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ing obstacles can also be removed. The chief tell no lies. I am not for sale." We
of these appears to be the wide range of dates gratified at this manly utterance from on edu-
fixed for holding the examinations. It is to be cator, but of course he will not be chosen
hoped that something can be done this year senator.
toward removing this difficulty.

We note with satifaction the recent elec-

The Wisconsin Teachers' Association has tion of two members of the faculty of the

not for many years held so important and sucIllinois Normal University, Prof. Charles De

cessful a session as that of this winter. To beGarmo, and Prof. Herbert Bartow, to pro- gin with, the attendance was large, being estifessorships in the State University. The pro- mated at between five and six hundred; and all motion is well deserved, and will have a

the meetings were full. It was a representabeneficial effect upou the educational interests

tive gathering, and gave to the on looker a of the state. Success in teaching, as well as good impression of the vigor and character of scholarshlp and promise, ought to be an ele- those in charge of the educational interests of the ment in appointment to such position. Am

state. The papers were all of them direct and busbitious young men should come up to them inesslike. The academic essay, we may hope, through other grades of educational service.

has disappeared, and given place to purposive MANY high schools in this state have al

discussions of practical matters. Thorough ready come into direct working relations to the studies of special topics, like that on the care rural schools of the county. The usual plan of feeble-minded children, business matters like is to arrange to admit to the high schools the revision of the rules of the association, without examination those who bring certifi- practical reports like that on a code of ethics cates of graduation from the county schools.

for teachers, discussions like that of the BenIf the county superintendent keeps himself in nett law and the work of the state department relation with the high school and its principal, of public instruction are instructive and helpso that his examinations for graduation ful in the highest degree. The division into test fitness for high school work, this plan sections was a decided success.

The large seems to be a good one. It results in build- numbers in attendance gave each section a ing up the high school and also in giving im- good audience, and the division afforded room

, pulse and character to the district schools. By for a wider range of topics and gave opportua judicious publication of the number of gradu- nity for members to attend where their interest ates admitted from different schools of the prompted. The practical outcome of the gathcounty, local pride may be turned to accountering in forming opinion regarding educational for educational growth, while careful manage- legislation was also important. The movement will prevent the issuing of certificates to ments for the education of the feeble minded, unqualified persons. The plan is deserving of

for the improvement of the county superintenextended trial.

dency, for compulsory school attendance and

for a State Educational Exhibit at the Few more satisfactory utterances have

World's Fair, in 1893, received decided imcome to our notice than those of Pres. Homer B, Sprague, of the North Dakota university,

The absence of a lecturer

pulse and direction. with reference to the talk of his candidacy for

from abroad deserves to be noted, and the sesthe United States Senate. He says in a pub

sion shows that the only justification for such a lished cord; 1. Of course I would like to be

feature in the program must be found in the

interest felt in the man who is invited or in senator, but, as parfies and factions are now constituted and manipulated, the eager pur

the importance of the theme which he presents. suit of so sacred and responsible an office, by

The music was an enjoyable element of the only methods likely to secure it, seems

the session. In its social features, which presumptive if not conclusive evidence that are of much importance, the meeting was also the aspirant is not fit for it. 2. If it were very profitable. tendered me in honorable fashion, without A YOUTHFUL road agent in California who any other pledge than that I should faithfully, robbed a stage and was afterwards arrested, to the best of my ability, serve my state and gave as an excuse for his crime that he was the nation, I should gladly accep. But

anxious to get a good education, and could not 3. To get it I can engage in no scramble, no earn money for it any other way. This is the intrigue, no bargain, no fight; shall neglect latest excuse for stage robbery. Our Wisconno present duty, make no speeches, curry no sin stage and train robber Holzhay, read Jesse favor, solicit no votes, pull no wires, promise James literature, and robbed, not for money no offices. pay no money, fling no mud, and but for fame.




THE MONTH. POLITICS directly affect the development of our schools in many ways. Not only is the chief

---C: M. McMahon has resigned his position educational officer of the state determined by

as principal of the high school at Marinette party action and party issues, but the county

in order to take a position in Illinoi, as prinsuperintendents and, in many cases, local school

cipal of the high school at Decatur. officers are made in the same way.

