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XIII. TO CN. POMPEIUS MAGNUS, in Asia (FAM. v. 7).

ROME, A. U. C. 692 ; B. C. 62 ; AET. CIC. 44.

M. Cicero Cn. Pompeio propter Mithridatem victum gratulatur : de rebus suis gestis, quibus coniurationem L. Catilinae oppresserit, sibi Cn. Pompeium non gratulatum esse aegre fert, sperat tamen res gestas suas, si ipse Pompeius in patriam redierit, ab illo agnitum iri.

M TULLIUS M. F. CICERO S. D. CN. POMPEIO CN. F. MAGNO

IMPERATORI.

1. S. T. E. Q. V. B. E. Ex litteris tuis, quas publice misisti, cepi una cum omnibus incredibilem voluptatem : tantam enim spem otii ostendisti, quantam ego semper omnibus te uno fretus pollicebar. Sed hoc scito, tuos veteres hostes, novos amicos, vehementer litteris his perculsos atque ex magna spe deturbatos iacere. 2. Ad me autem litteras, quas misisti, quamquam exiguam significationem tuae erga me voluntatis habebant, tamen mihi scito iucundas fuisse : nulla enim re tam laetari soleo quam meorum officiorum conscientia, quibus si quando non mutue respondetur, apud me plus officii residere facillime patior. Illud non dubito, quin, si te mea summa erga te studia parum mihi adiunxerint, res publica nos inter nos conciliatura coniuncturaque sit. 3. Ac ne ignores quid ego in tuis litteris desiderarim, scribam aperte, sicut

M. TULLIUS] M. Tullius Cicero, Marci party, who seem to have desired to effect filius, salutem dicit Gnaeo Pompeio, Gnaei a reconciliation with Pompeius. Caesar, as filio, Magno, Imperatori.

praetor in 692 (b. c. 62), proposed to trans1. S. T. E.Q. V. B. E.) Si tu exercit- fer from Catulus to Pompeius the dedicausque valetis, bene est. This, with other tion of the temple of Jupiter Capitolinus. like greetings, we might pronounce to deturbatos] 'cast down from their towerbe a formal, stiff manner of address, buting hopes.' that we find that Cicero uses one of these 2. officiorum conscientia] “the consciousforms in his letters to Terentia ; he never ness of my services to my friends, for employs any such in writing to conf. which, if in any instance no fair return is dential friends. The form used in some of made, I am quite content that the balance his letters to Terentia is S. V. B. E. E.V. of services done should be on my side.' = si vales bene est ; ego valeo. It seems Si quando shows that the proposition is then to have been the Roman etiquette

general. to use this deferential form of address conciliatura] 'bring about and cement towards persons in a very high position, a union between us.' towards strangers, and towards women. 3. desiderarim] Cicero had written to See Att. ii. 9, 1, note.

Pompeius an account of his consulship, publice officially.'

and thought that Pompeius in his reply teteres hostes, novos amicos] He pro- had spoken too coldly of his achievebably refers to Caesar and the popularments.

et mea natura et nostra amicitia postulat. Res eas gessi, quarum aliquam in tuis litteris et nostrae necessitudinis et rei publicae causa gratulationem exspectavi : quam ego abs te praetermissam esse arbitror, quod vererere ne cuius animum offenderes. Sed scito ea, quae nos pro salute patriae gessimus, orbis terrae iudicio ac testimonio comprobari. Quae, cum veneris, tanto consilio tantaque animi magnitudine a me gesta esse cognosces, ut tibi multo maiori, quam Africanus fuit, iam me, non multo minorem quam Laelium, facile et in re publica et in amicitia adiunctum esse patiare.

XIV. FROM Q. METELLUS CELER, IN CISALPINE Gaul

(Fam. v. 1).

A. U. C. 692 ; B. C. 62; AET. CIC. 44.

Queritur Q. Metellus Celer, qui consule M. Cicerone praetor fuerat, ex praetura autem superiori Galliae procos. praeerat, fratrem suum Metellum Nepotem a M. Cicerone in senatu esse oppugnatum.

Q. METELLUS Q. F. CELER PROCOS. S. D. M. TULLIO CICERONI.

1. Si vales, bene est. Existimaram pro mutuo inter nos animo et pro reconciliata gratia nec absentem ludibrio laesum iri neo Metellum fratrem ob dictum capite ac fortunis per te oppugnatum iri. Quem si parum pudor ipsius defendebat, debebat vel familiae nostrae dignitas vel meum studium erga vos remque publicam

cuius animum] See on Ep. i. 5.

Laelium] Cicero's ideal period of the Roman Republic was the epoch of Scipio and Laelius. It has been remarked that he takes from that period chiefly the interlocutors in his philosophical dialogues.

