Imágenes de páginas


phonetic organs of the several peoples. The steps by which arrived at the somewhat lame conclusion, that its full this fact has been ascertained are complex, but they are sure, significance is past finding out. In the same way a host of and their very diversity adds weight to the uniform result European Chinese scholars have made translations of the which they yield. The sounds of the language naturally work, and have, if possible, made confusion worse confounded. divide themselves into two periods—that subsequent to the The text, as we have it at the present day, is very corrupt, Ts'in dynasty (B.C. 255-200), and that prior to it. The owing to the fact that it was re-written at least three times, means at hand to enable us to read the characters as the at the great official modifications of the characters referred subjects of the Ts'in dynasty read them are, speaking gene to above, at each of which it suffered mutilation at the hands rally, these-a comparison of the various dialects of modern of the transcribers, who introduced changes in the ideoChina with those of the aborigines, the Chinese dialects of graphic value of the characters to suit the philosophical Corea, Japan, and Annam, the Buddhist transcriptions, the views prevailing at the time, and in the phonetic values of later phonetic characters, and the results of Yang Hiung's others in accordance with the peculiarities of the existing researches in 25 dialectic regions as found in his “ Fang official dialects. But in spite of these difficulties the knox.

ledge possessed by M. Terrien de Lacouperie of the ancient Having thus far made good our researches, we compare the sounds of the language, and of ethnological science, bis result they give us with the rhymes of the “Shi-king," or enabled him to raise the veil from the “ Yih-king" which “ Book of Odes," and with the languages of the neighbour has resisted the searching gaze of 30 centuries of patire ing peoples, who are offshoots from the ancient Chinese con scholarship, and to foreshadow the true nature of the work. federation, such as the Burmese, the Siamese, and the Anna Far from treating exclusively of philosophy and divinatory mites, as well as with those of tribes which, though owning the lore, the original text consists to a great extent of same parentage, have been separated more or less completely vocabularies in which important words and their characters from Chinese culture, such as the Tibetans, and again with are explained in the (probably eight) different dialects spoken? the speech of other peoples who have but a remote kinship within the limits of the Chinese supremacy, and in which to with the Chinese, such as the Cambodgians, the Turko other words are appended lists of their equivalents. Intere Tartars, the Ugro-Finns and the Dravidians, among some of mingled with these vocabularies are important records of uswhom the ancient adoption of syllabic or alphabetic writing usual interest, such as ephemerides bearing on the ethnology has preserved many traces of archaisms which are lost in and history of the ancient East. That it was used as a work their modern pronunciations. One other fact has to enter of divination during the Chow dynasty and subsequently is into our calculations, and that is the tones of the language, beyond dispute ; but its application in this sense would seem which have given rise to so much speculation, and to so many to depend on the commentaries which overlay the text, and misconceptions. To understand their origin we must on the astrological value of some of its parts. The imremember that on entering China the Chinese found the portance of this discovery in the interest of ethnological and country occupied by races more or less civilized, with whom linguistic science is incalculable, and we earnestly trust that they freely mixed to a greater or less degree as circumstances M. Terrien de Lacouperie may be able to secure the leisure determined. From this inequality of intercourse between necessary for the prosecution of his studies in this direction. races speaking languages with different morphological con But a knowledge of the ancient Chinese sounds is capable. structions, in which great importance was attached to the of leading us to even wider results. It enables us to compare quality and quantity of vowels for the meaning of words, Chinese with the languages of the Old World. Its Aryan there resulted a condition of phonetic poverty, owing to con origin, upon which works of uncertain value have been tractions and elisions of the initial, medial, or final syllables published by Elkins, Schlegel, Kingsmill, and Chalmer, of their words. By the movements of the organs of speech, must be regarded as a dream based on some few affinities and the ordinary principle of equilibrium, the place of possibly due to the presence in China of an offshoot of the these decayed articulations has been supplied by differences Aryan race. But the prospect brightens when, in attempting of tone in the pronunciation of the vowels, a system which, to trace it back, in accordance with its grammatical affinitex by the facility it gives for the economy of language, bas to the old Altaic family of language, we compare it with received a full development. A comparison of the develop another branch of that family-namely, the Accadian dialects ment of these Chinese tones with the mute letters in Here at once we feel that we are on surer ground. Not only Tibetan, which are but the remains of decayed syllables, and is there a marked affinity between the words and character the double initials in Burmese, Siamese, Sinico-Annamite, of the Accadian, as far as they have been deciphered, and the and other dialects, together with the different systems of Chinese, but also between the historical legends and. tones, complete the evidence we require, and all concur in religious institutions of the two peoples. It is unnecessary giving us one result. As an example of the changeful fate here to quote more than a few instances of this linguistic reof ancient Chinese words, we may instance the equivalent for lationship, of which the Accadian vocabulary furnished “ eye,” which from a conbination of two words, mut and kan, abundant evidence. The identity of the Accadian me, become mukan, as it is at the present day among the mother, with the Chinese mu; ka, mouth, with ko; kâ, doct, Panicoochi tribe of aborigines. In process of time as this with ga; dub, leaf, with dep and tap ; par, white, with pat; word became the property of tribes some of whom laid sik, cloth with sik ; and gan, cloud, with gun, would appear greater stress on the final and others on the initial parts of to admit of very little doubt, supported, as it is, by other intheir words, it was successively metamorphosed on the one portant considerations, among which the similarity existing hand to mang, ngan, and the modern yen, and on the other between the hieroglyphic characters of the two languages is hand to muk and muh.

