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6,600,000 pounds of the 8,000,000 pounds of camphor, the world's annual camphor product. The expenditure on railways in the island last year was 2,400,000 yen, and is to be increased to 4,000,000 yen. The deposits of the Bank of Formosa are 40,000,000 yen.
-yen.. 14, 601, 577
14 Vessels entered ...
4, 124 Tonnage of vessels entered.
While China has no colonies in the accepted sense of the term, the area of her divisions, which are termed “dependencies," is vastly greater than that of China proper, being 2,881,560 square miles, while that of China proper is 1,353,350 square miles. The total population of the dependencies, however, is but 16,680,000, while that of China proper is 383,000,000. The dependencies, so called, are Manchuria, Mongolia, Tibet, Jungaria, and East Turkestan. In some of these dependencies the government is directly administered by Chinese officials in close conjunction with residents of the territories, especially so in Manchuria and Mongolia. In Tibet the enormous distance and difficulties of communication have made the country more or less independent of the suzerain power of China, the only visible sign of the supremacy of the central government being the presence of “ambans," or residents, with their military guard at the capital. Appointments to the first offices in the State are bestowed by the Emperor of China, and all measures of consequence are referred to the Court of Pekin. The internal government is intrusted entirely to natives, the executive administration being in the hands of a regent and four ministers, who appoint the governors of provinces and designate their collectors of revenue. No separate statistics of the commerce of these provinces or dependencies are attainable.
The noncontiguous territorial divisions belonging to and governed by the United States are six in number, viz: Alaska, the Hawaiian Islands, the Philippine Islands, Guam and Wake Islands, and the Samoan Islands of Tuituila and Manua in the Pacific, and Porto Rico in the Atlantic. Two of these, Alaska and the Hawaiian Islands, are considered Territories of the United States and have been given by legislative enactments forms of government similar to that of the Territories of the United States. The government of Porto Rico also resembles in many particulars that of the Territories of the United States, and Porto Rico, Hawaii, and Alaska are respectively customs districts of the United States, and all customs laws of the United States apply to them. The Philippine Islands, Guam, Tuituila, and Manua are at present subject in part or wholly to military government and to special customs and other laws established for their government.
The control of noneontiguous territory by the United States Government is of such recent date and under such varying circumstances that no general system can be said to have been applied with reference to the fiscal relations of the colonies as a whole. In Porto Rico a civil government has been established by an act of April 12, 1900. In the Hawaiian Islands a form of civil government was established by the act of April 30, 1900. In the Philippine Islands a commission consisting of persons appointed by the President under authority of a special act of Congress administers civil government in those parts of the islands in which it has been practicable to transfer the government from military to civil authority. In Alaska a form of territorial government has been established by act of Congress.
Porto Rico, Hawaii, and Alaska are considered customs districts of the United States, and the customs laws of the United States apply in those islands as in the United States. The effect of this is that there is collected on articles imported into those divisions from countries other than the United States the rates of duty collected in the United States on articles coming from all foreign countries, but no duties are collected in the United States on articles coming from them, nor are any duties there collected on articles entering them from the United States. No export duties are collected on any articles exported from them. The act creating the fiscal relations between Porto Rico and the United States, while it applied to the island of Porto Rico the tariff of the United States, provided that 15 per cent of the rates named in that tariff should be temporarily collected in Porto Rico on articles from the United States, and in the United States on articles from Porto Rico; but that these should terminate within two years, and might be terminated at any time that the Porto Rican legislature should provide sufficient revenue for the conduct of the local government and request the termination of the collection of those taxes. The Porto Rican legislature, at its first session, enacted legislation for the collection of sufficient revenue to meet the current expenditures, and requested the termination of all duties, both in Porto Rico and the United States, on articles passing between the island and the United States, and this request was complied with by a proclamation issued by the President in July, 1901.
