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suspitionem relinqueret, qui ex curia Curios et Annios, ab atriis Sapalas et Carvilios, ex equestri ordine Pompilios et Vettios sibi amicissimos comparavit, qui tantum habet audaciae, tantum nequitiae, tantum denique in libidine artis et efficacitatis, ut prope in parentum gremiis praetextatos liberos constuprarit ? Quid ego nunc tibi de Africa, quid de testium dictis scribam ? Nota sunt, et ea tu saepius legito. Sed tamen hoc mihi non praetermittendum videtur, quod primum ex eo iudicio tam egens discessit, quam quidam iudices eius ante illud iudicium fuerunt, deinde tam invidiosus, ut aliud in eum iudicium cotidie flagitetur. Hic se sic habet, ut magis timeat, etiam si quieris, quam ut contemnat, si quid commoveris. . 11. Quanto melior tibi fortuna petitionis data est quam nuper homini novo C. Caelio! Ille cum duobus hominibus ita nobilissimis petebat, ut tamen in iis omnia pluris essent quam ipsa nobilitas, summa ingenia, summus pudor, plurima beneficia, sum

quitted. This Fabia was a sister of Terentia, and the latter took refuge with her in the temple of Vesta when Cicero fled from Rome (Fam. xiv. 2, 2). It is this connexion with his own family that makes Cicero careful here to add etiam cum culpa mulla subesset. The words of Quintus do not quite so emphatically acquit Fabia : 'even if he did not actually profane the sacred place, such was his vile character that he always left behind him the sus. picion of having polluted it.' This was in itself a culpa, and this he was always guilty of, even when he committed no actual violation of the sacred character of the place. Alia culpa therefore gives an excellent sense, and is strongly confirmed by the parallel passage quoted from the or. in tog. cand. See Adn. Crit.

Curios et Annios] Friends of Catiline, and senators. Curius is probably the Curius mentioned in Att. i. 1, 2 (if the right reading there be not Turium). Asconius says Curius was a gambler, quot ing the verse on him

ing with the character of Quintus. See Ep. ad Q. Fr. i. 1, 13.

'de Africa] which Catiline governed as pro-praetor, A. U. c. 687-8 (b, c. 67-6).

de testium dictis in the trial of Catiline for extortion, A. U. c. 689 (b. c. 65), when Cicero thought of defending him."

aliud iudicium] See or, in tog. cand. : miser qui non sentias te non absolutum, verum ad aliquod severius iudicium ... reservatum.

quieriscommoveris] I have accepted Orelli's conjecture for quierit, commoverit, • Such is his position that he must rather feel alarm at you as a rival, even though you did not use any efforts towards success, than feel security, if you should use some exertion.'

contemnat] see or, in tog. cand. : me qua amentia inductus sit ut contemneret constituere non possum. Utrum aequo animo laturum putavit ? At in suo familiarissimo (C. Verres, Asconius says) viderat me ne aliorum quidem iniurias mediocriter posse ferre.

11. C. Caelio] Caelius Caldus, who was tribune A. U. c. 647 (b. c. 107), and consul with Cn. Domitius Ahenobarbus, A. U. c. 660 (b. c. 94). Of the other noble competitor over whom he proved successful I can find no record. Nuper sometimes refers to a period which we should not call recent,' e. g. nuper, id est, paucis ante saeculis, N. D. ii. 126.

ita . . . ut] who, though of the highest rank, yet had in their rank the lowest of their qualifications.' Cp. § 13.

Et talis Curius pereruditus.

ab atriis) from the auction-room such men as Sapala and Carvilius,' atriis auctionariis : the full name is found in or. contr. Rull. i. 7. These men were probably both praecones : tollitur ab atriis Liciniis atque a praeconum consessu Naerius pro Quint. 12. See also Juv. vii. 7.

praetextatos] cf. praetextatus adulter, Juv.i.78. An exaggeration, quitein keep

ma ratio ac diligentia petendi. Ac tamen eorum alterum Caelius cum multo inferior esset genere, superior nulla re paene, superavit. 12. Qua re tibi, si facies ea, quae natura et studia, quibus semper usus es, largiuntur, quae temporis tui ratio desiderat, quae potes, quae debes, non erit difficile certamen cum iis competitoribus, qui nequaquam sunt tam genere insignes quam vitiis nobiles. Quis enim reperiri potest tam improbus civis qui velit uno suffragio duas in rem publicam sicas destringere ?

