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LXIV. TO ATTICUS, IN Rome (Art. 111. 8).

THESSALONICA, A. ('. C. 696; B. C. 58 ; AET. CIC. 48.

M. Cicero Attico scribit sibi praeter causas, quas superiore epistola exposuisset, non placere in Epirum ire propterea, quod incertis nuntiis fratrem Athenas proficisci audis. set. De miseriis suis, de sollicitudine propter iter fratris sibi prorsus incertum: dein respondet ad ea, quae Atticus scripserat, de inconstantia epistolarum suarum, de culpa sua, de rebus domesticis.

CICERO ATTICO SAL.

1. Brundusii proficiscens scripseram ad te, quas ob causas in Epirum non essemus profecti, quod et Achaia prope esset plena audacissimorum inimicorum et exitus difficiles haberet, cum inde proficisceremur. Accessit, cum Dyrrhachii essemus, ut duo nuntii adferrentur: unus, classe fratrem Epheso Athenas, alter, pedibus per Macedoniam venire. Itaque illi ob viam misimus Athenas, ut inde Thessalonicam veniret. Ipsi processimus et Thessalonicam a. d. x. Kal. Iun. venimus, neque de illius itinere quidquam certi habebamus nisi eum ab Epheso ante aliquanto profectum. 2. Nunc istic quid agatur magno opere timeo. Quamquam tu altera epistola scribis Id. Mai. audire te fore ut acrius postularetur, altera, iam esse mitiora. Sed haec est pridie data quam illa : quo conturbor magis. Itaque, cum meus me

tude for this kind of mental exercise'
(i.e. letter-writing). This is no mere
façon de parler. We miss in the letters
of Cicero's exile much not only of the
interest, but even of the power and accu-
racy of expression which we find in the
letters of his happier years. Sane ita ca.
debat ut vellem (above, § 1) is an example
of a sentence which it would be difficult
to parallel, except in the letters of his
exile: so in next letter, 94, mentis motum
... qui est commotus.

Accessit ut] this merely means 'further, two messages came;' accessit quod addati sunt would mean, "another reason for not going to Epirus was the arrival of two messages.' If a new thought is to be added it is expressed by ace. quod, whet it implies a logical reason, but by aec. * when it implies a historical fact, Zumpi, 621, 626.

2. istic] Sc. Romae.

Quamquam tu altera] 'it is true that in one letter, dated May 15th, you 58 you hear that the trial of Quintus for er tortion will be vigorously prosecuted, and in another, that the feeling against him is less strong; yet the latter is dated a day earlier than the former, which increase my perplexity.' For conturbor, see mu Att. ii. 1, 2.

1. Achaia] Relying on this passage, Schütz reads Achaiam for Athenas in the last letter, as if Cicero could not say in one letter that he had enemies in Athens, and in another, more broadly, that all Achaia was full of his enemies.

maeror cotidianus lacerat et conficit, tum vero haec addita cura vis mihi vitam reliquam facit. Sed et navigatio perdifficilis fuit et ille incertus ubi ego' essem fortasse alium cursum petivit. Nam Phaëtho libertus eum non vidit : vento reiectus ab Ilio in Macedoniam Pellae mihi praesto fuit. Reliqua quam mihi timenda sint video nec quid scribam habeo et omnia timeo, nec tam miserum est quidquam quod non in nostram fortunam cadere videatur. Equidem adhuc miser in maximis meis aerumnis et luctibus, hoc metu adiecto, maneo Thessalonicae suspensus nec audeo quidquam. 3. Nunc audi ad ea, quae scripsisti. Tryphonem Caecilium non vidi. Sermonem tuum et Pompeii cognovi ex tuis litteris. Motum in re publica non tantum ego impendere video, quantum tu aut vides aut ad me consolandum adfers. Tigrane enim neglecto sublata sunt omnia. Varroni me iubes agere gratias : faciam, item Hypsaeo. Quod suades, ne longius discedamus, dum acta mensis Maii ad nos perferantur, puto me ita esse facturum ; sed ubi ? Nondum statui. Atque ita perturbato sum animo de Quinto, ut nihil queam statuere. Sed tamen statim te faciam certiorem. 4. Ex epistolarum mearum inconstantia puto te mentis meae motum videre : qui, etsi incredibili et singulari calamitate adflictus sum, tamen non tam est ex miseria quam ex culpae nostrae recor

haec addita] “this additional anxiety Clodius, after a struggle in which many about my brother hardly leaves me my lives were lost, rescued the boy from life.' Another careless expression. Flavius, with the design of restoring him

alium cursum petivit] 'went in a wrong to his father, who had bribed Clodius. It direction.'

was supposed that this daring act would Phaëtho] a freedman of Cicero. have caused a rupture between the triumab Ilio] This is the admirable conjec virs, for Clodius was supported by Caesar. ture of Madvig for ab illo, which has So Cicero says, 'now that they have been hitherto explained as referring to overlooked this case, all chance of a rupQuintus ; and reiectus ab illo (sc. Quinto) ture is gone. Of course if Pompeius in Macedoniam has been rendered, .being had openly quarrelled with Caesar (and separated from Quintus, and driven back through him with Clodius), there would by foul weather to Macedonia.' But have been good hopes of Cicero's restorasurely such an expression is impossible. tion.

