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TO OUR READERS.

THE Fourteenth Year and the First Series of our AMERICAN AND ORIENTAL LITERARY RECORD

was concluded with the publication of the one hundred and forty-fifth and sixth numbers in

December, 1879. In our first number, dated March 16th, 1865, we published a “Notice," con-

taining a programme which we think we have carried out, with the sole exception of making our

issues monthly, it having been found more convenient to publish double numbers every second

month. We take the present opportunity of thanking our patrons and friends for the support they

have given us in our undertaking; for, though it has not been a commercial success, we think

we are right in assuming, from the encomiums it has received, that it has been a literary one; and

We therefore consider it a duty to still carry it on.

We have given lists of books appertaining to countries, the literatures of which have never

before been brought before the literary world; and, if we may judge from the high prices given for

some of the early numbers and complete sets of our publication when they come into the market,

our efforts in Bibliography have been appreciated, and our labours have not been in vain.

By our “Literary Intelligence" and our occasional notes on important publications, we have

endeavoured to enliven our pages, and to relieve them from the dry tedium appertaining to a simple

catalogue, and in this we hope we have succeeded. In our opening Notice we said: “We trust our

readers will bear in mind that our pages are not of mere ephemeral interest; they will contain, in

the course of the year, a vast mass of literary information nowhere else to be met with, and we

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hope will be considered of sufficient importance to rank on the library shelves with the very many valuable bibliographies this century has produced. “We believe we have fully proved what we there stated; and if we have not been recouped for our outlay, we must content ourselves with our knowledge of the fact that Bibliography never pays.

It has been suggested to us that an index to the twelve first volumes, completing the first series of the RECORD, would be invaluable; it would be of course too great an undertaking to compile an index comprising every title mentioned in it; but if we could obtain two hundred subscribers at ten shillings, we would supply a title to each of the twelve volumes, together with an index which shall include all the literary matter and all special lists of books. Under Sanskrit would be given the various pages in each volume where lists of Sanskrit books would be found, and the same with each language or literature. In numbers 25-6 will be found a list of Codes of the various States in the union of the United States of America; we should index this simply under Codes, and not under every State of which it contained a Code, and a reader wanting a special code would then have to refer to pp. 409 to 411 and search the list for the code he wanted.

We shall be obliged by intending Subscribers forwarding their names as early as possible.

supply a title to incit; but if we could obmeat an undertaking to

LITERARY PROGRESS IN MADAGASCAR.

It may probably be new to many that considerable advances | most efficiently aided in supplying literature for the people; have been made during the last ten or twelve years in the so that the two presses, furnished with all modern appliances formation of a native literature in the great island of Mada for bookbinding, lithography, etc., are the centres of great gascar, and also in the investigation of the folk-lore, legends, activity in the enlightenment of the island, and from them, songs, and mythical tales of the people,-what may perhaps school apparatus, lesson-books, etc., are sent in great quantibe termed, their unwritten literature.

ties all over the central and eastern parts of Madagascar. Although slight and imperfect attempts had been made For some time past the native government has had a press of during the previous two centuries to give a written form to its own, at which all official papers and documents, new laws, the Malagasy tongue, nothing was done in a syst

proclamations, etc., are printed. manner until the establishment of a Protestant mission at The following periodicals are issued in Antananarivo :the capital of the country in 1820, under the auspices of the

Tény Soa, “Good Words," 16 pp., monthly, begun 1866, London Missionary Society. The early missionaries of that

3,500 copies. Society, especially the Revs. D. Jones and D. Griffiths, after

Varytondrahan-Tantély, “Rice mixed with Honey,” 4 pp., wards joined by the Revs. D. Johns and J. J. Freeman,

bi-monthly, 3,000 copies. Illustrated with engravings from settled the orthography in use from that time until the pre

The British Workman. sent, investigated the structure and idiom of the language,

Mpanolo-tsaina, " The Counsellor," 70 pp., quarterly, begun and gave it for the first time a systematic written form.