ot the least remarkable. Chinese tradition fixes the number The importance of arriving at a just conclusion on the of the original characters of the language at 510, and of the ancient sounds becomes at once apparent when we reach the Accadian hieroglyphics there have as yet been deciphered stage of comparing Chinese with its cognate languages. rather more than 500. It remains to be seen whether the But before crossing the frontier we would refer to its bear Chinese tradition is but a survival of an Accadian fact. ing on the interpretation of the ancient literature of Results no less remarkable than those yielded by these the country. Among the most valued works of antiquity linguistic affinities are, however, brought to light by a comstands the * Yih-king," the original text of which consists of parison of the social and religious institutions of the two short sentences, arranged under certain diagrams, formed by peoples. In the early legendary records of China we find the combination of straight lines, and is attributed to the | the first place in the list of the five Sovereigns who bore legendary Emperor Fuh-hi (B.C. 2852). But whoever may | rule at the dawn of history occupied by Hwang-ti, ancientis have been the author of this text, its antiquity is undoubted, Kon-ti, whose family name is said to have been Nai or Nak. as is incidentally shown by the increasing inability of the This ruler is credited with having invented astronomy, music, successive early commentators Wan Wang (B.c. 1150). Chow medicine, and the other sciences, as well as the arts which conKung (B.c. 1120), and Confucius (B.C. 500), to understand its

tribute to the comfort and well-being of men. If we examine drift. "If I had fifty more years to live I would devote the old form of his name, as preserved in the “Chuen-tsze. them to the study of the • Yih-king,'” said Confucius as he wei" and the “Luh-shu-fun-luy," we find it to be composed laid down his pencil at the completion of his commentary on of one group of characters to be read Nak-kon-ti, a nama that work, in which, however, he professed to find an un which strangly coincides with Nakhunta, or Nakhunte, fathomable abyss of philosophical learning and divinatory mentioned in the Susian texts as the chief of the gods. This lore. The superstitious fame which the Sage thus established name was added to their own by the oldest Susian kings, as for it saved it from the auto-da-in which perished (221 we find in the case of Ku-dur-Nakhunta, who ravaged the B.C.) the entire literature current in the northern portions of country from Ur to Babylon, and founded the dynasty called the empire, except such works as treated of medicine, by Berosus Medic (B.c. 2285). Again tradition tells us that divination, and husbandry. Since that time the foremost the inventor of Chinese writing was Ts'ang Hieh, or, as his scholars of each generation have edited the text and heaped | name was pronounced in old Chinese, Dum-kit, who is said to commentary after commentary upon it, and one and all have have been an independent chief, though by some writers he

has been described as reigning in succession to Fuh-hi, and by rank were called “ pastors," and that in the Divine hierarchy others as a minister of Hwang-ti. The resemblance between there were next in order to the principal god six deities of his name, Dam-kit, and that of Dungi, King of Ur, who the first rank. succarded the famous Likbagas, or Likbabi, on the throne, is Enough has been said to illustrate the interest attaching curious, and the interest in the comparison is heightened when to the researches in which M. Terrien de Lacouperie has led we recognize that the meaning of the Accadian characters the way. The importance of these, as affecting the early composing the name Dungi is "the man of the reed tablet." history of the world, cannot be overestimated, since they

Tarning now to the political institutions of the early promise to destroy conclusively the anomalous isolation to Chinese, we find in the fragments of Susian history as yet which history has hitherto consigned the people and language made known complete explanations on two points which have of China, and to restore them to their legitimate places bitherto battled the investigation of scholars both native and among the recognized families of race and speech. R. K. D. foreign. In the second chapter of the “ Book of History” Since the appearance of the above, Mons. Terrien de we are told that the Emperor Shun (B.C. 2255-2205) "gave Lacouperie has published in a separate form a paper on the daily audiences to all the pastors, who are understood to sa me subject, under the title of " Early History of bare been the Princes of the various States; and, in another the Chinese Civilisation " (London : Trübner & Co.) In this pasage, that he sacrificed specially, but with the ordinary pamphlet he has elaborated the points touched upon in fords, to God, and with reverent purity, to the Six Honoured the above notice, and has given at length the results of his 00:3” The epithets “ pastors," as applied to Princes, and investigations into the origin of Chinese civilisation, and the Sir Honoured Ones," have been much commented upon, but

hich have led up to them. The same subject will be to satisfactory explanation has been offered of them. Now, | further pursued in a paper, by M. Terrien de Lacouperie, horerer, that which has been a riddle to the people them- | which will shortly appear in the Journal of the Asiatic Society; selves for tens of centuries is made plain to us by the Susian and in conjunction with Professor Douglas, the same gentletests. There we are told that the Princes of the second | man is preparing an annotated translation of the Yih-king.

ANCIENT PALM-LEAF MSS. IN WESTERN INDIA. A most important acquisition of very ancient palm-leaf | 13. Durgasimhavritti, Durgasimha's commentary on the 158., written between the 12th and 14th centuries, has Katantra grammar, fols. 225. lately been made for the Government of Bombay. Accord 14. Panjikû by the same, fols. 245. ing to a rough list made by the agent who effected the 15. Jitakalpachúrni, a Prâkrit commentary on the Jitakalpapurchase, the collection contains thirty volumes and the sûtra of the Jainas. following works :

16. Jitakalpasútra, the original text. 1. Gaudivaha, a Prâkrit kârya by Vâkpati [Vappaï], the

17. Narapatijayacharyâ, the astrological treatise of that pupil of Bhavabhùti (ca 750 A.D.), fols. 110 (4th copy name. discovered).

