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[Area, 119,660 square miles; population, 12,000,000.] A French possession acljoining Cochin China, having an area of 119,660 square miles and a population estimated at 12,000,000. The government is administered by a French residency. A large share of this territory was formerly held by Siam, but was annexed by France in 1893. A railroad 64 miles long has been constructed and is to be extended to the Chinese frontier. The transit trade to and from Yunnan amounts to about 8,200,000 francs annually. The army is composed of 18,555 officers and men, of which one-third are natives.

1896. Imports

.francs.. 45, 016, 918 Exports... 20, 364, 847 Imports from France 24, 669, 104 Exports to France


113, 596 Vessels entered


461, 454 Expenditure of France (budget of 1901)...

..francs.. 488, 000 Local budget

. Mexican dollars.. 4,072, 200 Post-offices (including Anam)




[Area, 184,000 square miles; population, 4,394,000.] A colony on the north coast of Africa, extending south ward into the Sahara, with boundaries not clearly defined, large portions of the Sahara being claimed both by the French Government and the nomad tribes who inhabit it. The area is stated at 184,000 square miles; population, 4,394,000, of which 318,000 are French, 446,000 belonging to other foreign nations, the remainder natives. The Algerian Sahara includes about 123,500 square miles, with a population of about 50,000. Algeria is not included in the general term of the French colonies, having a government and laws distinct from the other colonial possessions, and being looked upon as a part of France, the French Chambers alone having the right to legislate for Algeria, while such matters as do not come within the legislative power are regulated by the decree of the President of the Republic. The government of Algeria is administered by a governor-general, assisted by a council, whose function is purely consultative. A superior council meets annually, composed of delegates sent by each of the departmental general councils. Revenue budget estimate, 1900

france.. 55,918, 711 Expenditures budget estimate, 1900.

.do.... 71,053, 824 Imports, 1899. 319, 848, 000 Exports, 1899.

.do.... 346, 415,000 Imports from France, 1899. 260, 422,000 Exports to France, 1899 279, 675, 000 Vessels entered


1,604, 906 Number of post-offices..

573 Telegraph lines


7, 260 Length of railway lines, 1899.

2, 190



[Area, 491,000 square miles; population, 15,000,000 (includes Bigirini).] A protectorate on the right bank of the Kongo and along the north bank of the Mobangi, having a total area of 491,000 square miles, and a population estimated at 15,000,000 natives and 300 Europeans. The territories are under a commissioner-general, who, assisted by two lieutenant-governors, has charge both of the civil and military administration. There are 56 schools, 31 post-offices, and 27 military stations. Vessels entered in 1898


250, 009 French vessels entered in 1898,


127, 667 Local budget, 1900....

francs.. 3,834,060 Imports, 1900.

.do.... 6,690, 263 Exports, 1900. 6, 625, 041 Imports from France, 1900..


436, 855 Exports to France, 1900 1,608, 173 Expenditure of France (budget of 1901)...

.do.... 2,078,000 Letters transmitted...



This territory includes the larger part of north west and central Africa, adjacent to the Senegal and upper part of the Niger rivers, besides the part of the Sahara Desert south of Algeria to the Lake Chad and east to the Nile basin. After the convention with the United Kingdom of June 14, 1898, providing for the delimitation of the possessions and spheres of influences claimed by oth countries the administration of the French territory was reorganized, the middle Niger region, including the greater part of the area within the bend of the river, being put under a separate military administration, while the western portion of the old Sudan province was united with Senegal, under the administration of a civil governor. French Guinea, the Ivory Coast, and Dahomey were also largely extended by the addition of Sudan territory.


The colony of Senegal occupies the coast region between the Sahara and the river Gambia, extending about 900 miles inland to the boundary of the military territories, within the bend of the Niger. Its area is now about 200,000 square miles, with a population of about 3,200,000. The colony is administered by a civil governor and represented in the French Parliament by one deputy. Imports of Senegal, 1899

.francs.. 50, 059, 834 Exports, 1899..

.do.... 23, 546, 425 Imports from France, 1899.

.do.... 30, 702, 516 Exports to France, 1899. 17,927, 210 Local budget, 1900.

.do.... 4, 454, 611 Expenditure of France (1901 budget)

-do.... 1, 154, 960 Debts, 1899...