1877. 700 copies. They prepared dictionaries (which have not yet been super

Sakdizan'ny Ankizymadinika, “The Children's Friend," seded) as well as grammars, and many elementary books of instruction, and also gave the Malagasy translations of several

16 pp., monthly, begun 1878, 2,500 copies. Illustrated

with engravings from The Child's Companion. English books, chiefly of a religious character, prominent

The Antandnarivo Annual (in English). 120 pp., annually, among them being one of the Pilgrim's Progress, a very

begun 1875, 700 copies. A record of information. idiomatic and faithful rendering of that wonderful allegory.

“ Proceedings of the Malagasy Folk-lore Society," 24 pp., Their chief work was, however, a translation of the Holy

irregular, begun 1875. Printed for private circulation. Scriptures, which was issued by instalments, throughout a

In 1875 a monthly newspaper called the Ny Gazety Mala. period of seven years; the Gospel of St. Luke being put to press

gasy was commenced, but was not continued beyond 13 on the first day of 1828, and the whole Bible being published in 1835. This translation was an excellent and idiomatic one

numbers. considering the time when it was produced, and has had con

Besides pumerous small publications,-pamphlets, tracts, siderable influence in conserving the Hova dialect of the

sermons, etc., and complete series of school books—the language. But the period of persecution which ensued, con

following larger books have also been issued during the sequent on the accession of Queen Ränavalona I., caused not

few years: three different collections of hymn-tunes, anthems, only the banishment of Christian teachers from the island,

etc., in the Tonic Sol-fa notation, school songs, in ditto, but also the exclusion of Europeans from the country, and

elementary instruction in the Sol-fa system of music, two or the repression, as far as possible, of all European influence.

three services of song; Pilgrim's Progress, Samuel, etc.; This lasted for twenty-five years, during which time the con

Manuals of Logic, Physical Geography (illustrated, 2 eds.), dition of the people was deplorable in every way, and all

Astronomy (illustrated), Political Geography, Hermeneutics, advance in intelligence and education was stopped ; so that,

Church Government, Church History, Old Testament History, but for the leaven of Christianity and enlightenment already

New Testament History, Scripture Names, etc. ; Commendiffused, the country would have reverted to its original

taries on Genesis and Exodus, Gospel of Matthew, Epp. to degraded position.

Galatians and I. Corinthians; Bible Handbook, lst vol, of In 1861, however, Queen Rånavàlona I. died, and as soon

Life of Christ, 2 vols. of Bible Dictionary, Introduction to as the fact' became known, mission work, together with literary

New Testament (2 eds.), Introduction to Old Testament, and educational work, was resumed. A printing press was

Life and Travels of Apostle Paul, Lives of the Twelve again set up in the capital city, Antananarivo, and since that

Apostles, Lives of the Patriarchs, Lessons from the Gospel time has continued to send forth a yearly increasing quantity

of St. Luke, Trades of the Bible, Pilgrim's Progress (4 eds.), of literature. The wide extension of a school system in the

and numerous others, a list of which will shortly be

published in TRÜBNER'S RECORD. central provinces, as well as the establishment of normal and training schools, and a theological and general college, has

The following books have been issued having reference to raised up a considerable reading class, more especially among

the study of the Malagasy Language (including those of the the younger people, so that there is a steady demand for

first missionaries of fifty years ago):— books. A great impetus was given to this by the reception of | Dictionary (Malagasy-English and English-Malagasy), by Christianity by the Queen and Government in 1868, and the Rev. Ď. Johns and Rev. J. J. Freeman. pp. 705. steady pressure put upon the people to send their children to Antananarivo, 1835. the schools.

Outline of Grammar of Mal. Language as spoken by the In 1872 the L. M. S. Press was reinforced by another sent! Hovas, by E. Baker. pp. 48. Port Louis, 1815; London, out by the Friends' Foreign Mission Association, which has | 1864.

Grammar of Malagasy Language, by Rev. D. Griffiths. pp.

