests inland. Natives dispose of the greater part of the magisterial work. The duties of the civil courts, excepting
the courts of appeal, are almost entirely trusted to native judges. A native judge sits on the bench in each of the high courts. For many years past native judges have exercised jurisdiction in all classes of civil cases-over natives and Europeans alike. It is my belief that as a rule their work is quite as good as that of the English judges. Thirty years ago the native civil service was badly paid, comparatively inefficient, and not always trustworthy. In these respects there has been a great change. Nothing in the recent history of India has been more remarkable than the improvement that has taken place in the standard of morality among the higher classes of the native officials. Much of this has certainly been due to the fact that their position and salaries are far better than they were and that temptations to corruption have been removed, but it can not be doubted that much has been due to their better education. Another powerful cause has been in silent and constant operation. The native officials have had before them, through a long course of years, the example of the irreproachable integrity of the Englishman employed in the higher ranks of the public service. Living in an atmosphero of official uprightness has made native judges and magistrates upright also.
SALARIES PAID TO NATIVES.
"The salaries given to natives in posts of importance are very liberal, and they certainly do not err on the side of being too small. With possibly the exception of England, there is no country in Europe in which judicial and executive officers receive salaries equal to those given in the native civil service of India.
"Salaries depend upon the service to which a man belongs, and are not affected by questions of nationality. Thus, in the imperial service recruited in England the rules regarding pay, leave, and pension are the same for all members, whether they are European or native. In the provincial services, recruited in India, the conditions of service are fixed on independent grounds. They are regulated in both cases by consideration of the terms necessary to secure the desired qualifications.
NO DISTINCTION OF RACE.
"Since 1836 no distinctions of race have been recognized in the civil courts throughout India. At the present time native judges preside over the great majority of the courts; excepting the higher appellate tribunals, almost the whole administration of civil justice is in their hands. They exercise jurisdiction in all classes of civil cases over natives and Europeans alike, and no word of objection on the part of the latter is ever heard. The Lord Chancellor did not give the native judges too high a character when he said in the House of Lords in 1883, as the result of his experience of Indian cases appealed to the Privy Council, that 'in respect of integrity, of learning, of knowledge, of the soundness and satisfactory character of their judgments arrived at, the judgments of the native judges were quite as good as those of the English.' I think that the highest authorities in India would go even further and say that, excepting the high courts, the native judgments are the better of the two. In disposing of business of this sort superior knowledge of the language and habits of the people gives to the native many advantages over the Englishman. *
QUALIFICATIONS REQUIRED FOR THE CIVIL SERVICE IN THE DUTCH EAST INDIES.
The care exercised by the Netherlands Government in its colonial civil service is illustrated by the following statement from Ireland's "Tropical Colonization":
"Nowhere, except perhaps in the British Indian civil service, is as much care taken in the selection of officials as in the Dutch East Indies. All appointments to the higher administrative posts in Java follow a rigid examination in the history, geography, and ethnology of the Dutch East Indies, the political and social institutions of the natives, and in the Malay and Javanese languages. The officials who are to be charged with the administration of justice must hold the degree of doctor of laws from one of the Dutch universities, and in addition pass examinations in Mussulman law and local common law. The salaries of these officials are large, ranging from about $15,000 a year for the directors to about $6,000 for the residents. Admirable as is the European service in the Dutch East Indies, it is not until we turn to the organization of the native staff that we observe in its highest form the colonizing genius of Holland. When the Dutch occupied Java at the beginning of the seventeenth century they found the island divided up into a number of kingdoms or principalities, each of them governed by a native ruler who held his position as being head of the reigning family. In dividing the island into twenty-two administrative districts the Dutch followed as far as possible the boundaries of the petty native States, and whilst taking away the substance of authority from the native rulers allowed them to retain its outward semblance. Thus the regent who is at the head of each regency is generally the same man who, in the event of the Dutch authority never having been established, would have been the native prince of that district. But he is a paid servant of the Dutch Government and really under the control of the Dutch resident. The natives are not allowed to perceive that such control exists, for the regent maintains great state, and when a resident visits the regency he takes great care to show the greatest deference to the regent. He gives his orders in the forms of recommendations, and this method which would be considered absurd amongst us carries the highest significance among the Javanese, since he is known as the "elder brother," and in the Javanese family the eldest brother is, in the absence of the father, the head of the family and respected as such by the younger brothers. The regent, although he has only the semblance of power, makes up for it by enjoying all those extraordinary forms which catch the crowd, for he retains his rank and can surround himself with all the luxury of an Asiatic court. An important feature of the Dutch rule in the East Indies is that no attempt has been made to force the Dutch language upon the natives. All Dutch officials must be proficient in the native dialects and justice is administered either in Malay or Javanese. If the highest objects of a government is to make a country tranquil and prosperous then the Dutch have governed better than any other European nation which has undertaken the government of tropical dependencies."
