Imágenes de páginas
PDF
EPUB

autem late patet. Est in re familiari, quae quamquam ad multitudinem pervenire non potest, tamen ab amicis si laudatur, multitudini grata est : est in conviviis, quae fac et abs te et ab amicis tuis concelebrentur et passim et tributim : est etiam in opera, quam pervulga et communica, curaque ut aditus ad te diurni nocturnique pateant, neque solum foribus aedium tuarum, sed etiam vultu ac fronte, quae est animi ianua : quae si significat voluntatem abditam esse ac retrusam, parvi re fert patere ostium. Homines enim non modo promitti sibi, praesertim quod de candidato petant, sed etiam large atque honorifice promitti volunt. 45. Qua re hoc quidem facile praeceptum est, ut, quod facturus sis, id significes te studiose ac libenter esse facturum, illud difficilius et magis ad tempus quam ad naturam accommodatum tuam, quod facere non possis, ut id aut ...... iucunde neges : quorum alterum est boni viri, alterum boni petitoris. Nam cum id petitur, quod honeste aut sine detrimento nostro promittere non possumus, quo modo si qui roget, ut contra amicum aliquem causam recipiamus, belle negandum est, ut ostendas necessitudinem, demonstres quam moleste feras, aliis te rebus exsarturum esse persuadeas.

XII. 46. Audivi hoc dicere quemdam de quibusdam oratoribus, ad quos causam suam detulis set, “gratiorem sibi orationem fuisse eius, qui negasset, quam illius, qui recepisset.' Sic homines fronte et oratione magis quam ipso beneficio reque capiuntur. [Verum hoc probabile est, illud alterum subdurum tibi homini Platonico suadere, sed tamen tempori tuo consulam.] Quibus enim te propter aliquod officium necessitudinis adfuturum negaris, tamen ii possunt abs te placati aequique discedere: quibus autem idcirco negaris, quod te im.

[blocks in formation]

44. neque solum] et not only the doors of your house be open, but your face and countenance, which is the door of the mind. If your expression shows that your heart is far away and shrunk into itself, there is little use in your doors being open.'

45. ut id aut ... iucunde neges] Probably the words omitted are iucunde promittas aut. The copyist overlooked the words coming between the first aut and the second aut.

quo modo] 'for instance,' like Greek olov.

belle] courteously,' 'like a gentle man.'

46. Verum hoc] "The one course (ut iucunde neges) is easily commended to your approval ; the other (to promise without intending fulfilment) will be rather difficult to commend to a Platonist like you; yet I will say what the occasion demands. This clause verum ... consulam should, I think, stand as the last clause in § 46.

peditum esse dixeris aut amiciorum hominum negotiis aut gravioribus causis aut ante susceptis, inimici discedunt omnesque hoc animo sunt, ut sibi te mentiri malint quam negare. 47. C. Cotta, in am. bitione artifex, dicere solebat se operam suam, quoad non contra officium rogaretur, polliceri solere omnibus, impertire üis, apud quos optime poni arbitraretur: ideo se nemini negare, quod saepe accideret causa our is, cui pollicitus esset, non uteretur : saepe, ut ipse magis esset vacuus quam putasset : neque posse eius domum compleri, qui tantum modo reciperet quantum videret se obire posse : casu fieri, ut agantur ea, quae non putaris; illa, quae credideris in manibus esse, ut aliqua de causa non agantur: deinde esse extremum, ut irascatur is, cui mendacium dixeris. 48. Id, si promittas, et incertum est et in diem et in paucioribus: sin autem neges, et certe abalienes et statim et plures. Plures enim multo

amiciorum] greater friends,' the correction of Eussner for amicorum. See $$ 42, 49.