24. Woodbridge, 1854. A Concise Introduction to the Study of the Malagasy Language, by Rev. W. E. Cousins. pp. 80. Antananarivo,

18/3. Granara Malagasy (in Malagasy), by Rev. G. Cousins. pp.

70. Antananarivo, 1873. Dictionary (English-Malagasy) for Native Students, by J. S.

Sewell. Antananarivo, 1875.

Besides the above, valuable contributions to the knowledge of the language have also been made by the Jesuit Missionanes, some of these being printed at their press in Antanånarlro, and others at their establishment in the island of Réanion Dictionnaire Malgache-Français, by Missionnaires Catho

liques. pp. 798. Réunion, 1855. Dictionnaire Français-Malgache, by Missionnaires Catho

liques. pp. 850.' Réunion, 1853. Grammaire Malgache, by Père Webber. pp. 118. Réunion,

1835. Grammaire Malgache, by Père Ailloud. pp. 383. Anta

Dànariro, 1872.

A very full and complete Dictionary of Malagasy, giving, as far as possible, the dialectal differences, is projected, and is in course of preparation by a Committee of Missionaries. Valaable papers on the language, its grammar and pecuEarities, by the Rev. L. Dahle, are contained in Nos. II. III. and IV. of the Antand narivo Annual (see above), and also one on its Malay affinities, by the Rev. W. E. Cousins, in No. IV. of the same periodical.*

Researches into the Folk-lore, Kabarys, Public-speaking,

Songs, Proverbs, etc., of the Malagasy are embodied in the
following:
Malagasy Proverbs, collected by J. Parrett and W. E.

Cousins. pp. 78. 1871.
Malagasy Kabàry (Royal Speeches). Collected by Rev. W.

E. Cousins. pp. 58. 1873.
Malagasy Customs. Collected by Rev. W. E. Cousins. pp.

56. 1876.
Adventures of Ikötofétsy und Imàhakà (two Malagasy rogues).

Collected by Rabézàndrina. pp. 42. 1876.
Malagasy Folk-lore. Collected by Rev. L. Dahle. pp. 450.

1877.

(See also Publications of the Malagasy Folk-lore Society mentioned above in list of periodicals.)

Besides the above, numerous considerable pamphlets have been issued containing accounts of Exploratory and Missionary Journeys in previously little known or entirely unknown parts of Madagascar, by which valuable light has been thrown upon the physical geography of the country, and upon the customs, superstitions, and language of the different tribes. Several of these are illustrated by maps of the routes taken by the authors.

In conclusion, it may be observed that for five or six years past a Revision of the Malagasy Bible has been in progress. This is undertaken by a Committee representing the different Protestant Societies having missions in the island, and is presided over by the Rev. W. E. Cousins, of the L.M.S., as Principal Revisor. The work has proceeded as far as the Book of Deuteronomy in the Old Testament, and the Gospels of St. Matthew and St. Mark in the New Testament. It will probably take several years to complete. -JAMES SIBREE, jun., Missionary of the Lond. Miss. Soc.

This is an extract from Mr. Cousins's paper on the Malagasy Language in Trans. Phil. Soc. 1877-8-9; a valuable paper on the Languages is contained in Journ, Roy. Asiatic Soc. N.s. vol. i. 1860, by Het Fan der Tuuk; and a Grammar and Dictionary has also been published by a French grammarian, M. Marre de Marin (Paris, 1876).

+ The French R. C. Missionaries have also published at their press a valuable work on Malagasy History from native documents, entitled Tantàra ny Andriana eto Madagascar, or Histoire des Rois d'Imerina d'après les Manuscrits Malgaches (Antananarivo, 1875), pp. 260. With this exception their press is chiefly employed in issuing religious and controversial books.