18. Rishidatlakathů. 2. Rudratá lainkúraţiká, a commentary (probably that by ' 19. Naishadhakávya, by Srîharsha.

Sretâmhara) on the Alamkârasastra of Rudrata, a : 20. Uttarůdhyayanasútra, Prakrit text. Kasmîrian poet of the 9th or 10th century A.D., fols. 21. Anekârthasangrahanámamála [by Hemachandra). 189 (very rare].

22. Kavidarpanavritti, a commentary on a work on Alam3. Pindaniryuktiţiků, a Sanskrit commentary on the Piņda

kâra. niryuktisùtra of the Jainas (very rare).

23. Sarasvat kanthâbharaṇa, king Bhoja's famous treatise 4. Ächârânganiryukti, a Prâkrit summary of the Âchâranga on poetics. sútra of the Jainas by Bhadrabâhu.

24. S'abdârnavațikâ on the grammar of Jainendra (rare). 6. Sabdunuíusanaţika [a commentary on some grammar not 25. Nyuyapravesaţiků, a commentary on the elementary ! specified, by Malayagiri, a Jaina writer of the 12th treatise on Nyâya called Nyâyapravesa. and 13th centuries new].

26. Mohardjaparájaya, a Jaina drama. 6. Kshetrasamûsaţiká, à commentary on the Kshetrasamâsa 27. Kalpasútra. by the same author.

28. Amarakosha. i. Sbdinušásanavritti, a commentary on Hemachandra's 29. Yagasastra (probably Hemachandra's). grammar by the author of the original work.

30. A volume containing a large number of small treatises. 8. Saplatitiká, a commentary on [Haribhadra's] seventy It must be noted that all these MSS. come from a very verses on religious subjects.

ancient private library, discovered in the rains of 1880. 9. A volume containing various small treatises, such as the

The collection contains a good many Brahmanical works, Upadeśamála, a Sthavirâvali, S'rávakavidhi, etc.

and deserves for this reason the particular attention of 10. Deyús'rayakávya, Hemachandra's historical poem on the

Sanskritists. The Government of Bombay possesses, incluPrinces of the Chaulukya dynasty of Gujarât, from

sive of this new purchase, 36 palm-leaf MSS., four of Mülarâja to Kumarapala, written in explanation of his which were bought in 1873, while two others were acquired Sanskrit grammar, fols. 305.

during the rains of 1880. It is to be hoped that all these 11. Chaityaraudanarşitti, a commentary on the Chaitya treasures will eventually be deposited in the India Office, vandanasûtra of the Jainas, fols. 205.

where they will be safer from destruction, and more generally 12. Damayantúkathủ, Privikrama's Damayantî champû [a | useful than in the Deccan College.

great favourite with the Jaina Yatis).


JOURNAL OF THE ROYAL ASIATIC SOCIETY.-Vol. XIII. | such would, we are sure, be welcome to all who take an N.s., Part I., January, 1881, is nearly ready, and again is

interest in India. The remaining portion of the article deals a most important number, its contributors including the well with the three offshoots from the Samaje established by Ram known Professor Monier Williams and Dr. Edkins. The mohun Roy ; and many curious-not to say romanticarticle by the first-named gentleman is on “ Indian Theistic details are here published concerning them.-Dr. Edkins's lformers," and consists of short sketches of the history of paper deals with the vexed question of the Buddhist Nirvana, the four Theistic Churches which have been established in more especially relating to the Northern Buddhists. Dr. India during the present century, and accounts of their Edkins's long stay at Peking has given him facilities for lounders–the chief interest naturally surrounding the cele communion with many Buddhist priests, and he details his brated Raja Rammohun Roy, the pioneer in the endeavour to conversations with them, as well as extracts from their sacred lead our Indian fellow-subjects out of the slough of super

books. Dr. Edkins proceeds from these sources to show that ution and idolatry in which for centuries they have been " the Nirvana means death.—There is also in this part a paper immineraed. A tolerably full memoir is given of this great by Mr. Dowson (late Professor at the Staff College) on the native Reformer, still not so full but that we should be glad subject of the invention of the Indian Alphabet, Mr. Dowson w nave more details of so remarkable a man. The Professor | maintaining the opinion that it was invented on Indian soil against the theory of the Semitic origin of all alphabets which Prakrit has been made by the publication of the text of this some would have us believe : and surely, as the author points famous poem, which in Vâgbhatta's Kâvyânuşâsanavșitti is out, there is nothing so very strange in there being a dual counted amongst the mahākāryas written in a language not invention of writing by letters, any more than in the dual Sanskrit itself, and which tradition does not hesitate to ascribe invention of gunpowder, or the mariner's compass. Possibly to the great Kålidàsa. No doubt, the probability of his it may be found, at some future day, that there was even a authorship becomes somewhat lessened when one reflects on third independent arrival at the same knowledge when the

the indiscriminate use of his name in connection with every lost languages of America shall have been recovered. The kind of ambitious composition that wishes to recommend two other articles in this part deal with cognate subjects : Dr.|| itself to the attention of readers. Not only is the sweet poet H. N. van der Tuuk contributing, through Dr. Rost, Librarian of India made answerable for such superartificial productions of the India Office, “Notes on the Kawi Language and as the Nalodaya, and such artless forgeries as the JyotirvidLiterature"; and Mr. W. E. Maxwell, of the Colonial Civil