RULES GOVERNING ADMISSION TO THE CIVIL SERVICE IN JAVA.
The following rules relating to the grand examination for official service in the Dutch East Indies, show the high qualifications and careful preparation required:
ARTICLE 1. The examination for officials is divided into two parts, of which the second is competitive.
An opportunity shall be given, both in Holland and the Dutch Indies, to pass the first part on and after the year 1894, and to pass the second part on and after the year 1896.
ARTICLE 2. The first part of the examination for officials shall cover the following subjects:
1. The geography of the Dutch Indies.
2. The Dutch Indian codes of law.
3. The introduction to the religious laws, institutions, and customs of the Dutch Indies.
4. The elements of the Malay language.
5. The elements of the Javanese language.
Only those persons shall be admitted to this part of the grand examination for officials who have passed one of the following examinations:
(a) One of the examinations for obtaining a certificate of fitness to pursue the studies of a university, or one of the examinations held by the faculties of a Dutch university.
(b) The final examination of one of the high schools with a five years' course, or of the State Agricultural School, or of the Polytechnic School, as provided in the law on secondary education.
(c) The examination taken by persons who have followed the preparatory course at the State Agricultural School, as provided by the royal ordinance of January 9, 1891, No. 10 (Indisch Staatsblad, No. 104).
(d) The final examination of a high school, with a five years' course in the Dutch Indies.
(e) The final examination of the Royal Institute for the Navy, or a final examination at the Royal Military Academy.
Any person who shall have already offered himself twice for this part of the examination and has been rejected, or for any reason except grounds deemed legitimate by the Government has failed to appear or has withdrawn himself, shall not be admitted to it again. Those who have already offered themselves for the first part of the grand examinations for officials more than once without obtaining
a diploma, before this ordinance goes into effect, shall be adinitted once more to this part of the examination.
ARTICLE 3. The second part of the grand examination for officials shall cover, in every case, the following six subjects, which are therefore termed "required subjects:"
1. The history of the Dutch Indies.
2. The geography and ethnology of the Dutch Indies.
3. The religious laws, institutions, and customs of the Dutch Indies.
4. The public institutions of the Dutch Indies;
5. The Malay language;
6. The Javanese language.
Those who wish to do so can, at the second part of the grand examination for officials, also pass an examination in any other native language of the Dutch Indies in which an examination can, in the opinion of the minister of the colonies or of the governor-general, be given with security.
Each language shall be marked at the examination as a separate subject.
Only those persons shall be admitted to the second part of the grand examination for officials who have passed the first part. Those persons who have passed one of the examinations mentioned in the second paragraph of article 2, and can prove to the satisfaction of the minister of the colonies in Holland, and of the governor-general in the Dutch Indies, that they prepared themselves for the grand examination for officials for service in the Indies, without having an opportunity to pass it in 1893, shall be admitted to the second half of the said examination.
The grand examination for officials shall begin every year in Holland on the third Monday of the month of June, in the Dutch Indies at a time to be appointed by the governor-general. It shall be announced twice in the official newspaper about two months beforehand.
Within one month after the first announcement all persons who wish to enter the examination must give written notice thereof, in Holland to the department of the colonies, in the Dutch Indies to the secretary-general.
They must state therein which part of the examination they wish to enter, and, if it is the second part of the examination, whether they wish to be examined in any native languages besides Malay and Javanese.
At the same time they must deposit the evidence that they are qualified, in accordance with the provision of articles 2 and 3, to enter that part of the examination for which they offer themselves.
(Those persons who are under any obligations to serve in the navy or in the army in the Netherlands or in the East or West Indies must, in order to be admitted to the second part of the examination, show that they have completed the service or deposit the evidence of an honorable discharge. If they fail to do so, their request to be admitted to the second part of the examination will receive no attention and will not be delivered to the examining commission.)
(The same action will be taken in the case of requests to be admitted to the second part of the examination on the part of persons who, on account of their nationality, can not be appointed to the civil service in the Dutch Indies.)
(These last two paragraphs were repealed by the ordinance of February 3, 1899.)
ARTICLE 7. Both parts of the grand examination for officials shall be held in public, in accordance with a regulation and programme to be made by the minister of the colonies.
Each candidate shall be given a mark for every subject in which he is examined.