.do.... 4, 315, 613 Vessels entered

.tong.. 71,706 Railways, 1898.


246 Telegraph lines, 1898.



These territories comprise an area of about 700,000 square miles, extending east of Senegal into the Sahara as far south as the Lake Chad and east to the border of the Egyptian Sudan. The estimated population is 4,000,000. The annual expenditure of France, according to the budget estimate of 1901, was 13,650,446 francs.


This colony lies on the coast south of Senegal and Portuguese Guinea. Its area is about 95,000 square miles, and the population is estimated at about 2,200,000. The country is administered by a governor and divided into administrative circles and one protectorate.

Imports, 1900.

15, 441, 710
Exports, 1900..
Imports from France, 1900.

9, 461, 496
Exports to France, 1900

3,980, 004 Local budget, 1900

747, 373 2,870,000


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The Ivory Coast, with an area of about 125,000 square miles and a population estimated at 2,500,000, is administered by a governor.

Imports, 1899.

6, 379, 886
Exports, 1899...

5, 863, 255
Imports from France, 1899.

1, 453, 575
Exports to France, 1899
Local budget, 1900..

2,605, 440

1, 403, 000 Dahomey, between the German Tago-Land and the British Niger Territories, has only about 70 miles of coast, but opens out north ward into a wide hinterland. It is administered by a governor with an administrative council. Its area is about 60,000 square miles, with an estimated population of 1,000,000.

Imports, 1899.

12, 348, 971
Exports, 1899..

12, 720, 190 Imports from France, 1899..

1, 804, 463 Exports to France, 1899.

3, 433, 705 Local budget, 1900...

2, 200,000


(Arca, 228,000 square miles; population, 2,500,000.] The third largest island in the world, regarding Australia as a continent, is situated off the southeastern coast of Africa and has an area oi 228,000 square miles and a population estimated at 2,500,000. The government is administered by a governor-general and an administrative council, which rule the island, the queen having been deposed in 1897 and deported to the island of Réunion, and thence to Algiers. The revenues are collected from customs, licenses, sales of land, land taxes, and a small poll tax. Christian missions have been active in the island, and about 450,000 of the natives are Protestants and 50,000 Roman Catholics. The capital, Antananarivo, has a population of 260,000. The French governor-general rules the whole island through residents and vice-residents in the villages, two of the provinces being still under martial law: Expenditure (local budget), 1900.

.francs.. 13, 772, 000 French budget (Madagascar and dependencies), 1901. 31, 602, 449 Imports, 1899... 27,916, 614 Exports, 1899.

.do.... 8,046, 408 Imports from France, 1899

.do.... 24, 377, 357 Exports to France, 1899 ..... 4, 838, 292 Colonial troops (natives and European)...

number.. 16, 896


(Area, 51,000 square miles; population, 1,900,000.] Tunis is a French protectorate on the north coast of Africa, having an area of 51,000 square miles and a population estimated at 1,900,000, of which number 26,600 are French, over one-hali of these military. The government is nominally administered by Bey Sidi Ali, but under the direction of the French minister-resident, with two secretaries, who practically administer the government of the country under the direction of the French foreign office, which has a special “ Bureau des Affaires Tunisiennes." French judges have superseded the consular courts, and the French administration has been confirmed by the conventions with all the European powers. The corps of occupation numbers about 19,460 men, the cost of its maintenance being borne by the French Government. Revenue (estimates for 1901)

.francs.. 39, 237, 154 Expenditures (estimates for 1901) 39, 122, 435 Debt, 1884

... pounds sterling.. 5,702,000 Imports, 1899

francs.. 55, 778, 241 Exports.... 433, 460 Imports from France..., 34, 263, 933 Exports to France 26, 714, 110 Vessels entered


2, 433, 811 French vessels entered

1, 254, 943 Railways in operation .....


883 Railways belonging to the state.

Telegraph lines in operation..

2, 328 Post-offices, 1898......


300 Letters transmitted, internal service. 5, 122, 296 Letters transmitted, external service..., 10, 292, 752


The French possessions in America consist of French Guiana, Martinique, St. Pierre and Miquelon, and Guadeloupe and dependencies, their total area being but 48,000 square miles with a population of 384,000.