âbharana, but there are not wanting those amongst the Service, “ An Account of the Malay Chiri, a Sanskrit

Indian literati who affix his name to every nameless compoFormula." Though small in bulk, this part of the Journal is

sition of some repute, such as the Srutabodha, Ghatakarpara, very interesting, and can be strongly recommended to the

Praşnottaramàlà, Hâsyârņavanataka, Karpûramanjari, and general public outside of the Royal Asiatic Society. Sanskrit PhiloLOGY.-A Sanskrit Grammar, including

who would disputo their small modicum of merit to the both the Classical Language, and the Older Dialects, of Veda

authors of the Bhojaprabandha, Bhojachampú. Rå måyaņaand Brahmana. By William Dwight Whitney, 8vo. pp. xxiv.

champú, in favour of one who can do very well without it. and 486. (Trübner & Co., London.)- This Grammar, which

If one were to believe the tradition of Ceylon, Kalidasa eren forms the second volume of the series of Indo-Germanic

visited that island during the reign of Kumâradása (which Grammars published by Messrs. Breitkopf & Härtel of

began in A.D. 515), and made accessions to Singhalese literaLeipzig, is incontestably the first historical grammar of the

ture by his own compositions. However, the Setubandha, Sanskrit language. Whilst all the Sanskrit Grammars

even without being definitely vouched for by the principal hitherto published-however great their merits else may be

gem of Vikramaditya's court, possesses attraction enough in depend more or less on the native grammarians. Whitney is

its language to command our serious attention. True, the the first who has emancipated himself from them success

poetical enjoyment derived from its perusal will not be a very fully, and marshals before us, lucidly, the linguistic facts

keen one at first, and most readers, in the absence of a with constant reference to the actual occurrence of the forms

Sanskrit chhayâ to compare it with, will be content to wait in the literature, with numerous illustrations. In this he sets

with their study of the text till the promised translation has i to work quite statistically : he tells us that many forms and

appeared in print. The language in which it is written is formative processes occur very sparsely in the so-called

the Mahârâshtrî - Prakrit, a dialectic form which was classical literature, and we arrive soon at the clear insight

especially reserved for poetical composition, and which, unlike that certain chapters occupy, relatively, too large a space in

Saurasenî and the other literary Prakrits, had no correspond. our elementary grammars. Indeed Whitney has brilliantly

ing Apabhra ņşa or every-day language of the people running accomplished what A. C. Burnell has stated to be a great

parallel to it. In other words, Maharàshtrî was an arbitrary desideratum in the Introduction to his Rktantravyākarana

creation of the poets, carrying out with somewhat pedantie (1879, p. iv): “At the present stage of Sanskrit studies, there

consistency the laws of phonetic disorganisation already at is an urgent need of a grammar, not based on the facts, and,

work in early Prakrit. It is, for instance, hardly possible to perhaps. fictions, of native grammarians, as has hitherto been understand the complete emasculation of such words as ead done by all writers on the subject, but one in accordance with

and aan, meaning either udaka or udaya and âgata or åyata or the requirements of modern science, and based on the facts of

åtapa respectively, except on the supposition that the author the language as recorded in the literature.” As is said on the

conceived his ideas in Sanskrit and mechanically extended title-page, Whitney in his Grammar not alone treats of the

analogies established elsewhere to the extirpation of every • Classical" (or later) language, but also of the older dialects.

consonant in the word. There is no doubt that, had it suited of Veda and Brahmana, and in this part of his work-printed

his purpose to use a pleonastic Sanskrit form atapaka, he with smaller type-lies its main value. No doubt the labours

would have rendered it in Prakrit by daaa. The living speech of some of Whitney's predecessors in this department, labours

of the people, on the other hand, would always strive to be which can hardly be said to exist to the same degree for the

intelligible in the first place, and would, therefore, naturally later Sanskrit-herein stood him in good stead; but Whitney

shrink from such radical confusion. But an Indian poet is has also drawn on his own resources, and is incontestably

hampered by none of these considerations, and rather prides entitled to the merit of having, in his Sanskrit grammar, also

himself on the invention and accumulation of perplexing given the first grammar of the Vedic language. The neces

puzzles. When such is the liberty of the poet in handling the sary consequence of this particular regard to the Veda was that material of language, one can easily understand how the Whitney had to emancipate himself more from the trammels text underwent frequent alterations in the successive attempts of the native grammarians than would else have been neces of many generations of men to arrive at the original Sanskrit sary. The Indians themselves--notwithstanding its generally

meaning, and how gradually it split up into a number of being supposed that their grammatical studies were grounded

different recensions more or less independent from each other. on the Sacred Books-treated the Veda as rather subordi Our editor in the MSS at his disposal traces at least four of nate. Whitney himself says on this head (p. x): “It seems

them, not including the Mâgadhî recension known to altogether likely that the grammatical sense of the Ancient