The question whether a candidate has or has not passed the second part of the examination shall be determined according to the marks obtained in the required subjects, in the manner provided in the regulation, without taking into account the examination in the subjects not required.
REGULATIONS FOR THE GRAND EXAMINATION FOR OFFICIALS FOR SERVICE IN THE INDIES.
ARTICLE 1. The commission for holding the grand examination for officials shall pay careful attention to the provisions made in the rules concerning the said examination, annexed to the Royal Ordinance of July 20, 1893, No. 29.
ARTICLE 2. In a preliminary session the commission shall inquire whether the candidates have furnished the evidence that, having satisfied the requirements of articles 2 and 3 of the rules annexed to the Royal Ordinance of July 20, 1893, No. 29, they can be admitted to the part of the examination for which they have offered themselves.
For this purpose the commission shall receive in due season the documents which have been sent by the candidates to the department of the colonies or to the secretary-general.
In doubtful cases they shall request the decision of the minister of the colonies or of the governor-general.
The commission shall give notice to those who can not be admitted to the part of the grand examination for officials for which they have offered themselves.
ARTICLE 3. In the preliminary session there shall be formed for each part of the examination, from among the members of the commission, as many subcommittees, of at least two members, as there are subjects to be examined; and to each subcommittee shall be assigned a subject in which it shall examine. The president and secretary may be excused from taking part in these subcommittees.
ARTICLE 4. The president, in consultation with the secretary, shall determine the order of business of the whole commission and of the subcommittees, and, as far as possible, in such a way that the examination of each candidate shall be finished in two days in the case of the first part and in three days in the case of the second part of the examination.
ARTICLE 5. The candidates shall be informed by the secretary in due time of the time and place of their examinations.
ARTICLE 6. The first part of the examination shall be oral in every subject, with the exception of the elements of the Malay language and the elements of the Javanese language, in which written examinations shall be given." The oral examination in every subject lasts at most three-quarters of an hour, the written examination two hours.
The second part of the examination shall be oral and written in every subject. The oral examination in every subject lasts at the most half an hour, the written examination two hours.
In each of the subjects, "History of the Dutch Indies," "Geography and ethnology of the Dutch Indies," "Religious laws, institutions, and customs of the Dutch Indies," and "Political institutions of the Dutch Indies," the candidates shall be given in the written examination a choice between two questions.
ARTICLE 7. Written work handed in to a subcommittee shall be examined by each of its members. As far as possible all the members of a subcommittee shall be present at the oral examination. In case of temporary hindrance the president shall appoint another member of the commission to take the place of the absent member of the subcommittee.
ARTICLE 8. To each candidate shall be given in every subject in which he is examined a mark from 0 to 10. The mark 0 means entire ignorance; the marks 1 and 2, betoken bad; 3 and 4, unsatisfactory; 5 and 6, satisfactory; 7 and 8, good; 9 and 10, excellent; always with the understanding that the higher mark indicates a higher degree of knowledge than the lower.
ARTICLE 9. The members of each subcommittee shall try to agree about the marks to be given to the person examined by them. Objections to the mark given can, however, be offered by other members of the commission who have been present at the examination or have looked over the written work.
If the members of a subcommittee can not agree upon a mark to be given, or if a difference of opinion about it exists between them and another member of the commission, the president, after hearing the opinion of the members of the commission who may be supposed to have the best knowledge of the subject, shall endeavor to bring about an agreement of opinion, and if he does not succeed in this he shall decide upon the mark to be given on his own judgment formed upon the opinions given him.
ARTICLE 10. A candidate who has received at the first part of the examination in every subject, or at the second part of the examination in each of the required subjects, the mark 5, or a higher mark, shall be declared, without further discussion, to have passed the examination.
A candidate who has not received at the first part of the examination more than 22 points for all the subjects added together, or a candidate who has not received at the second part more than 27 points for all the required subjects added together, shall be declared not to have passed the examination.
A candidate shall also be rejected who has received in one or more subjects (at the second half required subjects) one of the marks 0, 1, or 2, or in two or more subjects (at the second half required subjects) one of the marks 3 or 4.
(By the original resolution of July 20, 1893, the requirements were for the first part a total of 20 points, for the second a total of 24, and the absence of any marks of 0. The existing requirements were made by a resolution of the minister of the colonies on December 27, 1897.)
In all cases not provided for by the first three paragraphs of this article the commission shall discuss the question whether the candidate can be considered to have passed a satisfactory examination, taking account therein, in the second half of the examination, only of the required subjects. The question shall be decided by vote. In case of a tie the examination shall be considered satisfactory. ARTICLE 11. The rank list of those who have passed the second half of the examination shall be made up from the result of the examination in the six required subjects, with the understanding that a candidate who has received in one or more voluntary subjects a higher mark than he obtained in the Javanese language shall be credited with the highest of these marks, provided the mark in the voluntary subject is not less than 5.