In the Philippine Islands a special tariff has been created and put into operation. Its rates apply on all articles entering the islands, whether from the United States or from other countries, no discrimination in favor of the United States being made in any particular. In the United States the existing tariff applies on articles from the Philippine Islands precisely as against those from any foreign country.
The customs collections in Porto Rico, Hawaii, and Alaska are performed by officers named by the United States Government, those divisions being considered customs districts of the United States. Those in the Philippines are by officers appointed by the Philippine Commission, which administers the civil government of the islands.
These divisions receive no subsidies or regular payments from the United States Government. The sums collected by the United States Governinent as duty upon articles brought in from Porto Rico subsequent to its control by the United States were, under authority of an act of Congress, trans
the government of Porto Rico and for aid and elief he people, public education, and public works. 'The Hawaiian annexation act provided that the United States Government should assume the existing obligations of the Hawaiian Government not exceeding $4,000,000. These two applications of the funds of the United States Government to Porto Rico and the Hawaiian Islands were, however, incidental, the general plan adopted for their respective governments contemplating the collection in those islands of sufficient funds to meet their current expenses.
The taxes collected in the islands are applied to the conduct of the respective local governments and to local expenditures, and none are reserved for the Government of the United States, except that in Hawaii and Alaska, which are considered as Territories of the United States, the collections from customs and internal revenues are turned into the Treasury of the United States.
The salaries of governors, judges, and other officials in Porto Rico are paid from funds collected in that island. In Hawaii those of the governor, secretary, and other officials appointed by the President are paid by the United States. The expenses of the military located in those islands are considered a part of the general military expenditure of the home Government, and are therefore not paid from the funds collected in the islands. Representation abroad is solely through the diplomatic and consular representatives of the United States, whose expenditures are borne entirely by the United States Government. The expenses of the judiciary in Porto Rico are paid from the taxes collected in that island. In Hawaii and Alaska, which are Territories of the United States, the salaries of the justices of the supreme and circuit courts are paid by the United States.
The postal system in Porto Rico, Alaska, and the Hawaiian Islands is a part of that of the United States, the officers thereof being appointed under and controlled by the Post-Office Department of the United States, which thus becomes responsible for the postal expenditures in those islands, though the receipts from the sales of stamps in the islands cover a large share of the current expenses of the postal service. In the Philippine Islands the postal system is not at present under the control of the Post-Office Department, though the rates of postage in those islands are identical with those in the United States, and the rates from any point in either the Philippine Islands or any other island controlled by the United States are uniform either to other points in that island or to points in the United States or any other island under its control, a single (2-cent) postage stamp carrying a letter from the most distant part of the Philippine Islands to any place in Hawaii, Alaska, the United States, or Porto Rico. The United States does not make the telegraph system a part of its postal system either in its own territory or that of the colonies.
The Territory of Alaska, at the extreme northwest of North America, was purchased from Russia by the United States in 1867 for $7,200,000. It includes, besides the mainland, a large number of islands, most prominent among them being the Aleutian chain. The population in 1880 was 33,426, of whom 17,617 were Esquimaux, 11,478 Indians, 2,145 Aleuts, 1,756 half-breeds, and 430 whites. In 1890 the population was 30,276, of whom 4,416 were whites. During the year 1899–1900 a large influx of population from the United States and Canada occurred, owing to the gold discoveries in that section, and the census of 1900 gave a total population of 63,592, of whom 30,507 were whites, 21,709 being natives of the United States. The government had been for many years administered by a governor and other officers appointed by the President, but in 1900 a more complete form of Territorial government was established by act of Congress.
There are no statistics of the commerce between Alaska and the ports of the United States, it having been from the first considered a customs district of the United States. Area....
- square miles..
599, 446 Population, 1900..
63, 441 Foreign vessels entered, year ending June 30, 1901
16,497 Foreign vessels cleared, year ending June 30, 1901 ...
10, 135 Imports from foreign countries, year ending June 30, 1901.
557, 992 Exports to foreign countries, year ending June 30, 1901.