Hemachandra and a worthless modern fabrication clumsily Hindus was awakened in great measure by their study of the

retranslated from an old Sanskrit chhayâ. The work involved traditional Sacred texts.” In the hands of a scholar, who for

in the comparison of the various readings of these four recenhis basis always takes the oldest forms, a Sanskrit grammar

sions and selection of the best of them in each case was one necessarily assumes a form different from the form of the

of no small difficulty, and the way it was carried out reflects grammars hitherto written ; and it must be confessed that in

the greatest credit on Prof. S. Goldschmidt's scholarship, and Whitney's case this has not turned out a disadvantage. Next

on his ingenuity in dealing with the complex questions arising to the constant reference to the facts of the language and the

ont of the unsatisfactory state of his various MSS. The vv.ll prominence given to the Veda, a third main merit of Whit of two of these recensions can only be arrived at b5 ney's grammar is the careful treatment of the syntax. A

induction, in conjecturing the Prakrit word that may have syntax of the Sanskrit language, although long promised, bas

stood for the Sanskrit one in a chliāyā or even in a free not yet been written. Whitney has made more than a very

metrical version. Of the other two recensions there is one good commencement with it. And here again Veda and

which only contains a much impaired Prakrit text without Brahmana play the role to which they are entitled. If we any auxiliary to assist one in its correct interpretation, and add that Whitney has treated the language throughout as an

there remains, thus, only one recension on which the text accented one, that in an introduction he has given a brief

could be based throughout on account of its being accompanied account of the Indian literature to show the relation to one

by a chhävā and a good commentary. Although there were another of the different periods and forms of the language

four MSS. at hand for this recension, no absolute reliance treated in the grammar, and the position of the works there

could be placed on any one of them, or all four combined quoted; that two Indexes facilitate the use of the work,-we

together, for representing the true reading of the codex archebelieve that we have said all that is necessary to recommend typus. They are partly copies from other copies that had his grammar to scholar and student. Indeed there can be no

been collated with other versions, and on the whole the doubt that it will rank amongst the most important publi

different classes of MSS. are intertwined a good deal so as not cations in the department of Indian Philology. .

to offer a good representative of any one class for itself. All PRAKRIT LITERATURE.--Setubandha, herausgegeben von this and a great many other things had to be considered, Siegfried Goldschmidt (Trübner & Co., Strassburg. London, and it it was not always possible consistently to carry out the 1830).-Animportant contribution to our knowledge of ancient | same principles in view of so much conflicting evidence, we

can at least feel assured that the editor did the next best thing of the Atharva-Veda, by Prof. W. D. Whitney, of New to that in most carefully judging each case on its own merits Haven. – 4. Remarks on the Method and Processes of and deciding it according to the most approved rules of || Comparative Mythology, by Mr. J. Luquiens, of Boston.-5. textual criticism. To have recovered, by his critical method, On Catalectic Vedic verses of seven Syllables, by Prof. C. R. the tert as it originally stood, the editor does not hope him Lanman, of Baltimore, MD.-6. On Noun-Inflection in the self, but he feels confident of having given us as good a text Sabean, by Prof. C. H. Toy, of New York.-7. On a certain as we could hope for from those MSS. that are known to exist, Phonetic Change in Zend, by Mr. Luquiens.-8. Mr. John and eren one from which we can safely derive our conclusions Westall, of Fall River, Mass., called the attention of the regarding the phonetical and grammatical features of the Society to certain representations of the resurrection on lauguage in about the sixth century. In this respect, the Index Egyptian monuments, and remarked briefly upon them.-9. Verborum begun, as a basis for his editorial work, by the late On the Rules of External Combination in Sanskrit, by Pan) Goldschmidt on the readings of the one Berlin MS. and Prof. Whitney.-10. On Zoroaster and Zoroastrianism, by since then adapted to his improved text by the present editor, | Mr. J. N. Fradenburgh, of Franklin, Pa.; presented by the is of the greatest value to us. As a help for the student to Corresponding Secretary.-11. On the present Attitude of the proper understanding of the poem it will not be quite so | Islam, by Prof. J. W. Jenks, of Newtonville, Mass. After ozrenient as a chhůyå would be, nor, perhaps, could the the conclusion of this paper, the usual vote of thanks to the German translation take the place of that altogether, greatly American Academy for the use of its room was passed, and welcomed as it may be in itself. While wishing, therefore, the Society adjourned, to meet at New York in October. that Part II. may not be too long in coming out, we should The ORIENTAL AND BIBLICAL JOURNAL.- This periodical like to express a hope that Prof. Goldschmidt might see his having completed its first volume, it is the intention of its Far to printing a verbal Sanskrit version along with the editor, the Rev. Stephen D. Peet, of Clinton, Wis., to German translation. If transcribed in our alphabet, it would amalgamate it with the “ American Antiquarian," and he hardly take much space, and it would certainly facilitate the hopes by so doing to enlarge the sphere of usefulness of both study of the text a great deal.