Procos.] Cicero had given up his right to a province, conceding Macedonia to his colleague, and Cisalpine Gaul to this Q. Metellus Celer, praetor, 691, who is there. fore called proconsul, as governor of a province, though he had never been consul. Proconsul is the title of one who is sent to a warlike province with a military force; propractor of one sent to a peaceful province. Marg. i. 521.

1. ludibrio laesum] Explained in next

letter, § 1, as also ob dictum in $ 8.

capite ac fortunis] 'should have an assault made on his civil existence and his property.' An exaggeration : see next letter, note on 9.

pudor ipsius] Either (1) 'the respect due to him,' ipsius being the objective genitive, like pudor patris, Ter. And. i. 5, 27; or (2) ‘his own scrupulousness, the sense of propriety displayed by him,' ipsius being the subjective genitive. The last view is the best : cp. omnium qui tetaan sunt pudor, Ep. xxx. 18; besides Cicero does not use the objective genitive in the case of pronouns, but prepositions, as in cos, erga me. Draeg. Hist. Synt. 1. 469.

vos] 'you and your party.'

satis sublevare. Nunc video illum circumventum, me desertum a quibus minime conveniebat. 2. Itaque in luctu et squalore sum, qui provinciae, qui exercitui praesum, qui bellum gero. Quae quoniam nec ratione nec maiorum nostrorum clementia administrastis, non erit mirandum, si vos paenitebit. Te tam mobili in me meosque esse animo non sperabam. Me interea nec domesticus dolor nec cuiusquam iniuria ab re publica abducet.

XV. TO Q. METELLUS CELER, IN CISALPINE GAUL

(Fam. v. 2).

(IN REPLY TO THE FOREGOING LETTER.)

ROME, A. U. C. 692; B. C. 62 ; AET. CIC. 44.

M. Cicero superioribus Q. Metelli litteris respondet eo, quod sua in eum officia commemorat, nec fratrem eius se oppugnasse sed oppugnanti restitisse contendit. Laudat Celeris erga fratrem pietatem suamque fidem pollicetur.

M. TULLIUS M. F. CICERO Q. METELLO Q. F. CELERI

PROCOS. S. D. 1. Si tu exercitusque valetis, bene est. Scribis ad me 'te existimasse pro mutuo inter nos animo et pro reconciliata gratia numquam te a me ludibrio laesum iri. Quod cuius modi sit satis intellegere non possum, sed tamen suspicor ad te esse adlatum me in senatu cum disputarem permultos esse qui rem publicam a me conservatam dolerent, dixisse a te propinquos tuos, quibus negare non potuisses, impetrasse, ut ea, quae statuisses tibi in senatu de mea laude esse dicenda, reticeres. Quod cum dicerem, illud adiunxi, mihi tecum ita dispertitum officium fuisse in rei publicae salute retinenda, ut ego urbem a domesticis insidiis et ab intestino scelere, tu Italiam et ab armatis hostibus et ab occulta coniuratione defenderes, atque hanc nostram tanti et tam praeclari muneris societatem a tuis propinquis labefactatam, qui, cum tu a me rebus amplissimis atque honorificentissimis ornatus esses, timuissent ne quae mihi pars abs te voluntatis mutuae tribueretur. 2. Hoc in sermone cum a me exponeretur quae mea exspectatio fuisset orationis tuae quantoque in errore versatus essem, visa est oratio non iniucunda et mediocris quidam est risus consecutus, non in te, sed magis in errorem meum et quod me abs te cupisse laudari aperte atque ingenue confitebar. Iam hoc non potest in te non honorifice esse dictum, me in clarissimis meis atque amplissimis rebus tamen aliquod testimonium tuae vocis habere voluisse. 3. Quod autem ita scribis, 'pro mutuo inter nos animo, quid tu existimes esse in amicitia mutuum nescio, equidem hoc arbitror, cum par voluntas accipitur et redditur. Ego, si hoc dicam, me tua causa praetermisisse provinciam, tibi ipse levior videar esse : meae enim rationes ita tulerunt atque eius mei consilii maiorem in dies singulos fructum voluptatemque capio. Illud dico, me, ut primum in contione provinciam deposuerim, statim quem ad modum eam tibi traderem cogitare coepisse. Nihil dico de sortitione vestra: tantum te suspicari volo nihil in ea re per collegam meum me insciente esse factum. Recordare cetera : quam cito senatum illo die facta sortitione coegerim, quam multa de te verba fecerim, cum tu ipse mihi dixisti orationem meam nou solum in te honorificam, sed etiam in collegas tuos contumeliosam fuisse. 4. Iam illud senatus consultum, quod eo die factum est, ea praescriptione est, ut, dum id exstabit, officium meum in te obscurum esse non possit. Postea vero quam profectus es, velim recordere quae ego de te in senatu egerim, quae in contionibus dixerim, quas ad te litteras miserim. Quae cum omnia collegeris, tum ipse velim iudices satisne videatur his omnibus rebus tuus adventus, cum proxime Romam venisti, mutue respondisse. 5. Quod scribis de reconciliata gratia nostra, non intellego cur reconciliatam esse dicas, quae numquam imminuta est. 6. Quod scribis non oportuisse Metellum fratrem tuum ob dictum a me oppugnari,' primum hoc velim existimes, animum mihi istum tuum vehementer probari et fraternam plenam humanitatis ac pietatis voluntatem: deinde, si qua ego in re fratri tuo rei publicae causa restiterim, ut mihi ignoscas : tam enim sum amicus rei publicae quam qui maxime. Si vero meam salutem contra illius impetum in me crudelissimum defenderim, satis habeas nihil me etiam tecum de tui fratris iniuria conqueri. Quem ego cum comperissem omnem sui tribunatus conatum in meam perniciem parare atque meditari, egi cum Claudia uxore tua et cum vestra sorore Mucia, cuius erga me studium pro Cn. Pompeii necessitudine multis in rebus perspexeram, ut eum ab illa iniuria deterrerent. 7. Atque ille, quod te audisse certo scio, pridie Kal. Ianuarias, qua iniuria nemo umquam in minimo magistratu improbissimus civis adfectus est, ea me consulem adfecit, cum rem publicam conservassem, atque abeuntem magistratu contionis habendae potestate privavit : cuius iniuria mihi tamen honori summo fuit. Nam cum ille mihi nihil nisi ut iurarem permitteret, magna voce iuravi verissimum pulcherrimumque ius iurandum, quod populus idem magna voce me vere iurasse iuravit.