That this does not prove destructive to the schools is --J. L. Sherron, formerly superintendent of due to the good sense of the people and the Green county, becomes principal of the free capacity for self-government developed in high school at Argyle, in place of W. H. them. The mischiefs of the system do not Schulz, who enters upon his duties as superarise from submitting to the people educational intendent of Sauk county. questions, but from making the election of

-Miss Susie Cocroft, for sometime in charge, school offiers an appendage to issues of a

at the office of the State Superintendent, of wholly different character. The recognition of this has led to the demand that, so far as pos

the correspondence relating to the school sible, educational matters shall be taken out of

library law, has accepted the position of first

assistant in the Black River Falls high school. politics. Doubtless much would be gained if, for example, county superintendents could be

-The report of the Janesville public schools chosen at the spring elections, when party is- for 1890 contains a revised manual of the sues are for the most part dormant. But there course of study, about twenty pages in length, is another suggestion which deserves to be

prepared by Sup't Cooley. The school librastrongly urged. Whenever educational inter- ries, high school and ward schools, contain ests are sacrificed this is due to imperfect seven hundred volumes. information dormant interest on


-The new regulations for the Racine pubpart of the managers or the public or both. The

lic schools requirè class-markings, bi-monthly remedy, then, is to disseminate information

examinations, and annual and awaken interest. This is precisely the

examinations, work which educators neglect. They imper

which are averaged to determine the standing

of the pupils. If however, the monthly averfectly recognize the necessity, in a government like ours, of keeping up public interest and in

age in any study reach 90 or more the pupil

may be excused from the final examination in telligence regarding school matters. They are

that branch. not agitators. They are not generally given to planning and scheming to bring about public -By unaminous vote of the committee it measures. Now there is certainly need of the has been decided that the National Educaschoolmaster in politics to look after the inter- tional Association will go to Toronto this year ests of the important business entrusted to his for its meeting July 14 to 17. The change from hands, and few persons will be found to object Saratoga is due wholly to railroad considerto his activity in this matter. He belongs to ations. The arrangements for the Toronto a party like other citizens; let him be active to meeting seem to be perfect. All the New secure the best possible nominations within England, Western, Southern, and North

Further, some more definite and western roads have already granted one fare or systematic arrangement by school men to keep one-half price plus the $2.00 membership fee. the public informed regarding the needs and The city and Dominion governments promise progress of the schools, is manifestly desirable. to do all in their power to make the meeting Important developments of educational thought a grand success. are now going on; new conceptions of what is

- The Dunn County News says:

• Mr. J. to be attained and how to attain it are coming H. Stout is making excellent progress with the to the front. Educational men are the proper preparations for opening the manual training persons to awaken interest in these things and school with the new year.

The tools and apto shape public sentiment in regard to them.

pliances for work in the two apartments set How to fulfill this duty is an important study apart for boys and girls are being selected and will tend greatly to increase their own breadth placed in order

, the instructors have been

secured and everything will be ready. as and influence.

planned. There will be three teachers—Mr. -The Beaver Dam high school held rhe- Charles Friedman, for the boys' department, torical exercises of the Senior class on Dec. who arrived the first of this week, and is as13. The class numbers thirteen, eight of sisting in getting things settled; Miss Mabel whom are young women.

Wilson and Miss Lilian Goldsmith, for the

that party

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girls' department. All three of these teachers last, the maple was chosen as the state tree, are from Toledo, Ohio."

and the goldenrod as the state flower. The

goldenrod had 81,308 votes, and the rose 79,-There is a gain in higher grade teachers

666 out of a total of 318,079. The other shown by the State Superintendent's report,

votes were divided among one hundred and but it is not a very large one. For the first

Chas. R. Skinof the two years covered by the report 11.273 twenty-eight different plants


ner, of the Department of Public Instruction, certificates were granted in this state and for

informs us that the selection of the goldenrod the second 11.017. In the first of these years,

was due principally to the fact that the including Normal graduates and state certifi

country districts did not promptly send in the cates, there were issued 1093 certificates of the

result of the votes taken in the country schools. first grade and 962 of the second; for the

This result was made public on the first of second year 1100 of the first grade and 1127 of July. Additional reports which came in from the second. It appears, therefore, that while

the country districts reduced the plurality of the whole number of certificates issued fell off

the goldenrod to about 600, and it is probable those of the second grade increased 165; and

that if all the school commissioners of the this may be attributed to the change in the

State had reported to us, the rose would have value of certificates created by the last legis

been chosen instead of the goldenrod. The lature.

cities voted largely for the goldenrod.' The -A Society to promote sympathy between city children evidently had a better idea of the public and the schools was organized in what they wanted than the country children, New York Dec. 6. It is to include various and this is not strange.