periodicals. The “ American Antiquarian" commenced its SEARCH FOR SANSKRIT MANUSCRIPTS.-Dr. G. Bühler third volume in October, 1880; and we are convinced it bas issued his report on the search for Sanskrit manuscripts only requires to be known to be appreciated and patronized. during the year 1879-80. In cataloguing important libraries A TREASURY OF THOUGHT. - Under the title “ British he directed his attention exclusively to the ancient Bhandårs Thought and British Thinkers," Prof. George S. Morris, of Anhilwad - Pathan and of Cambay as the ancient collec A.M., Lecturer on Philosophy in the Johns Hopkins tions made chiefly in the 12th, 13th, and 14th centuries are University, has worked out an historical manual of English of especial interest; they mostly contain copies written on | philosophical thought. The book covers a period embracing palm leaves which surpass all others through their great age the times of John of Salisbury, Roger Bacon, Duns Scotus, and correctness. It is also in these libraries that copies are William of Occam, E. Spenser, Davies, Hooker, Shakespeare, frand of works not now studied by the learned, but which Lord Bacon, Hobbes, Locke, Berkeley, Hume, down to our bare an interest to the European scholar who studies the own epoch, and including Mill and Herbert Spencer. Prof. history of the Sastras, The S'ânturâth's Bhandâr which Dr. Morris has accomplished a difficult task in epitomising inforBubler purposely went to Cambay to visit, he sayg, is well mation that could only be obtained by the study of very worthy of its fame; the manuscripts, about 300 in number, voluminous writings, and he has so blended his materials that are exceedingly old, six dating from the beginning of the 12th his book is concise, and at the same time attractive and century, beautifully and correctly written. In the Samgha entertaining. The volume is published by Messrs. S. C. Find Pada Bhandâr at Pàthan the cataloguers discovered a Griggs & Co., of Chicago, and Trübner & Co., London. Tery ancient copy of the oldest Sanskrit Dictionary, the A MANUAL OF CLASSICAL LITERATURE.- What Prof. Sisrata Kosha, of which only one other copy (at Oxford) is Geo. Morris has done for British philosophy, Mr. Charles known to exist. The Samghavi Bhandar contains nothing Morris has done for classical literature in the volume before but palm leaf manuscripts, upwards of 400, and amongst us. His manual comprises : Biographical and Critical ther of the 12th century. In purchasing manuscripts Dr. Notices of the Principal Greek and Roman Authors, with Buhler obtained in nine months more than he had ever Illustrative Extracts from their Works. Also a Brief Survey ataided before in Gujarat, in consequence of the scarcity of of the Rise and Progress of the various Forms of Literature, food and the epidemic fever which carried off a large per- | with Descriptions of the Minor Authors ; just as much as centage of the inhabitants of Western India. As regards the ordinary student requires, and a good introduction for

quality of the books purchased, this year's collection con- those who want thoroughly to study the classical authors of tains many that are rare and important. In Vedic literature | Greece and Rome. there are 159 manuscripts, the Rig Veda being represented i THE HEBREW REVIEW.-The Rabbinical Literary A880by the Brâhmana, the Satras of S'ânkhâyana Sakha, the ciation of America, under the presidency of Dr. Max Lilienrare commentary of Durgâchårya on the Nirukta, a Galita thal, purpose issuing a periodical quarterly devoted to the pradipa, and a Padgàdha. Very great interest appertains to exposition and defence of the principles of modern Judaism, a collection of ten manuscripts of the Matrayapiya Sakha, to be entitled the “ Hebrew Review." ertaining the greater portion of the Samhitâ, a Padapatha NORSE MYTHOLOGY. – We understand that an Italian of the Mantras, the Mânvagrihyasūtra partly with a commen translation of Prof. Anderson's Norse Mythology is in prepatary, and six treatises on the sacrificial and funereal rights ration in Milan, and will be published in that city early in cf the Vedic school.

1881. We trust the modern Latins will appreciate this atFREEMASONRY IN CH

IN CHINA. – A pamphlet, illustrated by tempt to introduce them to the Scandinavian myths. Foodcats, has recently been published by the Ionic Lodge of GIPSIES.- Under the title of “ The English Universities Amoy, on " Freemasonry in China." We believe the work is and John Bunyan and the Encyclopædia Britannica and the not for sale, but presentation copies appear to have been Gipsies," Mr. James Simpson, Editor of Simpson's “History received by various Masons of high standing in the Craft. of the Gipsies," and author of “Contributions to Natural It is from the pen of Mr. H. A. Giles, H.B.M., Acting History,' &c., has issued a pamphlet to prove that John Bunyan

came of the Gipsy race, in which he reviews Mr. Groome's NIRVANA. - In the Journal of the Royal Asiatic So Article on the Gipsies in the Ency. Brit., and the theory that ciety (xiii. i.) will be found a very able and interesting Bunyan was connected with the family of a baronet, when he account of “The Nirvana of the Northern Buddhists," himself says, “ My father's house being of that rank that is by Dr. Edkins, in which he points out that the Northern meanest and most despised of all the families in the land." Buddhist nations are seven in number, the Southern SPELLING REFORM.-The English Spelling Reform Assothree; and, that the belief in the“ Paradise of Amitabha” ciation concurs in the following opinions of many eminent has among the Tibetans. Mongols and Ghoorkas, much scholars, statesmen and educationalists:-1. Existing English kept the two ideas of "Nirvana” out of sight, while the orthography is a serious hindrance to education. 2. It is same thing has been done by Confucianism in China. The possible and advisable to re-constitute English orthography Baddhists are, generally, shy of controversy, especially as the upon rational grounds. 3. Such a re-constitution would Confucianists have, on their side, position, confidence, learn. rather illumine, than obscure, the history and etymology of ug and Imperial Deerces. In Corea, Buddhism is despised - the English language. 4. It may be so contrived as rather but, in Japan it is still strong. That of Cochin China is an to add to, than detract from, the value of existing books, by oti-shoot from Chinese Buddhism. The theory of a "Western rendering them more accessible in their present form. 5. Paradise" is not found among the Southern Buddhists.