...do.... 2,534, 318
The Hawaiian Islands were annexed to the United States in 1898 in accordance with the expressed request of the people of those islands, and they were made a customs district of the United States. In 1900 an act establishing a form of government for the islands made them a Territory of the United States. The governor and other executive officers and the judges of the United States supreme and district courts in the Territory are appointed by the President. Local legislation is enacted by a legislature of which both branches are elected by the citizens of Hawaii. Hawaii is represented in Congress, as are other Territories of the United States, by a Delegate, who has a seat in the House of Representatives but not a vote. The population in 1900 was 154,001, of whom 66,890 were whites, 54,141 being native whites.
.square miles.. 6, 419
154, 001 dollars.. 19, 683, 516
do.... 15, 020, 830 .do.... 22, 682, 742 .do.... 22, 517,759 .tons..
786, 813 ..do....
The Philippine Islands were ceded by Spain to the United States in 1899 at the termination of the war between the United States and Spain on payment by the United States of $20,000,000. Their area is estimated at 119,542 square miles, or slightly less than that of New Mexico. Population estimated at 8,000,000. Government in the islands was conducted by the military during the period of hostilities on the part of the natives following the cession by Spain, but a commission was appointed by the President, under authority of Congress, which has established a civil government in those parts of the islands, in which order and peace have been restored, and the purpose is to substitute civil for military government as rapidly as circumstances will permit. The laws are created by the Philippine
commission, which is composed in part of natives of the islands. Municipal and other local legislation is in the hands of municipal bodies, wherever practicable, and the general forms of government existing prior to American occupation are retained wherever practicable. Area....
119,542 Population (estimated)...
.Mexican dollarg.. 55, 544, 366
.do.... 53, 465, 404
.do.... 14, 605, 833 Total revenue collected
..do.... 16, 453, 704 Foreign vessels entered.
856, 574 Foreign vessels cleared.
834, 525 Exports from United States to Philippine Islands, year ending June 30, 1901
.dollars.. 4,014, 180 Imports into United States from Philippine Islands, year ending June 30, 1901
.do.... 4, 420, 289
Guam is an island in the Pacific, ceded to the United States by the peace treaty with Spain in 1899. Area, 150 square miles; population estimated at 9,000, of whom about 6,500 are Aganas, 1,000 Sumai, and the remainder belonging to other native tribes. Only about 1 per cent of the land is under cultivation, but it is estimated that about one-half of the island, all of which is tropical, is susceptible of cultivation. The government is administered by a governor appointed by the President. The commerce of the island at present is of little importance, the chief value of the island being as a naval and coaling station and landing for a submarine cable. Area.
150 Population (estimated)...,
TUTUILA, MANUA, ETC.
Islands in the Samoan group in the Southern Pacific Ocean, annexed by the United States in 1899 at the request of their inhabitants and under an agreement with Great Britain and Germany, with which a joint protectorate had formerly been maintained over the Samoan group.
The area of Tutuila is 54 square miles and of Manua 25 square miles, and the population is estimated at 4,000 for Tuituila and 1,800 for Manua and adjoining islets. Their chief value is as a naval, coaling, and cable station, the harbor of Pago Pago being pronounced the finest in the Southern Pacific. The government is administered by a naval officer designated by the President, and the construction of coaling docks and other requisites for a coaling station is in progress. Area.....
A small island in the Pacific between the Hawaiian and Philippine groups, of which the United States took undisputed possession in 1899. It has no population. Its chief value is as a landing place for a cable.