47. c. Cotta] C. Aurelius Cotta was consul with L. Octavius in 679 (b. c. 75). He is the exponent of the Academic phi. losophy in De Nat. Deorum. Translate * a master of the art of canvassing.

magis racuus that he had less en gagements than he at first thought.'

ut esset] It is best to take ut esset as depending on quod accideret understood, and the infinitives on dicere solebat (ut aliqua de causa non agantur depends, like ut agantur, on casu fieri).

obire] 'to compass.'

esse extremum] the last thing to happen is that he should be angry,' &c.

ut irascatur.] This may be called the explanatory or definitive subjunctive ; eum irasci would have meant quite the same thing. Cp. Ep. xv. 9. So vetus est lex .. ut idem amici semper velint, Planc. 5, where ut amici velint might have been amicos velle. The same use of the definitive subjunctive, instead of the accusative with infinitive, is exemplified in illa ratio ... ut putarem, Fam. i. 7, 9 (Ep. cxiv.); and unam rationem . . . ut ager emeretur, Att. i. 19, 4 (Ep. xxv.) The best illustration of this usage is found in a comparison of two passages in Cic., caput ... esse oratoris ... ut videretur, De Or. i. 87, and caput esse nosse rempublicam, ibid. ii. 337, where the very same idea is ex pressed in one passage by the subjunctive with ut, and in the other by the accusa

tive with infinitive. See Kennedy, § 195.

48. Id, si prom.] If you promise, your incurring the resentment of the applicant (i.e. by not fulfilling your promise) is uncertain : secondly, it is deferred for a time (i.e. until you have failed to keep the promise): thirdly, it extends to fewer cases (because of the reasons given in the previous section ; in some cases the circumstances under which he would make use of your promise may not arise, or the very thing he wants may be brought about by other means, and he may attribute its being effected to you). But a refusal is sure to cost you the support of a large number, and at once (for if you re. fuse, the applicant will owe you a grudge even though the need of your action may not arise ; and if his object happens to be effected by other means, he cannot attri. bute his success to you : plures enim multo, &c.).

For in diem cf. Ter. Phorm. v. 2, 16: praesens quod fuerat malum in diem abiit. I have given in the text the reading of Bücheler, which involves but a very slight modification. The Id, in Id, si promittas, &c., refers to ut irascatur is cur mendacium dixeris, if you give the promise, your incurring resentment is problematical (for the need of keeping your promise may not arise); secondly, it is deferred (until you have failed to keep the promise); and the chances that you may incur it are fewer (for the reasons given above).

sunt qui rogant ut uti liceat opera alterius quam qui utuntur. Qua re satius est ex iis aliquos aliquando in foro tibi irasci quam omnes continuo domi, praesertim cum multo magis irascantur iis, qui negent, quam ei, quem videant ea causa impeditum, ut facere quod promisit cupiat, si ullo modo possit. 49. Ac ne videar abertasse a distributione mea, qui haec in hac populari parte petitionis disputem, hoc sequor, haec omnia non tam ad amicorum studia quam ad popularem famam pertinere. Etsi inest aliquid ex illo genere, benigne respondere, studiose inservire negotiis ac periculis amicorum, tamen hoc loco ea dico, quibus multitudinem capere possis, ut de nocte domus compleatur, ut multi spe tui praesidii teneantur, ut amiciores abs te discedant quam accesserint, ut quam plurimorum aures optimo sermone compleantur.

XIII. 50. Sequitur enim ut de rumore dicendum sit, cui maxime serviendum est. Sed quae dicta sunt omni superiore oratione, eadem ad rumorem concelebrandum valent: dicendi laus, studia publicanorum et equestris ordinis, hominum nobilium voluntas, adolescentulorum frequentia, eorum, qui abs te defensi sunt, adsiduitas : ex municipiis multitudo eorum, quos tua causa venisse appareat: bene te ut homines nosse se, comiter appellare, adsidue ac diligenter petere, benignum ac liberalem esse loquantur et existiment, domus ut multa nocte compleatur, omnium generum frequentia adsit, satis fiat fronte et oratione omnibus, re operaque multis, perficiatur id, quod fieri potest, labore et arte ac diligentia, non ut ad populum ab iis omnibus fama perveniat, sed ut in iis studiis populus ipse versetur. 51. Iam urbanam illam multitudi