THE COREA. History of Corea Ancient and Modern, with Descrip- | in the north-west corner, embracing also the greater part of tion of Manners and Customs. Language and Geography. the present Liaotung. Whence came the original inhabitants Dlaps and Illustrations. By Rev. John Ross, seven years is not known; but towards the end of the twelfth century resident in Manchuria. (Paisley: J. and R. Parlane; Lon B.C., Kitsze, a noble of the Chinese Court, for some cause don: Houlston and Sons.)-The tangled web of Oriental went to reside there, and gained a supremacy over the rude ethnography seldom finds an expositor among European inhabitants. One of the first objects of the Han was to scholars; and students of race and history, in the broader | bring Chaosien into subjection, and a few years before the pose, are laid under obligation to Mr. Ross for his essay in Christian era it was reduced to a Chinese dependency. Some this department. Among the few nations that have managed time prior to this, a few families of the state of Fooyü moved to preserve an almost absolute seclusion from the outer south, and formed the nucleus of the future kingdom of Forld in these days of universal intercourse, few if any Gaogowli, a name which afterwards took the form Gaoli, have succeeded to such an extent as the peninsular Coreans. whence the modern Corea. This lay to the north-east of Under the influence of external pressure, China has opened Chaosien. So politically insignificant was this tribe in A.D. its doors to the irrepressible foreigner; Japan has entered 9, that it was placed as a small district, under the superinto the comity of nations; and we can scarcely doubt that vision of Huentoo, one of the four divisions into which ere long Corea will also be accessible to the curious and the Chaosien had been broken up; but in the year 32, we find enterprising of every clime. Scarcely anything has yet been it had a king and sent tribute to China. The power of written by Europeans on this country and people, if we this State increased rapidly by aggression and conquest; so except Dallet's two volumes of Histoire de l'Eglise de Corée. that within a century Gaogowli became a formidable rival to Mr. Ross, who has lived as a missionary for seven years in some of the neighbouring States; and in the latter half of Manchurian China, says, he “was made painfully aware at the second century it had so far extended its boundary as to an early stage of his residence among the Chinese of his own cover a great part of the territory of the ancient Chaosien. all bat total ignorance of this peculiar people,' who are a In the fifth century the name was changed to Gaoli, and the world to and in themselves; and he knows that this ignor kingdom continued to increase in power and resources, till in apce is characteristic of his countrymen." To remove this the beginning of the seventh century it had become so inorance he resolved, by drawing from the national history, formidable as to threaten the peace of the Chinese Empire. a life-like representation of the exact position in the human This led to the Emperor Yang of the Swi dynasty sending family, which we must assign to the Chinese people, to show an enormous army against it, numbering upwards of a what China actually ig. With this end in view, he decides million, which had to retire from the field unsuccessful. The to give “an account of the rise and progress of the reigning event, indeed, led indirectly to the overthrow of the dynasty. dynasty of China, from its earliest dawn to the zenith of its | After a long-protracted and exhaustive war, which power." But he found this history so inextricably blended decimated Gaoli, it was at length subdued and reduced to with the history of Liaotung (the region lying between the status of a Chinese province in 668. The same fate befell Corea and the Great Wall of China), and so indissolubly | the kingdoms of Baiji and Sinlo, which occupied the eastern connected with Corea, that be has deemed it advisable to i and southern portion of the peninsula. “During the interval give the history of Corea and Liaotung in a separate and since the Tang dynasty swept like a tornado over Gaoli and introductory form. Such is the raison d'être of the present ! Baiji-levelling the cities, rooting out the villages, and Tolome, the outcome of the author's researches through converting the cultivated fields into blood-stained wastes till, hundreds of Chinese volumes; for it may be observed, that in 905, that dynasty ceased to rule over China-the foundait is only in Chinese literature that anything like a connected i tions of modern Corea were being quietly, slowly, but account of Corea and its surroundings is to be found. The steadily laid. ... What with immigration, and what with present kingdom of Corea professedly represents the ancient i the natural increase of its inhabitants, where acres were state of Chaosien (which is still the literary name of Corea); | numerous and men few, Gaoli had in 918 so far recovered bat the latter only occupied a portion of the present territory that Goongcha, a Buddhist priest, believing that the affairs