3. Tryphonem Caecilium] a freedman Varroni] M. Terentius, the antiquaof Caecilius. In early times a freedman rian mentioned above, Att. ü. 25, 1, as a took the nomen of his patron, but an arbi friend of Pompeius. trary praenomen ; later he took nomen and Hypsaeo] P. Plautius Hypsaeus, quaespraenomen of his patron, taking his own tor of Pompeius in the Mithridatic War. name as cognomen.

sed ubi ? Nondum] 'But where (shall motum) arupture between the triumvirs. I remain ?) I have not yet made up my

Tigrane enim neglecto] Tigranes the mind.' Thus it is best to punctuate, younger, the son of king Tigranes, was with Boot and Zumpt. brought home by Pompeius and left in 4. motum . . . coinmotus] See on last safe keeping with Flavius, a senator. letter, fin.

datione commotus. Cuius enim scelere impulsi ac proditi simus iam profecto vides, atque utinam iam ante vidisses neque totum animum tuum maerori mecum simul dedisses! Qua re, cum me adflictum et confectum luctu audies, existimato me stultitiae meae poenam ferre gravius quam eventi, quod ei crediderim, quem esse nefarium non putarim. Me et meorum malorum memoria et metus de fratre in scribendo impedit. Tu ista omnia vide et guberna. Terentia tibi maximas gratias agit. Litterarum exemplum, quas ad Pompeium scripsi, misi tibi. Data 11 Kal. Iunias Thessalonicae.

LXV. TO ATTICUS, ON HIS WAY TO GREECE (ATT. III. 9).

THESSALONICA, A. U. C. 696; B. C. 58 ; AET. CIC. 48.

M. Cicero scribit quas ob causas Q. fratrem ex Asia reducem maluisset Romam properare quam ad se venire, de incerta spe sua, de Terentia, de fratris negotio, de mansione sua Thessalonicae, de aliis rebus domesticis.

CICERO ATTICO SAL. 1. Quintus frater cum ex Asia discessisset ante Kal. Mai. et Athenas venisset Idib., valde fuit ei properandum, ne quid absens acciperet calamitatis, si quis forte fuisset qui contentus nostris malis non esset. Itaque eum malui properare Romam quam ad me venire, et simul—dicam enim quod verum est, ex quo magnitudinem miseriarum mearum perspicere possis—animum inducere non potui, ut aut illum, amantissimum mei, mollissimo animo, tanto in maerore aspicerem aut meas miserias luctu adflictas et perditam fortunam illi offerrem aut ab illo aspici paterer. Atque etiam illud timebam, quod profecto accidisset, ne a me digredi non posset. Versabatur mihi tempus illud ante oculos, cum ille aut lictores dimitteret aut vi evelleretur ex complexu meo. Huius acerbitatis eventum altera acerbitate non videndi fratris vitavi. In hunc me casum vos vivendi auctores impulistis. Itaque mei peccati luo poenas. 2. Quamquam me tuae litterae sustentant: ex quibus quantum tu ipse speres facile perspicio. Quae quidem tamen aliquid habebant solacii ante, quam eo venisti a Pompeio : *Nuno Hortensium adlice et eius modi viros.' Obsecro, mi Pomponi, nondum perspicis quorum opera, quorum insidiis, quorum scelere perierimus ? Sed tecum haec omnia coram agemus. Tantum dico, quod scire te puto: nos non inimici, sed invidi perdiderunt. Nunc si ista sunt, quae speras, sustinebimus nos et spe qua iubes nitemur. Sin, ut mihi videntur, infirma sunt, quod optimo tempore facere non licuit, minus idoneo fiet. 3. Terentia tibi saepe agit gratias. Mihi etiam unum de malis in metu est, fratris miseri negotium: quod si sciam cuius modi sit, sciam quid agendum mihi sit. Me etiam nunc istorum beneficiorum et litterarum exspectatio, ut tibi placet, Thessalonicae tenet. Si quid erit novi adlatum, sciam de reliquo quid agendum sit. Tu si, ut scribis, Kal. Iun. Roma profectus es, propediem nos videbis. Litteras, quas ad Pompeium scripsi, tibi misi. Data Id. Iun. Thessalonicae.

Ciceronian sentence.

Cuius enim scelere] Hortensius, as appears from next letter, § 2, and Q. Fr.i.3, 8.

existimato . . . putarim] be assured that I am more galled by the punishment arising from the sense of my own folly, in believing one whose treachery I never suspected, than by the punishment consisting in the results which followed my foolish credulity.' 'I feel more punishment in the sense of my folly in believing, &c., than in the consequences which followed that credulousness.' Another very un.