In case of an equality of marks the commission shall determine the order in which the candidates affected shall stand upon the rank list. The article was given this form above by a resolution of December 27, 1897. In the orginal regulations of July 20, 1893, it read as follows: "For the purpose of making up the rank list of those who have passed the second half of the examination the marks which are not lower than 5, received in the voluntary subjects, shall be added to the candidates' marks in the six required subjects.
"In case of an equality of marks the order of the rank list shall be regulated by the total of the marks obtained in the required subjects. If these total marks are also the same, the commission shall determine the order in which these candidates shall stand upon the rank list."
ARTICLE 12. To the report which it makes to the minister of the colonies or to the governor-general the commission shall append1. For each of the parts of the examination a list whereon shall be stated the names of all the persons examined, the marks given to them in the several subjects, and the total of these marks for each candidate.
2. A rank list of those who have passed the second part of the examination, made up in accordance with the foregoing article. ARTICLE 13. The commission shall present to the minister of the colonies or to the governor-general the certificates of those who have passed the examination, in order that they may be inspected and delivered by him.
All persons examined, even those who have not passed, shall receive from the secretary of the commission as speedily as possible information of the result of their examination in each subject.
PROGRAMME FOR THE EXAMINATION.
1. The geography of the Dutch Indies.-Knowledge of the situation, the natural features, and the climate of the chief islands and groups of islands of the Indian Archipelago, of the situation of the chief mountains and streams, and of the general lines of the administration subdivisions.
2. The knowledge of the codes of the Dutch Indies.-Knowledge of the chief contents of the general principles of legislation and of the civil code; a grasp of the most important institutions governed by the commercial code, and of the forms of European civil and criminal procedure; knowledge of the chief contents of the internal regulations and of the two penal codes of the Indies.
3. The introduction to the religious laws, institutions, and customs of the Dutch Indies. A brief survey of the origin and extension of Islam, especially with regard to the Dutch Indies; a knowledge of the chief sects of Islam; a little knowledge of the dogmas of the present orthodox Mohammedans; a little knowlege of the character and historical growth of the Mohammedan law; a little knowledge of the religious and other laws of the Mohammedans in the Dutch Indies.
4. The elements of the Malay language.-The written translation, with the help of a dictionary, of a selection, not difficult, printed in Malay characters.
5. The elements of the Javanese language.-The written translation, with the help of a dictionary, of an easy selection printed in Javanese characters.
1. The history of the Dutch Indies.-Knowledge in broad traits of the fortunes of the chief races that dwell in the Indian Archipelago, and the chief facts which relate to the establishment and extension of the Dutch power in the Archipelago, and more especially of the fortunes of the Dutch Indies since the administration of Marshall Daendels.
2. The geography and ethnology of the Dutch Indies.-Knowledge of the chief products of the Dutch Indies; knowledge of the principal traits, customs, the social and economic condition, and the degree of civilization of the chief peoples of the Dutch Indies; some knowledge of the religion and institutions of the non-Mohammedan peoples of the Dutch Indies.
3. The religious laws, institutions, and customs of the Dutch Indies.-Knowledge of the chief institutions of the followers of Islam in the Dutch Indies, studied in connection with the Mohammedan law.
4. The political institutions of the Dutch Indies.—Acquaintance with the chief provisions of the regulations of government and of the other organic laws and general ordinances derived from the constitution and the regulations of the Government; knowledge of the chief provisions relating to administration, justice, accounts, taxes, and the various other branches of the administration; all these, as far as possible, in their origin and development.
5. The Malay language.-Readiness in the written translation of a composition from Dutch into Malay, and in oral translation of a piece of prose from Malay into Dutch; knowledge of the fundamental principles of the language, coupled with a good pronunciation and
facility at reading, without special preparation, selections of Malay or letters in different hands; some readiness at expressing one's self also in the common vernacular.
6. The Javanese language.-Readiness in the translation of a piece of prose, not difficult, from Javanese into Dutch; some facility in expressing one's self in the Javanese language, shown by the written translation of some easy phrases from Dutch into Javanese; knowledge of the fundamental principles of the language, coupled with a good pronunciation; readiness in reading, without special preparation, written Javanese selections or letters in different hands.
7. Other native languages of the Dutch Indies.-The same requirements as those prescribed for Javanese under No. 6.
THE FRENCH COLONIAL CIVIL SERVICE.