of cities and country required the control of monarchy, 1 owner of Corea could not only rule the Gulf of Liaotung and assumed the title and power of king of Gaoli, in Kaichow | Pechihli, but have a good deal of influence over all the city, north-west of the present capital, and south-east of Chinese coast." Japan concluded a treaty with Corea on Ping-yang, the ancient capital.” The priest was succeeded 26th February, 1876; by which three ports are open to ere long by a scion of the ancient Gaoli royal house. In less Japanese trade. Mr. Ross has a chapter on Corean social than fifteen years, the new king annexed the whole of Baiji customs, which do not differ very materially from the Chinese. and Sinlo, and thus, for the first time, the whole peninsula was The government is also on the same model and very corrupt. united into one kingdom, which remained in the family The votaries of Buddhism are said to be in overwhelming of this king for four centuries. In the latter part of the I proportion to any other form of religion, the priests alone fourteenth century, king Mao, the last of the line, was forming a fourth part of the population. Confucianism is murdered by Li Changgwei, one of his high officials, who generally acknowledged as a system of morality. The poppy usurped the throne, being the founder of the now reigning has long been cultivated in Corea as a garden flower, and the dynasty. He established the present capital-Sheoul. The juice sold in the apothecaries' shops as a sedative for pain; Coreans were brought into contact with the Manchus at an but opium-smoking is prohibited under penalty of decapitaearly date, and after a long period of strife a treaty was at tion. The chapter on the language will be interesting to last concluded in 1627, by which Corea engaged to pay an philologists, and especially to students of Chinese. Besides annual tribute to the Manchus, and this practice is con the Coreans, the author gives historical sketches more or less tinued at the Court of Peking to the present day. Recent extended of the Hienhi, Sinlo, Kitan, Nüjun, and the other experiences of European contact with Corea leave no pleasing neighbouring nations. Mr. Ross is an independent thinker, reminiscences. The attempt at negociation by Russia led to who has been at the Corean gate. With a knowledge of the the massacre of two Roman Catholic Bishops, seven Chinese and Corean languages, he has been able to push his missionaries and a vast number of native converts. France researches into an untrodden field, with the great advantage vowed vengeance, but did nothing. Shortly after, an Ameri of daily contact with the natives of both these nations. The can war steamer ascended one of the rivers. They were fired | result in the volume now given to the public will be a boon on, took a fort and retired. In either case the Coreans looked to those students who are groping their way among the on themselves as victors. Our author remarks :-"Clearly detached and scanty notices hitherto accessible, regarding the the effect of the two naval expeditions has not been very nations of Eastern Asia. But the book ought to be read by satisfactory. The third attempt will be necessarily more all who wish to be posted up regarding a singular nation difficult. Corea is said to be the object of solicitude now to about which much will probably be heard in Europe ere England, as well as to her two friends. France talks about many years pass away. The volume is embellished with a moving, America speaks about sailing, England proposes a number of quaint and curious plates drawn by Corean picture visit; but there is one other power never speaks but acts. makers, representing the costumes of the country. What will Russia do? We imagine that the naval power!