quem rideant ea causa) literally, 'whom they perceive to be prevented (from keeping his promise) by such a reason as that he roould desire to keep it if he possibly could,' that is, whom they perceive to be prevented from keeping his promise by a reason so important that his breach of his promise is quite compatible with a genuine desire on his part to do what he promised, if at all possible. For this idiomatic use of eas . . . ut, cf. nec tamen tas cenas quaero ut magnae relliquiae fiant: Fam. ix. 16, 8, such a dinner as that there should be, &c. So Ter. Heaut. ii. 3, 118, in eum res rediit iam locum ut ait necessum. See Adn. Crit.

49. hoc sequor] "this is my point of view:' cf. quid secutus sim in decernendo, 'what line I took.'

ex illo genere) which comes under the head of conciliating friends' (amicorum studia.)

50. ad rumorem concelebrandum] the vigorous prosecution of good report :' cf. studia concelebrare, De Inv. i. 4.

ut homines nosse se ... loquantur ... versetur.] The subjunctives loquantur et existiment . . . compleatur ... adsit ... satisfiat ... perficiatur, are definitive subjunctives (see $ 47, and cxiv. § 1). They are co-ordinate with the nominatives which are the subjects of ad rumorem concelebrandum valent. The accusative with the infinitive might have been used through. out instead of these subjunctives, and would have been, had Latin possessed an article like Greek. The last two subjunctives in the sentence, ut perveniat and ut

nem et eorum studia, qui contiones tenent, adeptus es in Pompeio ornando, Manilii causa recipienda, Cornelio defendendo; excitanda nobis sunt, quae adhuc habuit nemo quin idem splendidorum hominum voluntates haberet. Efficiendum etiam illud est, ut sciant omnes Cn. Pompeii summam esse erga te voluntatem et vehementer ad illius rationes te id adsequi, quod petis, pertinere. 52. Postremo tota petitio cura ut pompae plena sit, ut illustris, ut splendida, ut popularis sit, ut habeat summam speciem ac dignitatem, ut etiam, si qua possit, nova competitoribus tuis exsistat aut sceleris aut libidinis aut largitionis accommodata ad eorum mores infamia. 53. Atque etiam in hac petitione maxime videndum est, ut spes rei publicae bona de te sit et honesta opinio, nec tamen in petendo [res publica] capessenda est neque in senatu neque in contione. Sed haec tibi sunt retinenda, ut senatus te existimet ex eo, quod ita vixeris, defensorem auctoritatis suae fore, equites Romani et viri boni ac locupletes ex vita acta te studiosum otii ac rerum tranquil. larum, multitudo ex eo, quod dumtaxat oratione in contionibus ac iudicio popularis fuisti, te a suis commodis non alienum futurum.

XIV. 54. Haec veniebant mihi in mentem de duabus illis commentationibus matutinis, quod tibi cotidie ad forum descendenti meditandum esse dixeram : ‘Novus sum, consulatum peto.' Tertium restat: Roma est,' civitas ex nationum conventu con

versetur, depend on perficiatur; "that no possible means be neglected to bring about this--that the public should not merely hear at second hand of all these popular practices of yours, but should themselves be brought face to face with them' (should themselves be the observers or the objects of your courtesy and kindness). Cicero would, of course, never have written a sentence like this. I have inserted se after nosse ; cp. esse, $ 35.

51. Manilii causa recipienda] 'under. taking the case of Manilius,' for Cicero was never called on to fulfil his promise of defending Manilius, as the latter absconded before his trial. On laying down his tribunate, Manilius was accused by one of the nobiles. Plutarch, in his Life of Cicero, ch. ix., says it was a charge of theft (kotîs) that was brought against Manilius. Dio Cassius (xxxvi. 44) is more vague : δίκης τέ τινος προς των δυνατών παρασκευασθείσης.