(Area, 46,850 square miles; population, 22,700.) French Guiana is a colony on the north coast of South America, containing a population of 22,700, in addition to a few mountain tribes. Population of the penitentiaries and the liberated convicts, about 7,000. The government is administered by a governor, with a privy council of 7 members, a council-general and municipal councils, and is represented in the Chambers by 1 deputy. The land is poorly cultivated and the trade insignificant.

Local budget, 1900.....

2, 498,439
Total expenditure of France, budget of 1901.

6,857, 057 Expenditure of France for penal establishment..

5, 585, 700



(Area, 381 square iniles; population, 190,000.) Martinique is an island of the West Indies, having an area of 381 square miles and an estimated population of 190,000. The government is administered by a governor and municipal councils, with elected general council chosen from the 32 coinmunes into which the island is subdivided. The colony is represented in the Chambers by a senator and 2 deputies, Imports, 1896

22, 885, 505 Exports, 1896

21, 431, 026
Imports from France, 1896

9, 376, 000
Exports to France, 1896
Local budget of 1897 .

19, 726,000

5, 369,000
Expenditures of France, 1898
Debt (annuity)...


95, 000


[Area, 688 square miles; population, 167,100.] Two islands situated in the Lesser Antilles, having a united area of 583 square miles, making, with the 5 smaller islands which are dependencies, a total area of 868 square miles; population in 1894, 167,100. The government is administered by a governor and an elected council, and is represented in the Chambers by a senator and 2 deputies.

Imports, 1899

27,004, 526
Exports, 1899

26, 603, 147 Imports from France, 1899..

12, 693, 838 Exports to France, 1899

24, 212, 270 Revenue and expenditures balanced at (1900)..

5,729, 793 Expenditures of France (1901 budget estimate).

2, 270, 758


(Area, 93 square miles; population, 6,250.]

These are the largest of 2 small groups close to the south coast of Newfoundland, having a combined area of 93 square miles and a population of 6,250. The government is administered by a governor with a council-general and municipal councils.


Imports, 1899.
Esports, 1899.
Imports from France..
Exports to France.
Vessels entered, 1898
Local budget for 1900
Expenditure of France (budget of 1901).

.francs.. 12, 895, 329
.do.... 15, 418, 467
do.... 7,490, 385
.do.... 11, 868, 590


259, 178

475, 708


The French colonies and dependencies in Australasia and Oceania include New Caledonia, which is a French penal colony, with a number of island dependencies lying adjacent, and the Society Islands and neighboring groups known as the “French Establishments in Oceania."




[Area, 7,700 square miles; population about 53,000.] New Caledonia is a French penal colony in the South Pacific about 800 miles east of Australia, having an area of 7,700 square miles and a population of 52,756, of which about 10,000 belong to the penal class. The government is in the hands of a governor with a councilgeneral, municipal councils, and commissions. Imports..

.francs.. 10,958, 198 Exports..

.do.... 8, 913, 197 Imports from France..

.do... 6,275, 796 Exports to France

.do.... 3, 480, 392 Vessels entered, 1900

.tons.. 177, 657 Local budget....

francs.. 3, 407, 876 Expenditures of France (including penal establishment), 1901 budget. 6, 3+1, 838 Expenditures of France for penal establishment, 1901 budget....

.do.... 3, 480, 700


[Area, 650 square miles; population, 12,000.] These are a group of islands in Oceania officially known as the “French Establishments in Oceania.” They consist of the Society Islands and others lying to the northwest; the Marquesas, Tuamotu, Gambier, and Tubuai groups. There is a governor for all the establishments in Oceania, with a council for consultation. There is also a general council elected by universal suffrage.

1899. Total imports

.francs.. 2, 861, 433 Total exports... 3,528, 433 Vessels entered



22, 105


The colonial possessions of the Netherlands are located in the East and West Indies, and embrace a total area of 783,000 square miles and a population of about 35,000,000, or nearly seven times that of the mother country.



