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gratia cepissimus. 3. Quod ad me de Hermathena scribis, per mihi gratum est. Est ornamentum Academiae proprium meae, quod et Hermes commune omnium et Minerva singulare est insigne eius gymnasii. Qua re velim, ut scribis, ceteris quoque rebus quam plurimis eum locum ornes. Quae mihi antea signa misisti, ea nondum vidi. In Formiano sunt, quo ego nunc proficisci cogitabam. Illa omnia in Tusculanum deportabo. Caietam, si quando abundare coepero, ornabo. Libros tuos conserva et noli desperare eos me meos facere posse. Quod si adsequor, supero Crassum divitiis atque omnium vicos et prata contemno.

3: Est ornamentum] 'It (the Hermathena) is an ornament appropriate to my Academy, because Hermes is the usual decoration of all such places, and the Minerva is peculiarly suited to mine.'

Athena is (strangely) called by her Latin name, though Hermes is Greek, as well as Hermathena. Does he mean to imply that the peculiar appropriateness of the Hermathena to his gymnasium lies not in the fact that his Academy takes its name from the Athenian Academy, but in the fact that his gymnasium was used solely for mental not bodily exercise ; and does he therefore avoid Athena, as suggesting Athens, and use Minerva as point ing to the intellect? Of course Athena is not found in Latin for Minerva, but one might have expected it here, after Her mathena. I have not followed Boot in omitting insigne, as he is wrong in saying that it rests only on the authority of Bosius. It is not found in M, but is in Z, and that not teste Bosio, but teste Lambino. See Introduction, üïi., On the Sources of

the Text.

ea nondum vidi] Merely because non. dum occurs here, Baiter would read nos ea nondum vidimus in the preceding lettera vicious principle ; as if because Cicero says, “I have not yet seen them,' in one letter, he should not say, 'I have not seen them,' in another, more especially as nondum is quite necessary here, contrasted as it is with two other points of time, in the words 'quae mihi antea misisti,' and 'quo ego nunc proficisci cogitabam.'

Caietam] This is the ms reading, usually changed to Caietanum ; but Klotz justly observes that Cicero may have preferred rather to call his villa Caieta tban Caietanum.

Crassum] Crassus is the typical millionaire of Roman literature: see Fin. iii. 75; Plin. H. N. xxxii. 47; Tertull. Apol. ii.

vicos et prata] 'I envy no man's manor and demesne': see Font. 19; Fam. xiv. 1, 5.

LETTERS OF THE FOURTH YEAR OF CICERO'S CORRESPONDENCE.

EPP. X., XI.

A. U. C. 689; B. C. 65; AET. CIC. 41.
COSS. L. AURELIUS COTTA, L. MANLIUS TORQUATUS.

This year Cicero devoted chiefly to his canvass for the attainment of the consulship two years thence, 691 (b. c. 63). He could not legally become consul till he was 43 years of age. He offered to defend Catiline, in hopes that Catiline might make common cause with him against the other candidates. He had set his heart on the consulate, and he neglected no means which might achieve success. He refused to defend the uncle of Atticus in a just cause against Caninius Satyrus, whose influence he thought might be useful in his candidature. His son Marcus was born this year. This was the year of the speeches for C. Cornelius.

X. TO ATTICUS, AT ATHENS (ATT. 1. 1).

ROME, A. U. C. 689 ; B. C. 65; AET. CIC. 41.

Cum M. Ciceronis tempus iustum petendi consulatus appropinquaret, primum Attico exponit rationem petitionis suae et ea ipsa petitionis causa sese excusat, quod Caecilio, Attici avunculo, contra A. Caninium Satyrum in iudicio adesse noluerit.

CICERO ATTICO SAL.

1. Petitionis nostrae, quam tibi summae curae esse scio, huius modi ratio est, quod adhuc coniectura provideri possit. Prensat unus P. Galba: sine fuco ac fallaciis, more maiorum, negatur. Ut opinio est hominum, non aliena rationi nostrae fuit illius haec praepropera prensatio. Nam illi ita negant vulgo, ut mihi se debere dicant. Ita quiddam spero nobis profici, cum hoc percrebrescit, plurimos nostros amicos inveniri. Nos autem initium prensandi facere cogitaramus eo ipso tempore, quo tuum puerum cum his litteris proficisci Cincius dicebat, in campo, comitiis tribuniciis, A. D.