1. ne quid absens acciperet calamitati] sc. ne acrius postularetur.

mollissimo] 'very nervous :' see Att. i. 17, 2.

meas miserias luctu adflictas) This is, perhaps, a careless expression meaning,

the miseries of my afflicted position' miserias being an abstract substantive pat for a concrete. Or perhaps we should read adflicti, comparing tuum pectus homini

simplicis, Phil. ü. 111; and mea scripta timentis, Hor. Sat. i. 4, 22: see especially note on Ep. xvi. 1 (Fam. v. 6), and a very parallel construction in Att. xi. 15, 2, solius enim meum peccatum corrigi non potest, et fortasse Laelii. Boot explains luctú adflictas as quas luctus reddit graviores, but I do not see how adflictas could bear that meaning. I find, in the posthumous notes of Pluygers, published in Mnemosyne, that he takes the same view as I do of this passage.

digredi non posset] Cf. Q. Fr. i. 3, 4.

lictores dimitteret] A provincial governor retained his lictors and fasces till he returned to Rome. But he was bound to go straight from his province to Rome, using no unreasonable delay on the journey. If Quintus wished, therefore, to make any considerable sojourn with his brother, he would be obliged to dismiss his lictors, and lay down his imperium.

vivendi auctores] who are responsible

for my survival ?' See next letter, $ 2.

2. quantum] "how little:' Boot, who compares Att. viii. 12, D. fin.; xi. 13, 1. But in these cases the extent of' is a better rendering ; for this expression, like the Latin, depends on the context for its meaning.

a Pompeio] from (your mention of) P., to the place in your letter) where (you say) nunc Hortensium,' &c.

non inimici] Here, as often, the plural is used to give a vagueness to a dangerous assertion, or to take some of the force from a violent expression. Hortensius only is referred to; Cicero hints that Hortensius was jealous of his forensic success.

si ista sunt] if these sources of hope really exist :' cf. Tusc. i. 10, adeone me delirare censes, ut ista €88€ credam ?

fiet] sc. mortem oppetam.

3. beneficiorum] Certain advantages or services likely to accrue from friends in Rome, which Atticus had pointed out to

LXVI. TO QUINTUS, in Rome (Q. Fr. 1. 3).

THESSALONICA, A. U. C. 696 ; B. C. 58 ; AET. CIC. 48.

M. Cicero Q. fratri de pueris sine epistola missis se excusat, de exsilii calamitate queritur, pro oblatis facultatibus gratias agit, monet de quorumdam fide suosque commendat.

MARCUS Q. FRATRI S.

1. Mi frater, mi frater, mi frater, tune id veritus es, ne ego iracundia aliqua adductus pueros ad te sine litteris miserim ? aut etiam ne te videre noluerim ? Ego tibi irascerer? tibi ego possem irasci ? Scilicet, tu enim me adflixisti : tui me inimici, tua me invidia ac non ego te misere perdidi. Meus ille laudatus consulatus mihi te, liberos, patriam, fortunas, tibi velim ne quid eripuerit praeter unum me. Sed certe a te mihi omnia semper honesta et iucunda ceciderunt, a me tibi luctus meae calamitatis, metus tuae, desiderium, maeror, solitudo. Ego te videre noluerim? Immo vero me a te videri nolui. Non enim vidisses fratrem tuum, non eum, quem reliqueras, non eum, quem noras, non eum, quem flens flentem, prosequentem proficiscens dimiseras : ne vestigium quidem eius nec simulacrum, sed quamdam effigiem spirantis mortui. Atque utinam me mortuum prius vidisses aut audisses ! utinam te non solum vitae, sed etiam dignitatis meae superstitem

him, but the nature of which we cannot guess. But we are not therefore justified in changing the text to comitiorum, as Gronovius does, comparing Att. iii. 12, 1, spem ostendis secundum comitia.

1. Scilicet] · Yes, of course, it was you who crushed me. It was your enemies and envy of you that ruined me—and not I who utterly ruined you!' Ironical, of course, as Ter. And. i. 2, 14, populus curat scilicet. The sentence is redeemed from a certain degree of bad taste by the tenderness of mi frater, mi frater, mi frater. The invidia referred to is the envy of Hortensius.

fortunas] sc. eripuit.
ceciderunt] I have met with.'

solitudo] 'the want of my services as an advocate:' see $ 2.

videre noluerim) I not want to see you. For the subjunct., see on Att. ii. 12, 1 (Ep. xxxvii.)

utinam te non solum vitae] Would that I had left you behind me to look back on my life, not only finished, but finished with honour.' The meaning is clear, but the sentence is difficult to render precisely. Cicero recurs to his oft-expressed wish that he had perished nobly before his humiliation, so that Quintus wouli have survived his brother, but would not have had his present indignities to look back on. See Att. üi. 7, 2. The thought is, "If I had destroyed myself before 1 left Rome, you would have been able to

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