To them the goldenprimary and grammar school teachers, rep- rod, which they see mostly during the summer resentatives of the Normal college, the college vacation, is the flower associated with their of the City of New York, the University of the pleasant days of recreation, days of sunshine, City of New York, Columbia college, and of freedom and enjoyment. This flower will other educational institutions. It was quite not grow less in their esteem, and the better generally agreed that the new society should they know it the more will they admire it. hold aloof from attacks or criticism of specific systems, whether in New York, Brooklyn, or

-A circular from the State University elsewhere, but call attention to the need of mak- states as follows what that institution is doing ing a profession of what is now too often merely for agricultural education in Wisconsin: By the temporary business of teaching, to excite the addition of the courses recently adopted public interest in school affairs and indirectly the Wisconsin scheme of agricultural education to endeavor to raise the tone of education. is rounded out into fullness. It has not, of

course, reached completeness of development, -The growth of school libraries in this state

but it has become a system and has a full comsince the enactment of the library law has

plement of parts. It is in some respects a been very satisfactory. During 1887 twenty- unique system and deserves consideration on six towns bought libraries; in 1888, forty

account of its peculiar characteristics and eight towns; in 1889, one hundred and forty, adaptations. It is highly specialized and inseven towns; and in 1890 two hundred and

tensely agricultural. It is not an academic ninety-four towns. At least three thousand schools have been thus supplied with reading thoroughly agricultural system with academic

system with an agricultural tincture, but a matter during the past four years. Jefferson

accessories. It consists of three leading factors county takes the lead in this matter, and

having three great purposes.

1. To develop Brown, Clark, Door, Eau Claire, Taylor, La

agricultural science. II. To educate youth in Crosse and Washington are among the most

agricultural science. III. To spread agriculenterprising. The growth of libraries in cities,

tural knowledge through the whole farming and in high schools, where it is the result of

community. The first is attempted by means purely local effort, is also very remarkable. Wisconsin is in this way doing a great deal to

of a strongly equipped and vigorous experi

ment station; the second, by five courses of promote general intelligence among her

study in agriculture; the third by an ample young people.

system of publication and by Farmer's Insti- We find in that excellent garden monthly, tutes. The heart and soul of the system is Viek's Magasine, the following regarding the the Experiment Station, where principles and choice of a state tree and flower by the school practices are tested, new facts demonstrated, children in New York: “By an election held and old doctrines developed into exact knowby the school children of this state, in May ledge. This gives solid foundation for the

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work of the other lines and vitalizes the whole. cursions, etc., and the evening to some popuThe effectiveness of agricultural education is lar entertainment. Saturday. July 4th, will largely dependent on the amount of fresh well- be appropriately celebrated, closing with a tested knowledge which enters into it. grand display of fireworks. Topics for dis

The instructional system embraces five cussion have been partially selected, but will courses in agricultural. 1. A short course. not be announced until they shall have been 2. A dairy course.

3. A middle course. accepted by those who may be invited to 4. A long course. 5. A graduate course. take part upon the program. The Farmers' Institutes, of which sixty to

-The teachers of Northwestern Wisconsin seventy-five are held each year in as many

met Tuesday evening December 30th in the different localities in the state, afford a means

senate chamber and formed an association. of presenting directly to the farmers the latest

Mr. J. J. Brier, of River Falls, was elected developments of experience and experimentation and of discussing all subjects pertaining Falls, secretary.

president, and Mr. D. Kine, of Black River

The executive committee is to agriculture.

composed of W. F. Langley, West Superior ; -State Superintendent Wells has fixed the J. Q. Emery, River Falls; Miss L. Moshier, following dates and places for the conferences

New Richmond; Albert Hardy, La Crosse. with county superintendents provided for by The committee were instructed to name a time law: January 20 and 21, at Eau Claire, in and place of meeting, arrange a program and the Court house ; January 22 and 23, at Osh- draft a constitution. The first meeting will kosh, in the Normal school building ; January be held early in April. 27 and 28, at Madison, in the office of the

--The teachers of Northeastern Wisconsin State superintendent; January 29 and 30, at

met in the senate chamber Tuesday afternoon, Milwaukee, in the Normal school building.

December 30th and formed an association with -At the State examination for teachers' cer- I. N. Stewart in the chair and Otis R. Lason tificates at Madison this winter thirty-three as secretary. A number of committees were candidates presented themselves, of whom but appointed to arrange for full organization and eleven came up for the first time. A limited

for the first meeting which is to be held at State certificate was granted, as a result of Appleton during the spring vacation. the examination, to Mrs. Mary D. Bradford, of Kenosha; and to A. T. Lincoln, of Inde

-Ex-superintendents E. C. Wiswall and J.

L. Sherron have taken charge of high schools, pendence. A life-certificate was granted to

the former at Marinette and the latter at ArMilton E. Terry, of Lowell ; and to Albert R.

E. E. Sheldon succeds Sup't F. S.

gyle. Jolly, of Mineral Point. The Board of Ex

Grubb at Weyauwega. aminers recommend that comparative anatomy be added to the list of branches required for

FROM OTHER PARTS OF THE WORLD. the life certificate.