1. Petitionis ‘About the prospects of my candidature, in which I know you are deeply interested, the case stands thus, as far as surmises go—Galba is the only one who is actively making interest for himself. He receives for answer a plain, unvarnished, old-fashioned no. This premature canvass of his, as common report goes, has not been a bad thing for my interests; for their refusal generally takes the form of a statement that they owe their support to me. So I fancy my cause is being served, now that the report gets wind that my supporters are found to be in the majority.' In using the word petitio here, Cicero does not imply that he is now engaged in any petitio. He only says the prospects of his candidature (when he shall become a candidate) are improved by the praepropera prensatio of Galba, who should have waited for the comitia tribunicia, the first election in the year, and the time at which etiquette prescribed that the prensatio should begin. Cicero had not yet begun prensare, 'to make interest,' much less petere, 'to stand,' for the consulship.

sine fuco ac fallaciis) The alliteration is doubtless fortuitous. If it were designed, the phrase might be rendered

clean and clever. Cf. for the sentiment, Plaut. Truc. prol. 6:

En mehercle in vobis resident mores pristini
Ad denegandum ut celeri lingua utamini.

ita . . . ut] These particles are used with great delicacy by Cicero: see Introd., p. 65. A paraphrase like that in the rendering given above is often necessary to bring out the force of the particles. Ci. Att. vi. 9, ita se domi ex tuis audiske st nihil esset incommodum, 'that the account which he had from your people was incompatible with the idea of anything being wrong.' For profici, cp. Plin. Ep. ix. 40, 2, memoriae ... proficitur.

cogitaramus) is virtually an imperf., as cogitavi (éywka) is virtually a present, 'I have made up my mind '='I purpose;' but here it is an epistolary tense : hende the pluperf. may here be fairly rendered by the English present, I was intending when I wrote,' that is, I intend.'

in campo] sc. Martio.

xvi. Kalend. Sext. Competitores, qui certi esse videantur, Galba et Antonius et Q. Cornificius. Puto te in hoc aut risisse aut ingemuisse. Ut frontem ferias, sunt qui etiam Caesonium putent. Aquilium non arbitramur, qui denegat et iuravit morbum et illud suum regnum iudiciale opposuit. Catilina, si iudicatum erit meridie non lucere, certus erit competitor. De Aufidio et Palicano non puto te exspectare dum scribam. 2. De iis, qui nunc petunt, Caesar certus putatur. Thermus cum Silano contendere existimatur: qui sic inopes et ab amicis et existimatione sunt, ut mihi videatur non esse å dúvatov Curium obducere. Sed hoc praeter me nemini videtur. Nostris rationibus maxime conducere videtur Thermum fieri cum Caesare.. Nemo est enim ex iis, qui nunc petunt, qui, si in nostrum annum reciderit, firmior candidatus fore videatur, propterea quod curator est viae Flaminiae:quae cum erit absoluta, sane facile eum libenter nunc ceteri consuli acciderim.

qui certi esse videantur] "to take only those who are certain to stand.' Cp. quod ezstet litteris, Tusc. i. 38. Qui modo is more usual in this case, but quod memi. nerim is common. Boot, who apparently sees something in qui ... videantur not parallel to quod provideri possit above, would (with R.), read videbantur, the epistolary imperf.

Puto] 'I can fancy your smile or sigh as you come to this piece of news. But here is something à faire frémir; some think Caesonius will actually stand. In kae refers to the whole sentence, you will smile or sigh (according to the point of view from which you regard the news) when you hear there are no candidates with stronger claims than these. Ingemere really means to groan or growl; a modern English letter-writer would say, "I faney you will smile or else swear.' The groan is essentially southern : still more, the emiting of the forehead.' None of the men had as yet achieved any such personal distinction as would warrant their standing. Q. Cicero, in the Comment. Pet. 7, says of these rivals of bis brother, especially of Galba, 'vides igitur amplissimis ex familiis homines, quod sine nervis sunt, tibi pares non esse.'

It frontem Cp. Brutus, 278, nulla perturbatio animi, nulla corporis, frons nou percussa, non femur; pedis, qnod minimum est, nulla supplosio. Cp. also iano de pectore cruciabilem suspiritum ducons dextra saeviente frontem replaudens, Apul. Met. i. 7.

iurarit "has excused himself on the plea of ill-bealth, and his unquestioned sway in the law courts.' The position of Aquilius as a iuris consultus was really deserving of the term regnum ; see the eloquent eulogy of him in pro Caecina 77; he was the colleague of Cicero in the praetorship. It is to be noticed, then, that a distinguished Roman felt that he was bound to allege some excuse for his conduct, if he did not, having been praetor, aim at the consulship. For the expression regnum iudic., cp. amisso regno

forensi, Fam. ix. 18, 1. Cic. uses excusare morbum in the same sense in Phil. ix. 8, with which cp. excusare laborem, Hor. Ep. i. 7, 67.

Catilina] Catiline was charged by Clodius with misappropriation of public moneys. Therefore he could not stand for the consulship unless acquitted, that is only if the jury bring in a verdict that the sun does not shine at noonday.' The reference is not to the trial of Cat. for extortion as propraetor in Africa; for that trial occurred immediately after Catiline's return from Africa in 688 (b.c. 66). -Reid pro Sulla, Introd., $ 7.

