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ASSOCIATION,

" THE LIGHT OF ASIA."

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AMONGST the commendations which the author of this, about thirteen years ago, for the purpose of going through the greatest Epic of modern times-has received for his the whole of the Pitaka l'exts, I was entrusted with a third poem, by no means the least interesting, though the latest, will of the task. ... If there be anything in my power to do be found in the following letters received by him and for for you, I am at your service.-I am, my dear Sir, yours warded to us. from members of the community of the faithfully, WeLIGAMA SRI SUMANGALA." Rankoth Viharé, a famous Buddhist temple in Ceylon :

Dr. G. T. Flanders in the (American) “Universalist Copy of letter from the Chief of the Rankoth Viharé, Quarterly Review," under the title of Christ or Buddba ?* Ceylon, to Edwin Arnold, Esq., C.S.I., author of " The Light draws a parallel between the lives of Jesus the Christ an of Asia."

Gautama the Buddha. It is singular how nearly the erents “ Panadaré, Ceylon, 22nd July, 1881. in the histories of the two benefactors of humanity coincide, “Sir,—It is with the greatest pleasure that I have to and Dr. Flanders' aim is to decide the theological side of the acknowledge the receipt of a copy of The Light of Asia,' question rather than to review Mr. Edwin Arnold's poem which you had the kindness to present to the Viharé. Please We will endeavour to summarize his statements. He com. to accept our most sincere thanks for your precious gift. The pares the births of Gautama and Jesus, and shows that whilst Venerable priest Weligama Sri Sumangala, who is renowned that of the former is related with oriental imagery involvitz alike for his deep learning and devoted priest-hood, in hand absurdity, the latter is essentially simple and realistic. w ing over the copy of The Light of Asia,' said that you the exception of the miraculous conception. In comparing wished to know whether we approve of it. After what the the asserted miracles of both, he shows that those attributed great critics of the day have said of the work and the high to Gautama were utterly useless, whilst those of Jesus *t! commendations of the newspapers on either side of the

for a benevolent or useful purpose. Gautama, who Atlantic, I need hardly say anything either by way of com born to princely estate, which he gave up to devote birusel! ment or praise. This much I may say, that. The Light of to alleviate evils incidental to humanity, died of eating Asia' is highly appreciated by all the Buddhists in Ceylon. pork, a dish, we believe, generally eschewed by Orieutas The fact that your noble work was approved by the King of Jesus was born of poor estate and was crucified. 9 Siam, and that you were admitted to the celebrated Order of foretold by the prophets of his own people. Dr. Flande the White Elephant, was known to me long before our learned comes to the conclusion of Dr. Eitel, that there is not a single priest received your letter. Some time back in an American | Buddhistic manuscript in existence which could ven paper an account of it appeared, as also the letter of the antiquity and undoubted authenticity with the oldest code King to you, which I have translated and published in one of of the Gospels. The Codex Vaticanus was written in the the Singhalese journals for the information of the Ceylon fourth century. one hundred years brfore the first exition of the Buddhists. I have kept your admirable book in the sacred Buddhist Scriptures was undertaken, of which not a 2107 library attached to the Viharé. Enclosed you will find a view ancient manuscript has been preserved! Putting on one side of the Viharé, which I would thank you to accept as a poor the claims of Buddhism and Christianity as rivals in the return for your valuable present. The Rankoth Viharé. I matter of antiquity, there is no doubt that the former reliqen may here observe, is one of the most famous of the Buddhist resembles the latter in teaching brotherly love, and that templey in Ceylon, and it is here that the learned priest has greatly benefited India in breaking down caste. what Weligama Sri Sumangala for the most part resides.- I am, is inimical to it. We opine that a religion founded entre Sir, yours faithfully, J. J. COORAY"

in error could not have existed so long as it has, nor wordt Extract from letter of the Chief Conductor of Ceremonies have drawn into its folds by far a larger portion of the basu in the Rankoth Viharé, Ceylon.

race than any other. The Swedish ser, Emanuel S#*

“Panadaré. borg, stated that some part of Asia was possessed of 16 "My dear Sir,-I have received your very welcome letter. sacred scriptures, or “the Word " as he terms it. The Bar ...: Agreeably to your desire expressed in the postscript to Dr. Tatel has kindly sent us the following quotation from “Ik your letter, I have handed one of the two copies of The Light Apocalypse Revealed," No. II:- Respecting that Ancies: of Asia' to the head of the community of this Viharé, and have Word which existed before the Israelitic Word in Asal asked him to write to you giving his opinion of the same. am allowed to relate this new information; namely, that its However great and almost immeasurable the distance still preserved among the peoples who inhabit the Great of the sun and moon be from the earth, yet the lotus spreads Tartary. I conversed with spirits and angels who want its petals through the influence of the distant san, and the thence in the spiritual worid, and they stated that the water-lily (kumuda) through that of the distant moon. In possessed the Word, and that they possessed it from the like manner, however distant though we be from each other, ancient times; and that according to that Divine Word they the kind expressions in your letter are to me what the sun and celebrated their worship, which consisted entirely of mere the moon are to the lotus and the water-lily respectively. correspondences. They also said that it contained the Bund Since you are anxious to know what my relations have been of Jasher mentioned in Joshua x. 12, 13. and in the second and are to the Sangha, allow me to inform you that of the Book of Samuel 1. 17. 18. And that tbere was also with two sects, "Amara pura' and ' Siam,' existing in Ceylon, I them the books called The Wars of Jehovah and the Prophetica belong to the former. There are several sub-divisions of the Enunciations, mentioned by Moses in Numbers XXI. 14, 15, Amarapura sect. I am one of the four chiefs in our division and 27-30. On reading to them the words which Moses bad in particular. I was some thirty years ago ordained or quoted from these books, they examined whether they were made an Upasampada priest by the Maha Sangha. About in the original, and found them there ; from which it became seven years ago the name of ‘Isthawira' (a Sangha of the evident to me that the Ancient Word is still with them. ... highest grade) was conferred on me by the Sangha, in con They related further that they did not permit any foreigners formity with the rules laid down in the Vinayapitaka. I am