Such a re-constituted orthography would materially increase AMERICAN ORIENTAL SOCIETY.- Proceedings at Boston, | the absolute number of readers, by greatly abridging the Har 19th, 1880. - Communications. -1. On Palestinian time required for learning to read both in the new and the Archeology, by Rev. Selah Merrill, of Andover, Mass. present orthography. 6. It would thus enable much time,

the True Site of Nineveh, by Mr. Porter C. Bliss, I now wasted at school in imparting a mastery over the present

Consal at Amoy.

that knowledge itself. 7. It would necessarily facilitate the dustrial subjects: Narratives of Travel in Picturesque Lands: acquisition of received English pronunciation both by natives Discussions of Important Public Questions; and Poems by and foreigners. 8. And it would hence tend to render the best Authors, thus maintaining its position as the leading universal the use of the English language, already spoken by | Literary Magazine of America. The special announcements more millions than any other on the face of the globe. On for 1881 include Serial Stories, by Miss Elizabeth Stuart these grounds the English Spelling Retorm Association pro Phelps, Author of The Gates Ajar,” “The Silent Partner," poses I. To collect, arrange, and distribute information on “The Story of Avis," etc.; Mr. George P. Lathrop, well the subject of Spelling Reform. II. To collect works on known to all readers of “The Atlantic"; Mr. William Henry Spelling Reform, and to preserve copies of articles bearing on Bishop, Author of “Detmold"; Mr. Henry James, Jr.; and the subject from periodicals. III. To institute and watch | Mr. W. D. Howells, Author of The Undiscovered Country," experiments on teaching to read, spell, and pronounce, with • The Lady of the Aroostook," etc. Short Stories and reformed systems. IV. To promote lectures and public Sketches, by Mr. T. B. Aldrich, Author of " Marjorie Daw," meetings for the purpose of imparting information on Spelling and other delightful stories; Miss Sarah 0. Jewett, Author Reform, and for memorializing public bodies in its favour. of “ Deephaven,” “Old Friends and New ;” Mrs. Harriet

OXFORD PHILOLOGICAL SOCIETY. – Transactions, 1879 Beecher Stowe, Mark Twain, Constance Fenimore Woolson, 1880.-On October 31, 1879, Mr. Wordsworth, of Brasenose Rose Terry Cooke, Ellen Olney, and others. Papers on College, read a paper on “The Stoneyhurst College MS, of | Biography, History, Society, and Travel, by Mr. William M. the Gospel according to St. John of the seventh century, Rossetti, who will contribute a series of papers on the" Wires generally called St. Cubbert's St. John.”-On November 14, of the Poets”; Mr. Goldwin Smith, Mr. John Fiske, Author of 1879, Mr. Sayce read a memoir “On the supposed figure of “Myths and Myth-Makers," on the Early Culture, Myths, and Niobe, on Mount Sipylus."-On Nov. 28, 1879, Mr.J.A. Stewart Folk-Lore of our Aryan Ancestors ; Mr. Joseph Dagdale, read a paper “On the Corpus MS. of the Nicomachean Author of The Jukes," on the Relation of Society to Crime; Ethics" (CCC.codex chartaceus, sec. xv.,' Coxe's Cat.), H.H., a Series of Letters describing Life and Scenery in Nordescribing the results of a collation of Books i. ii. iv. v, and way, and the Rev, E. E. Hale, who will write a series of Article vi.-On the same evening Mr. H. Nettleship read “Lexico describing the Social, Political, and Religious Life of the graphical Notes on Agina, Alapa, Cilo, Metuere Deos, Prona World, especially of Palestine at the time Jesus Christ was maria, Secare, secta, sectio, etc.”-On February 6, 1880, Mr.

born; the circumstances which caused His teachings to be a T. C. Snow read a paper on “ The description of the king in challenge to the ecclesiastical authority of His day, and why the Homeric Poems."-On the same evening Mr. Monro read “the common people heard him gladly.” This promises to a paper “On the MS. containing the arguments of some of be a series of very great value and remarkable interest. It the Cyclic' poems, with reference to a theory recently will not be theological or sectarian, but historical. Poetry; advanced by Professor Michaelis."-On Friday, February 22, “The Atlantic', is generally acknowledged to publish more Mr. R. Ellis read a memorandum on a Latin epigram, good poetry than any other Magazine in the world. No other Burmann iv. 99, Meyer 1582. He had copied it from a MS. periodical presents regularly Poems from such writers in in the Public Library at Modena (vi. B. iv, 134), written Longfellow, Whittier, Holmes, Lowell, Stedman, Aldrich, seemingly in the 15th century.-On the same evening Mr. F. Miss Larcom, Celia Thaxter. Edgar Fawcett, and many others D. Morice read a paper on “The Classification of Greek of like distinction. Living Questions in Politics, Education, Conditional Sentences.”-On Mar.5, 1880, Mr. Monro offered Religion, and Industry, are discussed by persons eminentij some remarks “ On the characteristic ă of the Perfect and qualified to treat them tho