2. squalore] Another exaggeration. Metellus Nepos was threatened with deprivation by the senate, and this threat Was subsequently carried out. Under these circumstances, bad Metellus Celer been in Rome, he might have assumed mourning, but certainly not in his absence from Rome. So above, the infamia which would have followed this act of the senate is hyperbolically described as capitis dimirutio..

nec ratione nec "unreasonably, and without the courtesy of the old régime,' a sneer at Cicero as å norus homo : in the good old times there were no such clever upstarts as Cicero to make the members of the grand old families look ridiculous

when they spoke or acted foolishly. But perhaps Metellus wrote some such words as nec maiorum nostrorum nec clementiae habita ratione. The sentence as it stands is somewhat strange. However, we are not to look for the clearness and accuracy of Cicero in the letters of his correspondents. See Introduction, ii. $ 2, p. 57.

mobili] 'fickle, changeable;' generally excitable, impressionable.' See Q. Fr. i. 2, 5, note

sperabam] Cp. for the use of sperabam = 'I apprehended' nihil speres mali. Ep. xix. 2 ; and for esse, cp. speramus esse otium, Ep. xxvii. ll. So ami(en and Anis are used of foreboding.'

2. Iam hoc non . Surely there was no expression of disrespect towards you in my wishing, at the very summit of my glory, to have in attestation of my deserts an expression of opinion from you.' Metellus had complained that Cicero had made him ridiculous, ludibrio laesum ; Cicero explains that what raised the laugh in the senate was his own ridiculous position in having been baulked of his expected eulogy, and his naïf confession that he had counted on it. lam here introduces the conclusion or immediate consequence of foregoing conditions, as iam contemni non poteris, 'surely therefore,' Fin.ii. 84. Below, in § 4, "iam = again, further

more ;' iam sometime = 'for example.'

3. quid tu existimes] •I don't know what you conceive reciprocity to be; in my view it is when there is a mutual interchange of like good feeling.'

levior] you would take it for a piece of blague;' humbug' would convey the meaning exactly, but would, of course, misrepresent the tone. Perhaps we should read tibi ipsi as in Ep. xvii. $ 3.

deposuerim] Cp. Ep. xxvii. 3.

nihill that I was privy to all my colleague did.' He hints that his colleague Antonius at his request so managed the sortitio (as president of it) that Metel lus should be chosen.

depo

4. praescriptione) preamble.'

Quae cum] •When you have put all these acts of mine together, I will leave you to judge yourself whether your recent approach to the city was an example of " reciprocity."' Probably Metellus drew near to Rome in the winter of b. c. 63, 62 (a. 1. c. 691, 692), as a demonstration in support of his brother, Q. Metellus Nepos, as Mr. Watson suggests. This was when Metellus Nepos prevented Cicero from addressing the people on laying down his office, on the ground that he had slain Roman citizens without trial.

6. humanitatis ac pietatis] natural affection.'

nihil etiam] not yet.' Cp. non dico ... etiam quod sentio, Tusc. i. 12.

Claudia] the sister of Clodius. She is identified with the · Lesbia' of Catullus. She was afterwards suspected of poisoning her husband, Metellus.

sorore] Mucia was uterine sister of the two Metelli. She was the wife of Cn. Pompeius, and was afterwards divorced by him. Cp. Att. i. 12, 2.

pro] 'in virtue of.''
7. quod populus idem] Cf. de Rep. i. 7,

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