IV. 13. Quoniam quae subsidia novitatis haberes et habere posses exposui, nunc de magnitudine petitionis dicendum videtur. Consulatum petis, quo honore nemo est quin te dignum arbitretur, sed multi qui invideant. Petis enim homo ex equestri loco summum locum civitatis atque ita summum, ut forti homini, diserto, innocenti multo idem ille honos plus amplitudinis quam ceteris adferat. Noli putare eos, qui sunt eo honore usi, non videre, tu, cum idem sis adeptus, quid dignitatis habiturus sis, eos vero, qui consularibus familiis nati locum maiorum consecuti non sunt, suspicor tibi, nisi si qui admodum te amant, invidere. Etiam novos homines praetorios existimo, nisi qui tuo beneficio vincti sunt, nolle abs te se honore superari. 14. Iam in populo quam multi invidi sint, quam multi consuetudine horum annorum ab hominibus novis alienati, venire tibi in mentem certo scio. Esse etiam non nullos tibi iratos, ex iis causis, quas egisti, necesse est. Iam illud tute circumspicito, quod ad Cn. Pompeii gloriam augendam tanto studio te dedisti, num quos tibi putes ob eam causam esse amicos. 15. Quam ob rem cum et summum locum civitatis petas et videas esse studia, quae tibi adversentur, adhibeas necesse est omnem rationem et curam et laborem et diligentiam.

12. duas in rem publicam sicas] This vigorous expression was adopted by Ci. cero in his election speech : qui postea quam illo ut conati erant Hispaniensi pugiunculo nervos incidere civium Romanorum non potuerant, duas uno tempore conantur in rempublicam sicas destringere. (Orat. in tog. cand.) Asconius adds . Hisp. pug. Cn. Pisonem appellat. Duas sicas Catili. nam et Antonium appellari manifestum est.

13. ita summum ut] 'a place which, high as it is in itself, yet attains its full grandeur only when held by,' &c.

idem] "the same thing. One might have expected eundem, but this license is not unusual in Cicero's letters: see Fam. ii. 8, 2, cum Pompeio complures dies nullis in aliis nisi de rep. sermonibus versatus sum ; quae nec possunt scribi,

nec scribenda sunt ; so Fam. i. 9, 7, tots vero interrogatio mea nihil habuit nisi reprehensionem illius tribunatus ; in que omnia dicta sunt libertate animoque maximo. This usage is also found in Latin comedy, and is one of the many coinci. dences between the diction of Cieero's letters and the Latin comic stage.

14. consuetudine horum annorum Probably an allusion to C. Marius, who was a novus homo; or perhaps to Caelius, see § 11; or perhaps the routine of the last few years,' where so few novi homines had been elected.

n um quos . . . amicos] Ern. reads inimicos, but there is no need to depart from the mss. The advocacy of the cause of Pompeius would not as yet be a road to the acquisition of influence; it might even be a source of unpopularity.

V. 16. Et petitio magistratus divisa est in duarum rationum diligentiam, quarum altera in amicorum studiis, altera in populari voluntate ponenda est. Amicorum studia beneficiis et officiis et vetustate et facilitate ac iucunditate naturae parta esse oportet. Sed hoc nomen amicorum in petitione latius patet quam in cetera vita. Quisquis est enim qui ostendat aliquid in te voluntatis, qui domum ventitet, is amicorum in numero est habendus. Sed tamen, qui sunt amici ex causa iustiore cognationis aut adfinitatis aut sodalitatis aut alicuius necessitudinis, iis carum et iucundum esse maxime prodest. 17. Deinde ut quisque est intimus ac maxime domesticus, ut is amet et quam amplissimum esse te cupiat, valde elaborandum est, tum ut tribules, ut vicini, ut clientes, ut denique liberti, postremo etiam servi tui : nam fere omnis sermo ad forensem famam a domesticis emanat auctoribus. 18. Denique sunt instituendi cuiusque generis amici; ad speciem, homines illustres honore ac nomine, qui etiam si suffragandi studia non navant, tamen adferunt petitori aliquid dignitatis, ad ius obtinendum, magistratus, ex quibus maxime consules, deinde tribuni pl., ad conficiendas centurias, homines excellenti gratia. Qui abs te tribum aut centuriam aut aliquod beneficium aut habeant aut habere sperent, eos prorsus magno opere et compara et confirma. Nam per hos annos homines ambitiosi vehementer omni studio atque opera elaborarunt, ut possent a tribulibus suis ea, quae pete