ghly, and so as to enlist the First Aorist in Greek.”-On April 30, 1880, Mr. Shute read a attention of thinking men and women. “The Atlantie paper on “ Prantl's Recension of the Aristotelian Physics, Monthly” numbers among its contributors the leading Leipsic, Teubner, 1879; with reference (a) to the authority of American Authors, who write principally or exclusively for the MSS; (B) to the use made of the early Greek Com- this Magazine : Emerson, Longfellow, Whittier, Holmes mentators.”On May 28, 1880, a criticism by Mr. Evelyn Lowell, Hale, Whipple, Aldrich, Stedman, Howells, James, Abbott was read upon A. Kirchhoff's work, “Ueber die Fiske. Richard Grant White, De-Forest, Warner, Waring, Entstehungszeit des Herodoteischen Geschichtswerkes. Zweite Scudder, Lathrop, Bishop, Mark Twain, Cranch, Shaler, Auflage, Berlin, 1878."

Perry, Mrs. Stowe, Rose Terry Cooke, H. H., Miss Larcom, Rates Of POSTAGE ON NEWSPAPERS FROM THE U.S. Miss Olney, Miss Phelps. Miss Preston, Miss Jewett, Miss UNDER THE INTERNATIONAL TREATY. - In May last we Woolson, Mrs. Thaxter, Mrs. Moulton, Mrs. Piatt, and many wrote to the Honourable Carl Schurz, pointing out the in others. The New Volume commenced January, 1881. justice of making the public pay two cents postage for a newg. “Good COMPANY."_Besides the Atlantic Monthly now paper under 2 oz. in weight, when unregistered matter was well-known and appreciated this side of the Atlantic, Nex carried for one cent. The Honourable Secretary of the England may take credit for at least one other magazine Interior acknowledged our letter, and promised that the Post supported by native writers. We allude to " Good Company." Office Department would give attention to the matter, which published at Springfield, Mass. It claims, and we think the following letter shows they have done :

fairly, to be a monthly magazine, fresh, varied, vigorous. Post Office Department, Office of Foreign Mails, Some of its features are:-1. Good stories and plenty of Washington, D.C., Nov. 26, 1880.

them, by popular writers, new and old. 2. Entertaining Sir,-Your letter to the Honourable Carl Schurz, Secretary sketches of travel, foreign lands, biography and so forth, 19 of the Interior of this Government, dated May 10th last, great variety. 3. Essays on timely topics, brief, crisp, piths, relative to the rate of postage charged in the United States, the lengthy lucubrations being left to heavier magazines. 4. upon newspapers for Europe, was referred by Mr. Schurz to Everything original; an exceptional feature in these days: the Postmaster General at or about the same time that the when three or four publications are not unfrequently running practice of the British Post Office relative to newspaper rates, the same English serial story. 5. Readability of a bigt referred to in your letter, was first brought to the notice of degree throughout. Its contributors have recently included this Department; and inasmuch as the current British Postal Charles Dudley Warner, Edward Eggleston, John Burroughs, Guide did not indicate the charge in Great Britain of a lower George M. Towle, Horace E. Scudder, Maurice Thompson, rate of newspaper postage than ld. for each newspaper of Edward Bellamy, Pres. John Bascom, Prof. A. S. Hill, E.S. four ounces or less, correspondence with the British Office Gilbert, William M. F. Round, W. H. Rideing, Ernest was had upon the subject, resulting in disclosing the correct Ingersoll, T. S. Collier, Sidney Lanier, Harriet Beecher ness of the statement that said charge had been reduced to Stowe, Rebecca Harding Davis, Rose Terry Cooke, Ellen W.

1. per two ounces. The reasons assigned by the British | Olney. Sarah 0. Jewett, Lizzie W. Champney, Octave Thane Office for its reduction of the newspaper rate commended Mrs. Edward Ashley Walker. Mrs. E. P. R. Bianciardi, themselves to the Postmaster General, and led to the issue by Helen W. Ludlow, Lucy Larcom, Elaine Goodale, Dora Read him on the 20th August last, of an order reducing the Goodale, Margaret J. Preston, Lucrèce. United States newspaper rate for the Postal Union, on and PLATONIC PHILOSOPHY. - Mr. Thomas M. Johnson, of after October 1st last, to l cent for each two ounces or Osceola, Mo., proposes to publish “The Platonist," & fraction thereof. I regret that, by inadvertence, you have monthly periodical, devoted chiefly to the dissemination of not been earlier notified of this action of the Postmaster the Platonic Philosophy in all its phases. In this degenerated General.-I am, very respectfully, your obedient servant, age, when the senses are apotheosized, materialism absurdly Joseph H. Blackfan, Superintendent Foreign Mails. - To considered philosophy, folly and ignorance popularized, and the Editor of Trübner's American, European and Oriental the dictum, “get money, eat, drink and be merry for toLiterary Record, 57 and 59, Ludgate Hill, London, England. morrow we die," exemplifies the actions of millions of man

THE ATLANTIC MONTHLY.--"The Atlantic Monthly” has kind, there certainly is a necessity for a journal which shall held for nearly twenty-five years the post of honour among be a candid, bold and fearless exponent of the Platonic American Literary Periodicals. The arrangements for the Philosophy, a philosophy totally subversive of sensualism, new year will include Serial and Short Stories: Essays on materialism, folly and ignorance. This philosophy recogniz Social, Literary, Artistic, Political, Educational, and In- | the essential immortality and divinity of the human soul and

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