THE LITERARY ESTABLISHMENTS OF ICELAND. After a prolonged political struggle, directed on the part | Pfennig, or 27 cts., or 1 franc 40 centimes), which may be of his countrymen by the able statesman and scholar, Jón forwarded by postal money order, from any of the principal SigurEsson (6. Rafnseyri, Iceland, June 17, 1811, d. Copen- post-offices of Europe or America, to Judge Magnús Stephenhagen, Dec. 7, 1879), Iceland acquired, by the constitutionsen, President of the Icelandic Literary Society, Reykjavík, of 1874, the right to make its own laws. As a result of Iceland. Subscriptions are also received by the publishingthis political reform, the country has now entered upon a houses of F. A. Brockhaus, Leipzig, and Trübner and Co., period of progress ; but its whole energies, for two or three London. 2. The Icelandic Archæological Society (Fornleigenerations, must be employed in repairing the evils caused farfjelag), which conducts explorations on the site of the by the neglect and misgovernment of past centuries. Roads, ancient Althing at pingvellir, and in the old burial mounds bridges, and harbours are to be constructed ; the system of in various parts of the country; its investigations are schools is to be extended ; manufactures are to be established; thus of interest to all Teutonic scholars. Its reports will be commerce is to be regulated, the fisheries are to be fostered, sent to all members paying the annual dues, 2 crowns, or and agricultural processes to be improved, and all these things, contributing a life-membership sum of 25 crowns. Money even with the activity manifested by the Althing, in the order remittances may be made to Arni Thorsteinson, three sessions held since that body obtained the power to Treasurer of Iceland, President of the Archæological Society, legislate, will severely tax the ability and the means of the Reykjavík, Iceland. 3. The Society of Friends of the little commonwealth. In the heroic efforts which it is thus People (Pjóðvinafjelag), which issues an annual volume of making, Iceland will surely receive the hearty and intelligent political and economical essays (" Andvari"), and a calendar, sympathy of the nations which occupy more favourable geo including a careful chronological summary of Icelandic graphical positions ; and scholars especially will be glad to events. The annual subscription, 2 crowns, may be sent to aid a people which has preserved a remarkable language and Dr. Grímur Thomsen, Vice-President, Reykjavík, Iceland. created a remarkable literature, which has a well-earned Libraries. The chief public collections are:-1. The reputation for scholarship and learning, and which com Stiptisbókasafn, or National Library, of nearly 30,000 prises a proportionately larger number of educated citizens volumes, which is to find ample accommodation in the new than any other existing nationality. In the hope that they Althing House, or Capitol, now building. Its librarian is may be useful, the following notes on the literary institutions the learned Jón Arnason, compiler of the “ Þjóðsögur.” It is of Iceland, and their wants, have been compiled.

in want of books relating in any way to Iceland, sets of the Learned Societies. These are: 1. The Icelandic Literary publications of learned societies, statistical works, treatises on Society (Bókmentafjelag), founded by Rask and others in political economy and publications of foreign governments. 1816, and having two sections, one at Reykjavík, the capital Gifts may be addressed simply “Stiptisbókasafn, Reykjavík, of Iceland, the other at Copenhagen. It has issued a multi Iceland." 2. The Library of the College (9,000 vols.) at tude of important works, such as the great map of Iceland Reykjavík, which greatly needs philological, historical and by Björn Gunnlaugsson, the “Biskupa Sögur,” the “Diploi scientific works of all kinds, text-books, atlases, cyclomatarium Islandicum," the “ Safn til Sögu Islands," the pædias. Its address is “ Bókasafn Skólans” (or “ College * Skýringar Páls Vidalins yfir Fornyrði Lögbókar,” the Library'), Reykjavík, Iceland. 3. The Students' Library “Saga um Siðbótina á Islandi,” translations of the works of (1,500 vols.), to which may be sent works of fiction, popular Homer, Milton and Klopstock, a year book of contemporary history and travels in English, German, and French. With history (“ Skírnir”), and various valuable biographies, it is connected a reading-room, used by the 24 professors and archæological essays and statistical treatises. Its issues for 150 students of the College, the Divinity, Law and Medical 1879 comprise, among other works, editions of the “ Ljós- | Schools, and the Female Seminary in Reykjavík, for which vetninga Saga" and the “Víga-Glúms Saga." It publishes journals of every class will be acceptable. Address “Lestrarannually 5 or 6 volumes, and its yearly reports always in salur Skólans" (or “College Reading Room"), Reykjavík, clude an admirable bibliography of Scandinavian publications. Iceland. 4. The Northern Provincial Library at Akureyri The annual subscription for which all its current issues are on the North coast (4,500 vols.), with which is connected a sent-is 6 crowns (a crown equals ls. 13d., or 1 Mark 13 | public reading-room. Any books or periodicals will prove

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