16. duarum rationum dil.] activity of two kinds, one to be exercised in gaining the zeal of your friends, the other in gaining the good-will of the public.

beneficiis et officiis kindnesses done and repaid.'

retustate] 'long-standing acquaintance. ship* (which may ripen into friendship): cf. magna enim vis est vetustatis et con. suetudinis, Lael. 68. For this use of retustas, see Fam. xii. 32, 2; x. 10, 2; xi. 16, 2.

latius patet has a wider area.' iustiore "regular.'

sodalitatis] 'club;' though in strictness chapter,' as ostensibly religious.

17. nam fere] for that report of a man, which is the basis of his public character, has its origin in bis private circle.'

18. cuiusque generis amici] These are ad speciem, for show' (cf. Att. i. 18, 1, ambitiosae fucosaeque amicitiae); ad ius obtinendum, 'to make good the justice of one's claim ;' ad centurias conf., 'to get the votes of the centuries :' cf. Fam. xi. 16, 3, mitte ad Lupum ut is nobis eas centurias conficiat.

Qui abs te aut tribum] those who through your influence have got or expect the votes of a tribe in the comitia tributa, or a century in the com. centuriata, or any other favour. Cp. ferre tribum = 'to get the votes of a tribe.' Habere tribum has a different sense in Att. iv. 15, 9, where tribus habet Pomptiniam, &c., means 'the tribes from which the jury are to be chosen to try his case are,' &c.

Opera] Cf. Att. xiv. 14, 6, omni ope

M

rent, impetrare. Hos tu homines quibuscumque poteris rationibus ut ex animo atque ex illa summa voluntate tui studiosi sint elaborato. 19. Quod si satis grati homines essent, haec tibi omnia parata esse debebant, sicuti parata esse confido. Nam hoc biennio quattuor sodalitates hominum ad ambitionem gratiosissimorum tibi obligasti, C. Fundanii, Q. Gallii, C. Cornelii, C. Orchivi: horum in causis ad te deferendis quid tibi eorum sodales receperint et confirmarint scio: nam interfui. Qua re hoc tibi faciendum est, hoc tempore ut ab iis quod debent exigas saepe commonendo, rogando, confirmando, curando ut intellegant nullum se umquam aliud tempus habituros referendae gratiae : profecto homines et spe reliquorum tuorum officiorum et recentibus beneficiis ad studium navandum excitabuntur. 20. Et omnino quoniam eo genere amicitiarum petitio tua maxime munita est, quod ex causarum defensionibus adeptus es, fac ut plane iis omnibus, quos devinctos tenes, discriptum ac dispositum suum cuique munus sit. Et quem ad modum nemini illorum molestus nulla in re umquam fuisti, sic cura ut intellegant omnia te, quae ab illis tibi deberi putaris, ad hoc tempus reservasse.

VI. 21. Sed quoniam tribus rebus homines maxime ad benevolentiam atque haec suffragandi studia ducuntur, beneficio, spe,

atque opera enitar. It is chiefly as part of the phrase magno opere, tanto opere, &c., that opere is used. Cf. Fam. xiii. 7, 1; Ter. Eun. iii. 3, 26.

ex illa summa vol.] Illa can hardly be right, unless it refers to omni studio atque opera above, see § 39; or, unless it be supposed that illa points to a proverbial character in the phrase ex summa volun. tate, from the bottom of their hearts, as the saying is.' For hos ... elaborato, see § 29.