France. The privileges granted by the re--At the meeting of school superintendents cently adopted military law, to fathers of more in California held at Sacramento Supt. C. H.

than seven children has been the cause of miKeyes of Riverside, was made chairman of the

nute investigations concerning the number of Committee on High Schools, and after due

children in French families. The following deliberation the committee recommended that

numbers are round numbers, hence not accucities or incorporated towns of one thousand

rate, but as far as they go they are very inor more inhabitants have power to establish

structive. Free High schools, to be maintained by an

2,000,000 families in France have no chilannual tax levied by the board of supervisors,

dren. the rate of which to be determined by the

2,500,000 families in France have each one county superintendent. It was also provided

child. that four or more contiguous districts have

2,300,000 families in France have each two power to establish and maintain High schools.

children. -A meeting of the Ex.Com.of S. E. Wis. Ass. 1,500,000 families in France have each three was held during the state association. It was ar- children. ranged to hold the meeting at Geneva Lake, 1,000,000 families in France have each four and to make it an “outing” as well as

children. educational meeting. The session will begin

500,000 families in France have each five Wednesday evening, July 1st, continue through children. Thursday and until noon Friday, July 3d. 300,000 families in France have each six That afternoon will be devoted to picnics, ex- children.



2,000,000 families in France have seven or Bavaria. The city of Furth pays better more children.

salaries to elementary teachers than are genIn a late cabinet meeting the French min- erally paid in Germany, although they do not ister of education, M. Bourgeois submitted the come up to our American standard. plan for completing the secularization of the 1st to 3d year of service, 1,560 marks,

, schools, which according to law must be done $390.00. before July, 1891. He acknowledges the fact 4th to 6th year of service, 1,740 marks, that the necessary number of teachers are not $435.00. as easily found as formerly, since, according to 7th to 12th year of service, 1,920 marks, the new military law, teachers are not free $480.00. from service in the army. Hence, he suggests 13th to 18th year of service, 2,100 marks, to employ women, who can be had in great $525.00. number.

19th to 24th year of service, 2,280 marks, Italy. The Statistical Institute in Rome $557.50. publishes some statements, which seem truly 25th to 29th year of service, 2,364 marks incredible. For instance that there are 336 $591.00. communities in Italy without a cemetery. The 30th to 34th year of service, 2,448, marks corpses are thrown into the cellar vaults of the $612.00 churches without much ceremony. Over 209,- To these sums are to be added 15 to 20 per 000 people in Italy live in 37,203 cellars, the cent. for rent. dampness of which is most dangerous to the Germany, Berlin. The city school inspector, health. -900 have dug caves into the rocks Dr, Berthold, died suddenly of heart disease. and live like pre-historic man. In 1,700 com- His friends thought him in the possession of munities bread is eaten on holidays only; in vigorous health. He has just delivered an 4,965 communities meat is not eaten at all on oration at the occasion of the Moltke anniaccount of poverty.—600 communities versary. without a physician; 104 suffer from ma- Netherlands. In Luxemberg two high laria all the year round.

The number of per- school boys of 17 years of age, recently fought sons in Italy suffering from Pellagrosa (skin a duel with revolvers. One of the boys was desease) acquired by infection is 110,000. Of shot in the arm, and sank to the ground. 100 inhabitants in Southern and Central Italy, When the other saw this he thought he had only 37 can read; the average of illiteracy for killed his adversary, so directed the muzzle of the Kingdom is 48 per cent. But the most his revolver to his temple and shot himself. disgusting fact the institute published is this: The cause of the duel was what old people call -4,890 communities have no out-houses of "calves' love."

Sweden. The lower house of parliament in Norway. The law of June 20, 1882, makes Sweden has among its members no less than it a duty of the administration of the universi- fifteen active teachers—viz.: nine engaged in ty at Christiania to publish annually a Norwe- teaching in higher schools, and six in elemengian bibliography. A volume has just been tary schools. published containing the titles of Norwegian books published in the year 1888. It consists

MILWAUKEE LETTER. like all other national bibliographies of two Relations Between the Normal School and Public parts--one containing the list in alphabetical Schools —Compulsory Vaccination - Educational order, the other grouped under topical sub

Lectures. heads. The volume does not, however, offer The special committee, to whom a resolua complete expose of Norwegian publications tion of the School Board was recently referred since many authors who write in the Norwegi- suggesting that a closer relation between the an language publish their books in Denmark. State Normal School and the city schools be

Germany. In the course of the year 1890, established, has reported in favor of admitting an unusually large number of elementary

of elementary the graduates of the model department of the teachers in Lorraine have been pensioned. Normal School to the city High School withThese are mostly all men who were appointed out examination; they also recommend such a before the Franco-German war, and would change in the rules as shall recognize the Nornot could not master the German mal School diploma as equivalent to one year's language sufficiently to come up to the re- experience in the rating of salaries; the comquirements of the German government. The mittee advise also that the Board of Normal Germans are terribly in earnest about German- School Regents be asked to extend the scope izing Alsace and Lorraine.

of the Normal School by the establishment of

any kind.


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