[Area, 736,400 square miles; population, 31,090,000.] A group of islands in Oceania, including Java, most of Sumatra, the Celebes, the Molucca Archipelago, the Riau-Lingga Archipelago, and others, having an area of 736,400 square miles and a population of 34,090,000, of which number 63,000 are Europeans and persons assimilated to them. The government is represented by a governor-general, who represents not only the executive power of the government, but has the authority to pass laws and regulations for the administration of the colony, subject to regulations and control of the Netherlands Government. In this he is required to adhere to the constitutional principles on which the Dutch Indies are governed, and which are laid down in the “Regulations for the Government of Netherlands India,” established in 1854. The governor is assisted by a council of five members, partly of a legislative, partly of an advisory character. The islands are divided into provinces or residences, which are governed by a resident, assisted by several assistant residents, and a number of subordinate officials called “contrôleurs," who

a are appointed by the government after a rigid examination. The resident and his assistants are aided in their intercourse with and control over the natives by cooperation with the native chiefs, who receive salaries or percentages on the amount of the taxes gathered from the natives.

Justice is administered under a system which places Europeans and persons assimilated with them under laws nearly similar to those of the mother country, while the natives are subject to their own customs and institutions. The administration of justice for Europeans is entrusted to European judges; that for natives is to a great extent under their own chiefs. The revenues are from customs duties, personal imposts, licenses, land taxes, taxes on houses and estates, the government monopolies on salt, opium, railways, and the sale of coffee grown under the culture system on lands owned by the government, some of which are under perpetual lease to those occupying them. The colonial army consists of 39,388 soldiers and 1,345 officers, all Europeans, about 15,000 of the common force being Europeans, the remainder natives. Nearly four-fifths of the exports of sugar, coffee, tea, indigo, cinchona, tobacco, and tin go to the Netherlands, and a large share of the imports are from the home Government. Revenues, 1901 (estimate).

..guilders!.. 150, 653,000 Expenditures, 1901 (estimate), on private account. 150, 226,000 Imports in 1899.... 186,792, 241 Exports, 1899. 225, 978, 871 Vessels entered, 1898


1,660, 968 Railways, 1899.

...miles.. Post-offices, 1899


216 Letters carried in 1899 (internal intercourse)... 10, 674, 898 Samples, newspapers, printed matter, etc., carried..... 7,777,888 Telegraph lines operated...


4,310 Cable lines in operation

1,025 Messages delivered, 1899.


672, 892 Expenditure for education of natives, 1901 (estimate)

-guilders.. 1, 482,000




(Area, 46,060 square miles; population in 1898, 66,490.] The Dutch West Indies (so called) include Dutch Guiana, on the north coast of South America, and the island of Curaçao, with several small adjacent islands. The area of Dutch Guiana is 46,060 square miles and the population in 1898, 66,490, exclusive of natives unenumerated. The government is administered by a governor, assisted by a council, which consists of the governor, the attorneygeneral, and three members, all nominated by the King. The colony is divided into districts, which send delegates to an annual assembly for legislative purposes. All religious creeds are given complete liberty of worship. Justice is administered by a court, whose president, members, and recorder are nominated by the home government, and these are assisted by three cantonal and two circuit courts.

The revenues are collected from import, export, and excise duties, taxes on houses and estates, personal imposts, and some indirect taxes.

Receipts, 1900

2, 296, 000
Expenditures, 1900...

2, 424,000 Subvention by the government

128,000 Imports, 1899.

6, 122, 112 Exports, 1899.

5,517, 384 Imports from Netherlands, 1899.

3, 203, 000 Imports from United States, 1899

1, 330,000 Exports to Netherlands, 1899

1,771,000 Exports to United Statos, 1899

3, 211,000


[Area, 408 square miles; population, 51,524.) A group of islands lying north of the coast of Venezuela, having a total area of 403 square miles and a population of 51,524. The government is administered by a governor appointed by the Netherlands Government, assisted by a council composed of the attorney. general and three members, also appointed by the sovereign. The colonial council consists of eight members nominated by the sovereign. The laws are administered with the cooperation of the chiefs of each of the islands of the group, who are also nominated by the sovereign. The revenues are from import and export taxes, excise duties, taxes on land, etc. Revenues, 1901 (estimated)

-guilders.. 700,000 Imports, 1899

.do.... 1, 922, 917 Exports, 1899

255, 525 Tonnage of vessels entered in 1898...


507, 344 Attendance at schools ....

5, 460

1 Value of guilder, 40.2 cents.

? Of which 30,007,000 guilders by the home Government.

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