19. Quod si satis] “if men had any sense of favours past (which they have not), these sources of influence ought to be now laid up for you to draw upon (you must have a fund of such sources of influence to draw upon), as I am sure they are (as I am sure you have).' Eussner's parta for parata is unnecessary.

sodalitates] Clubs for religious purposes ostensibly, as the sodalitas germa. norum Lupercorum, mentioned in Cael. 26: cf. Marquardt, iii. 130.

C. Fundanii] The mss have M. Fundanii. But we do not read elsewhere of a M. Fundanius defended by Cicero. He

defended C. Fundanius in 688 (b. c. 66). Q. Gallius was defended on a charge of bribery in 690 (b. c. 64), C. Cornelius in 689 (b. c. 65). Orchivius was Cicero's colleague in the praetorship, and was tried for peculation, when he seems to have been defended by Cicero.

receperint et conf.] 'took on themselves and promised.'

nam interfui] an artless and convincing testimony to the authorship of Quintus.

homines] Almost used as a dem. pronoun, as in Latin comedy, nosti hominem = nosti eum.

officiorum . . . beneficiis Beneficium is the original act of kindness or attention which begins the friendship ; officium the return for the beneficium, as may be gathered from Fam. i. 7, 2, defensio dig. nitatis tuae propter magnitudinem bentficii tui fortasse plerisque officii maiorem auctoritatem habere videatur quam sententiae. So also Fam. x. 23, 7, opto ut mihi liceat iam praesenti pietate meorum officiorum tua beneficia tibi facere iucundiors

20. discriptum) Cf. Att.ü. 1, 4. Bücheler is right in rejecting descriptum here.

adiunctione animi ac voluntate, animadvertendum est quem ad modum cuique horum generi sit inserviendum. Minimis beneficiis homines adducuntur, ut satis causae putent esse ad studium suffragationis, nedum ii, quibus saluti fuisti, quos tu habes plurimos, non intellegant, si hoc tuo tempore tibi non satis fecerint, se probatos nemini umquam fore. Quod cum ita sit, tamen rogandi sunt atque etiam in hanc opinionem adducendi, ut, qui adhuc nobis obligati fuerint, is vicissim nos obligari posse videamur. 22. Qui autem spe tenentur, quod genus hominum multo etiam est diligentius atque officiosius, iis fac ut propositum ac paratum auxilium tuum esse videatur, denique ut spectatorem te suorum officiorum esse intellegant diligentem, ut videre te plane atque animadvertere quantum a quoque proficiscatur appareat. 23. Tertium illud genus est studiorum voluntarium, quod agendis gratiis, accommodandis sermonibus ad eas rationes, propter quas quisque studiosus tui esse videbitur, significanda erga illos pari voluntate, adducenda amicitia in spem familiaritatis et consuetudinis confirmari oportebit. Atque in iis omnibus generibus iudicato et perpendito quantum quisque possit, ut scias et quem ad modum cuique inservias et quid a quoque exspectes ac postules. 24. Sunt enim quidam homines in suis vicinitatibus et municipiis gratiosi, sunt diligentes et copiosi, qui etiam si antea non studuerunt huic gratiae, tamen ex tempore elaborare eius causa, cui debent aut volunt, facile possunt. His hominum generibus sic inserviendum est, ut ipsi intellegant te videre quid a quoque exspectes, sentire quid accipias, meminisse quid acceperis. Sunt autem alii, qui aut nihil possunt aut etiam odio sunt tribulibus suis, nec habent tantum animi ac facultatis, ut enitantur ex tempore : hos ut internoscas videto, ne spe in aliquo maiore posita praesidii parum comparetur.

VII. 25. Et quamquam partis ac fundatis amicitiis fretum ac

21. adiunctione animi ac vol.] disinterested sympathy,' sincere attachment'another case of hendiadys.

non intellegant] “much less should men whom you have saved fail to understand ;' non int. forms one idea.

23. accommodandis by making one's expressed views coincide with those of one's qualities which may seem to have been the source of the good-will.'

amicitia in spem fam.] Here familiaritas and consuetudo indicate a closer degree of friendship than amicitia :

by inducing a hope that the friend ship may be strengthened into a close intimacy.'

24. copiosi] 'wealthy.' Cp. copiosa ... mulier, Div. in Caec. 55.

ex tempore] 'on the spur of the moment.' Spe maiore : see § 32, note.

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