me among them, except the Chinese, with whom thes usually appointed Investigator or Judge in cases of the priests cnltivate peace, because the Emperor of China is from the of almost all the divisions in Ceylon of the Amarapura sect, country; and besides that they are so populous that they and the chief Conductor of the following Ceremonies of the cannot imagine any country in the world to be more so; Sangha or priesthood, to wit, the Parivása (the confession which indeed appears credible from the great length of the of sins of the priests), the Manatha (the compromising of wall which the Chinese formerly built as a security agaius: sins), and the Abhána (the rectifying of former sins). In their incursions. Look for that Word in China and perhaps accordance with the rules of the Vinaya Pitaka, the Buddhist

it there among the Tartars.” Dr. Flanders priests have after every sin of commission or omission to go review has been reprinted in a separate form, and pube through these ceremonies. At a meeting held at Ratnapura | lished by Mr. Geo. Bates, of Salem, Mass.

LITERARY INTELLIGENCE. Dr. Rost, the learned Librarian of the India Office, has | Asoka and some specimens of the architecture of the Gupta been elected a Corresponding Member of the Royal Bavarian period. In the appendix will be found a dissertation on the Academy of Sciences.

dates of the Gupta Dynasty. The second contains Reports of The ARCHÆOLOGICAL SURVEY OF INDIA. - We have Tours in the Gangetic Provinces from Badaon to Bihar in received volumes X. and XI. of Major-General Cunningham's | 1875-6 and 1877-8. During this tour General Cunningham Archaeological Survey of India. The first contains Reports identified the site of the famous Uruvilwa forest which gare of Tours in Bundelkhand and Malwa, 1874-5 and 1876-7, | its name to Uruvilwa Kâsyapa, the fire-worshipping opponent which resulted in the discovery of antiquities of the time of l of Buddha. It was in this Vilua (bel tree) forest that Sakya

Sinha retired for contemplation, and where he finally attained The Student's MARATHI GRAMMAR.-The Rev. Ganpato Boddbabood. The place is now the small hamlet Urel, a trao R. Navalkar, of Alibag near Bombay, issued last year a contraction of the Pali name Urawel, but the whole neigh new edition of his Student's Marathi Grammar, which is now bourhood round still abounds with bel trees.

to be had of Trübner & Co. This edition contains many ANCIENT INDIAN INSCRIPTIONS.— The Science and Art improvements and corrections on the “ Manual of Marathi Department has made arrangements for the translation into Grammar,” under which title the first edition was issued. Eczlish of the inscriptions to be found on the articles in the

The author traces the development of the Marathi language locan Museum, and Mr. A. N. Woollaston has been placed

from the Sanskrit through Prakrit to its present condition, in charge of the work with Mirza Muhammad Bakur Khan

the Marathi being like the English, a composite lang iage as bis assistant. Mr. Woollaston is Examiner in Persian to continually growing by the adoption of new words, some of tże Royal Military College at Sandhurst, and the translator its later ones being even borrowed from the latter. of the “* Anvar-i-Suhali," and Mirza Muhammad Bakur Ceylon INSCRIPTIONS.-Edward Muller's work on Ceylon Khan who was attached to the British Residency at Bushire, | Inscriptions, copied during four years' residence in the Island, is a clever Persian and Arabic scholar ranking amongst the is in the press, and will shortly be published under the first Persian poets of the present day. When the Indian auspices of the Government of Ceylon; it will be an 8vo. Inscriptions have been translated, it is probable that those in volume of about 200 pages. the Persian collection will be proceeded with.