An island in the West Indies, ceded to the United States by Spain by the peace treaty of 1899. Its area is 3,600 square miles, and the population, according to the census of 1899, 953,243, an increase of 16 per cent since the census of 1887. The people are chiefly engaged in agriculture, the principal productions being sugar, tobacco, coffee, and tropical fruits. The government is administered by a governor and executive council appointed by the President, and a legislative body, of which the house of delegates is elected by the residents of the island, the other body being the executive council named by the President and consisting of governor, secretary, treasurer, auditor, commissioner of the interior, commissioner of education, and five other persons, at least five of this number being, under requirements of law, native inhabitants of Porto Rico. The island is officially represented at Washington by a Resident Commissioner elected by the voters of Porto Rico. All local legislation is enacted and laws are established by the legislative body thus created, and municipal legislation is in the hands of municipal bodies of the cities and towns. The tariff of the United States applies in Porto Rico with reference to articles imported from foreign countries, but all articles from the United States are admitted free of any duty, and all articles from Porto Rico are admitted to ports of the United States free of any duty. Area....
3, 600 L'opulation, 1899..
.dollars.. 9, 367, 230
.do.... 7, 414,502
.do.... 8,663, 816 Exports to United States, fiscal year 1901.
.do.... 5, 661, 137 Vessels entered ...
472, 406 Vessels entered United States.
(TEMPORARY OCCUPATION.) Cuba is temporarily governed by the l'nited States under the agreement of the peace treaty with Spain, but provision has been made by Congress for the establishment of an independent government by the citizens of the island by the following resolution:
In fulfillment of the declaration contained in the joint resolution approved April 20, 1898, entitled “For the recognition of the independence of the people of Cuba, demanding that the Government of Spain relinquish its authority and government in the island of Cuba, and to withdraw its land and naval forces from Cuba and Cuban waters, and directing the President of the United States to use the land and naval forces of the United States to carry these resolutions into effect,” the President is hereby authorized to “leave the government and control of the island of Cuba to its people” so soon as a government shall be established in said island under a constitution which, either as a part thereof or in an ordinance appended thereto, shall define the future relations of the United States with Cuba, substantially as follows:
I. That the government of Cuba shall never enter into any treaty or other compact with any foreign power or powers which will impair or tend to impair the independence of Cuba, nor in any matter authorize or permit any foreign power or powers to obtain, by colonization or for military or naval purposes or otherwise, lodgment in or control over any portion of said island.
II. That said government shall not assume or contract any public debt, to pay the interest upon which, and to make reasonable sinking-fund provision for the ultimate di charge of which, the ordinary revenues of the icland, after defraying the expenses of government shall be inadequate.
III. That the government of Cuba consents that the United States may exercise the right to intervene for the preservation of Culan independence, the maintenance of a government adequate for the protection of life, property, and individual liberty, and for discharging the obligations with respect to Cubà imposed by the treaty of Paris on the United States, now to be assumed and undertaken by the government of Cuba.
IV. That all acts of the United States in Cuba during its military occupancy thereof are ratified and validated, and all lawful rights acquired thereunder shall be maintained and protected.
\. That the government of Cuba will execute, and as far as necessary extend, the plans already devised or other plans to be mutually agreed upon, for the sanitation of the cities of the island, to the end that a recurrence of epidemic and infectious diseases may be prevented, thereby assuring protection to the people and commerce of Cuba, as well as to the commerce of the southern ports of the United States and the people residing therein.
VI. That the Isle of Pines shall be omitted from the proposed constitutional boundaries of Cuba, the title thereto being left to suture adjustment by treaty.
VII. That to enable the United States to maintain the independence of Cuba, and to protect the people thereof, as well as for its own defense, the government of Cuba will lease or sell to the United States lands necessary for coaling or naval stations at certain specified points, to be agreed upon with the President of the United States.
VIII. That by way of further assurance the government of Cuba will embody the foregoing provisions in a permanent treaty with the United States.
Preparations for the establishment of an independent government, in accordance with the terms of the above resolution, are in progress in the island. The area is 46,575 square miles; the population, by the census of 1899, 1,572,797. The total imports in the calendar year 1900 were valued at $66,658,589, of which a total value of $32,197,019 was imported from the United States; the total experts were valued at $19,014,962, of which a total value of $33,615,627 was exported to the United States.