Cornelio defendendo] We have scanty fragments of two speeches for C. Corne

lius, delivered A. U. c. 689 (b. e. 65) (Ascon. in Corn.).

vehementer] and that it would perfectly fall in with his plans that you should gain the office you seek.'

52. pompae] "display.'

53. nec tamen in pet. capessenda est) se. spes reip. bona et honesta opinio ; but this is not to be eagerly sought during your canvass by your sentiments expressed to senate or people; ' during your canvass you must rather think of offending no class. You will do more harm than good if in that stage of the business you run after popularity too much ; it should come from your past life. I have followed Baehrens in bracketing res publica, which would have been suggested to the copyist by its frequent association with capessere.

Haec tibi sunt retinenda) *consilia publica in senatu contioneque reticendi tibi sunt et reservanda,' Büch.

54. Haec] This is what occurred to me on the subject of the two first morn

stituta in qua multae insidiae, multa fallacia, multa in omni genere vitia versantur: multorum adrogantia, multorum contumacia, multorum malevolentia, multorum superbia, multorum odium ac molestia perferenda est. Video esse magni consilii atque artis in tot hominum cuiusque modi vitiis tantisque versantem vitare offensionem, vitare fabulam, vitare insidias, esse unum hominem accommodatum ad tantam morum ac sermonum ac voluntatum varietatem. 55. Qua re etiam atque etiam perge tenere istam viam, quam institisti : excelle dicendo : hoc et tenentur Romae homines et adliciuntur et ab impediendo ac laedendo repelluntur. Et quoniam in hoc vel maxime est vitiosa civitas, quod largitione interposita virtutis ac dignitatis oblivisci solet, in hoc fac ut te bene noris, id est, ut intellegas eum esse te, qui iudicii ac periculi metum maximum competitoribus adferre possis. Fac se ut abs te custodiri atque observari sciant: cum diligentiam tuam, cum auctoritatem vimque dicendi, tum profecto equestris ordinis erga te studium pertimescent. 56. Atque haec ita volo te illis proponere, non ut videare accusationem iam meditari, sed ut hoc terrore facilius hoc ipsum, quod agis, consequare : et plane sic contende omnibus nervis ac facultatibus, ut adipiscamur quod petimus. Video nulla esse comitia tam inquinata largitione, quibus non gratis aliquae centuriae renuntient suos magno opere necessarios. 57. Qua re, si advigilamus pro rei dignitate et si nostros ad summum studium benevolos excitamus et si hominibus gratiosis studiosisque nostri suum cuique munus discribimus et si competitoribus iudicium proponimus, sequestribus metum

ing reflections, which I suggested to you, in saying that every day as you go to the forum you should say to yourself,

I am a novus homo; I am a candidate for the consulate. The third still remains, namely, the scene of my honour is to be Rome;' which he then proceeds to describe.

odium ac molestia] odium is 'tiresomeness ; ' molestia is "vexation.' Cp. odio. sam non molestam, Att. xiii. 52, 2.

fabulam] scandal,' "gossip.'

esse unum . . . varietatem] to be all things to all men, however widely their characters, sentiments, and feelings may

fully explained by a passage in the Or. pro Murena, 43, simul atque candidatus accusationem meditari visus est, honorem videtur desperasse. And again, in the same speech (44), we have non placet mihi inquisitio candidati, praenuntia repulsae.

Video] 'I am convinced that never is an election so stained by corruption, but that some centuries return without any bribery the candidates to whom they feel themselves morally bound.

57. nostros benerolos) 'our well-wishers,' cf. suos magno opere necessarios, above, $ 56, and tui benevolentis, Plaut. Trin, i. 2, 8, another coincidence between the diction of the letter and the comic stage.

si competitoribus] .if we hold up before the eyes of our rivals the prospect of the

differ.

55. cum .. tum] not only ... but.' 56. accusationem iam meditari] This is

« AnteriorContinuar »