Under the French civil-service system the requirements are less rigid than those of the Dutch or British Governments, and especially than those of British India. The line of studies prescribed in the École Coloniale in Paris, in which men are trained for the colonial civil service, is of a high order and the requirements for entrance to the school are also high. But the method of final selection, of assignment to duty, and of retention in a given line of duty has been criticised as less satisfactory than that of England or Netherlands and more affected by political or personal favoritism.
M. de Lanessan, in his Principes de Colonisation, discussing the question of appointments to and promotions in the civil service of the French colonies, says:
"All civil servants should be appointed either directly by the governors, in the case of minor positions, or else on his recommendation in the case of the higher positions; this I should regard as an absolute principle. In this respect the decrees of April 21, 1891, for Indo-China, and that of December 11, 1895, for Madagascar, deserve but praise. When I arrived in Indo-China the officials complained unanimously of unfair treatment of which they were made victims. The central administration made wholesale appointments of chancellors, vice-residents or residents, appointing people who had never before seen the colony, did not belong to any branch of service, and had not the slightest idea of what they were to do in their new places. These appointments were unfair toward officials who for many years had rendered useful service and waited for promotion to places which were liberally given to outsiders who had no other title than their connections. Certain officials were boasting, not without reason, of having passed through the lower grades of service in Paris and were making fun of their colleagues not so well connected, who, while working, waited on the spot for promotion which was retarded daily by intrigue. It was not of rare occurrence to see an official previously sent back to France for lack of discipline, poor service, or incompetency come back with a higher grade. The explanation was simply that he had found in the Chamber, the Senate, or in the press a sufficiently influential person in order to have his bad certificates changed to ratings for promotion.
"By leaving to the governors the power of appointing the administrative personnel, the minister of the colonies would give them such authority as is absolutely necessary for them, particularly in view of the large distance which separates them from France; moreover, he would escape all solicitation, annoyances, and bother which fall to his lot, because he has the power of appointment. How could he, indeed, cause the just promotion of a person whom he doesn't know, who lives at a great distance beyond the seas, whom he has never seen at work, and who is performing duties of which the former has not the slightest idea? By arrogating to himself the power of appointment and the initiative in the matter of promoting this personnel he assumes a responsibility which he has not the means of satisfactorily discharging, and he frees the governors of part of the responsibility which logically devolves on them.
"All the above considerations apply with equal force to the European subaltern officers of the military police. In order to render useful service these officers ought to know well the country in which they operate, besides acquiring as fully as possible its language. It is therefore necessary that they should be kept in the same colony during the entire term of their service and that they should be subject as little as possible even to transfer from one region to another.
"To sum up, since the administrators, residents, magistrates, and subaltern officers of the military police represent the principal part of every colonial official organism, it is of the utmost importance that they be completely adapted to the respective colony and altogether in the hands of the governor. Their adaptation could not be complete except when they continue their service in the same colony and when the conditions of promotion are regulated in such a manner as to favor those who have given proof of the most perfect knowledge of the country, its customs, legislation, and language.
"The proper selection of colonial servants is one of the most important subjects requiring the attention both of the home and colonial governments.
"For the preparation of administrators or 'residents' and magistrates, there has been instituted at Paris a 'colonial school' (École Coloniale), the students of which are made up from among the graduates of the law school, school of medicine, and those of the École Centrale, etc. This school has given very good results. All of its former students whom I had occasion to appoint as members of the administration or judiciary of Indo-China have proven very good officials. I believe that the same holds true in the case of those who were sent to the other colonies. However, the instruction given by the colonial school can be neither sufficiently practical nor extensive in order that the students, when leaving the school, should be able to discharge at once successfully the duties which they are called upon to perform.
"These young men, when arriving in the colony, should at first be considered as administrative aids, doing preparatory service ('stagiaires'), who, having received a sufficient general education, do not, however, yet possess the special knowledge required for the country in which they are going to serve. If they are given an important position from the start, the chances are very great that they will commit all sorts of blunders which could hardly be avoided, and that all the benefits of their education, good in itself, would be lost. I know that similar mistakes have often been committed in a number of colonies, particularly on the western coast of Africa."
THE FRENCH COLONIAL SCHOOL.
Mr. A. Lawrence Lowell, in his Colonial Civil Service, thus summarizes the courses of study in the four administrative sections of the French colonial school:
The decree of July 21, 1898 (article 7), provides as follows:
The students must, at the end of the first year of study, undergo an examination upon the subjects taught at the faculty of law in the second year for the baccalaureate, with the exception of Roman law. If they fail at this examination, they can present themselves