Aufidio] T. Aufidius, mentioned as a jurist in Brut. 179; he had been praetor in Asia, pro Flacco, 45. Orelli has changed this reading to Auli filio, and has been almost universally followed by the editors; wrongly, as I think I can show: Aufidió is the reading of all the mss, and there is no reason why he should not have aspired to the consulship, having been praetor, as well as Palicanus, who had only been tribune, and who was a man of bad character, Val. Max. iii. 8, 3. But Orelli observed that in Att. ii. 3, 1, the ms has Atilio, which should be, doubtless, corrected to A. filio, i.e. Auli filio, i.e. Afranio. Therefore, here he changes Aufidio to Auli filio. On Att. i. 4, 3, I have already adverted to the uncritical character of this method. But here is a far more serious case, for above nondum might have stood in both places, here A. filio cannot stand. For why should Afranius be here called the son of Aulus'? In Att. ii. 3, 1, the correction is right, for Cicero is purposely using covert language; he says, it is said that a certain acquittal is due to the influence of the son of Aulus, and that Pompeius (whom also he covertly calls Epicrates) has been going it strong. Afranius was well known as a protégé of Pompeius, and Atticus would understand what he meant. Besides, at that time Afranius was consul, and Cicero might think it dangerous to criticise him except in covert

phrase. In Att. i. 16, 12, he first calls Curium] Boot suggests Turium, which Afranius A. filius, but then he is re- is found in the margin of the Med. He ferring to a matter well known to Atticus. thinks Curius was of too bad a character In Att. i. 18, 5, where also he calls Afra- to have had a chance, but this is hardly nius A. filius (a letter also written in 694, sufficient ground for abandoning the Med., b. c. 64, the year of Afranius' consul. which should be a lamp unto our path ship), the context proclaims who is meant in these letters. by Auli filius. But here (1) there is no Nostris ... acciderim]. The meaning of objection to Aufidio of the mss; (2) there the passage is this: it would suit my is no occasion for any covert allusion to interests best that Thermus should be Afranius ; (3) Atticus could not have elected with Caesar (who is certain), for understood what he meant by A. filio. Thermus would be the most formidable Mr. Watson honestly sars, Afranius is rival to me, if left over for my year, besaid to have been called Auli filius on cause he is commissioner for the repairing account of his own insignificance ; quasi of the Flaminian road, and when that is terrae filius, says Drumann; but it seems completed his influence will be greatly a strange expression. But if it referred strengthened' (though it is not great now, to his insignificance, it ought to imply as we see above, qui sic inopes, &c.). that any little lustre he had was reflected In the text I have given the unintellifrom his father Aulus; now Aulus was gible reading of Med. The best conjecquite obscure. Moreover, there are more ture is perhaps that of Manutius, who insignificant men mentioned here, e.g. gives quae tunc erit absoluta sane facile : Palicanus. No: he is never called Auli eum libenter nunc Caesari consulem addide. filius until Cicero feared to criticise him rim; which, I would suggest, might be unless covertly, and then the context improved thus : quae tunc erit absoluta leaves it unmistakable who is meant bysane facile : eo libenter Thermum Caesart the son of Aulus. In Att. i. 18, 5, we consulem accuderim. The last word is have, ‘Metellus is an excellent consul; suggested by Boot, but is rejected as not so Aulus' son'-of course the other being found only in Plautus. But this consul. There is no reference to insigni- is in its favour: see Introduction, PP ficance. . Having once given him this 59-64. My objection to Manutius' readname in Att. i. 16, 12, Cicero afterwards ing is, that it is a mere repetition. Read, frequently applies it to him.

therefore, Eo accordingly, which suits the 2. De iis qui] Of those who are now repetition, and that is why I would wish canvassing for the year 690 (b. c. 64), to solder together Thermus and Caesar in Caesar is sure to be elected. It is thought the consulship.' Draeger, Hist. Synt, the real struggle will be between Thermus gives no example of co “accordingly and Silanus, who are so poor in friends without correlatives quo, ut; but see and character that it seems to me on the Fam. vi. 20, 1, dederam triduo ante ... cards to carry Curius against them.'

litteras ad te : Eo nunc ero brevior; and et existimatione So the mss ; Boot de Div. ü, 46, frater es : Eo vereor. 14and Baiter insert ab before existimatione. benter Thermum for libenter nunc is a case Klotz rightly adheres to the mss : inops of dittography-ter was left out befort ab amicis is found in or de domo sua, 58, ther, and this is confirmed by the reading and inops verbis, Brut. 247. Each of these of Z and M; for 2 (teste Lambino) trácia constructions finds a parallel here.

libenter nunciteri consuli acciderunt, and

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