CHINA.-" The Middle Kingdom," or the Cathay of the PROFESSOR LAXMAN'S Books.-Professor Lanman's book, | Ancients, which possessed a civilization considerably advanced "On Soun-Inflection in the Veda" (New Haven, 1880, 277 pp. when Europe was just emerging from barbarism, and which 150) aims at an exhaustive and systematic discussion of the is said to contain one-tenth of the inhabitants of the whole toun-forms in the Rig-and Atharva-vedas. It is primarily world. must necessarily possess an interest for the reading grammatical investigation of the actual usages of the public both of Europe and America, and authentic works edie dialect, and upon it Professor W. D. Whitney has which throw light on China and the Chinese always meet ased his treatment of the subject in his Sanskrit grammar with a ready sale. The latest work on this subject, by the Biently issued. Secondarily, however, it treats of a great | Rev. L. N. Wheeler, is published by Messrs. Griggs & Co., bast questions of exegesis, metre, and the text criticism of of Chicago; it is entitled The Foreigner in China," giving ndividual passages. Scattered throughout the work, also, a history of the effects on the Chinese of the teachings of P oamerous statistical researches, which shed interesting Christianity and western civilization as represented in the lgbt upon broader problems of Vedic criticism. It is pro- | labour of the Missionaries, Dr. Wheeler was nearly eight ided with an index of citations, an index of Sanskrit words, 1 years a resident in China, and enjoyed except

| years a resident in China, and enjoyed exceptional opportuod a general index, His Sanskrit Reader, with dictionary nities for becoming acquainted with the facts be relates. pl potes, is now going through the press. The most | Like all who have had an opportunity of seeing the effects eues obstacle to the progress of Sanskrit studies in of opium smoking on the physique of the populace, he America has been the utter lack of suitable text-books. strenuously advocates a repeal of the Treaty which exposes this difficulty has been removed in part by Professor the Chinese nation to slow poisoning. Dr. Wheeler attributes Whitney's Sanskrit Grammar. Böhtlingk's abridged San the hostility of foreigners, and especially the Britis

specially the British, to the kr::-German Dictionary will probably be finished in several Ti Ping rebels, to the fact that their leader had strictly sars, and will be very complete and cheap. His Reader is forbidden the use of opium amongst his followers. The Iso cheap and good, but contains neither glossary nor ex account he gives of the doings of the rebels compare favourladatry notes. Williams' Dictionary costs 21 dollars; the ably with those of their Manchoo opponents, the former 5. Petersburgh Lexicon about 75 dollars. Few students can always treating Europeans well, even when their relatives e expected to buy these costly works at the outset, when they were being slaughtered through the assistance given by De uncertain whether Sanskrit will be of sufficient interest foreign mercenaries to the Manchoos.-" China and Japan. I se to them to warrant their continuing it. At the end of a record of observations made during a residence of several the first year, however, a decision will be easy. A well-made years, and a tour of visitation to the Missions of both ind inexpensive manual for the first year's work in Sanskrit countries in 1877-8,” by the Rev. J. W. Wiley, D.D., of the $. therefore, a real desideratum. This the handbook whose Methodist Episcopal Church, and published by Hitchcock & itle i* given above will attempt to supply. It will furnish Walden, Cincinnati, is another book upon our table. Mr. bough material for about forty weeks in a course of three Wiley seems to have travelled over a large portion of both urs a week. It will consist of three parts : text. dictionitry, countries, and he has a happy way of imparting his experiences i notes. Of these, the first part is in the Sanskrit charac to his readers that fixes their attention without wearying ters. The Sanskrit words of the other two will be in them, and at the same time copious illustrations add to the English letters. In all, there are 105 large octavo pages, attractiveness of the narrative — " The Chinese, their Educatwo-thirds being classical Sanskrit, and the last third tion, Philosophy, and Letters," by the Rev. W. A. P. Martin, belonging to the Vedic period. The easy Nala is the Xeno D.D., President of the Tungwen College, Peking (London, pbon's Anabasis of Sanskrit students, and quotations from it Trubner & Co.; New York, Harper Bros.), gives us another appear very often as examples in the grammars. The first view of Chinese life, and shows us how the governing classes Ive cantos form a complete story. The fables were chosen of China receive their education. The first edition of this lccording to their intrinsic excellence and their interest as book, wliich was printed in China, bore the title of the Originals of well-known Occidental fables (Gellert, Perrette, “Hanlin Papers," because the Hanlin Yuan or Imperial etc.). The same is true of the tales. The selections from Academy represents the embodiment of the highest forms of Mana give a picture of the life of a Brahman in its four Chinese intellectual life. The influence of the Hanlin stadia, the legend of the creation, and the details of the Academy does not appear to reach the masses to any extent, doctrine of the transmigration of souls. Among the Vedic that is, if we accept Mr. Martin's statistics, that though uying are, first, some of the easiest; then some taken on every one is supposed to read and write in China, not one, account of their literary merit; and, finally, some taken although he may read with perfect accuracy, will combecause of their historical importance. The Brahmana prehend a single sentence of what he is reading-the ordinary pieces are chosen in such a way as to show the relation of Chinese school-boy merely representing a parrot who can this kind of literature to the hymns. Thus, some of the read, but does not think. We are glad to hear that Dr. S. legendy are amplitications of allusions in the hymns. The Wells Williams is progressing in his preparation of a new Sutra chapters on wedding and burial are given for the edition of his work entitled the “Middle Kingdom," which interest of their contents. Since these rubrics prescribe that is undoubtedly the fullest and most exhaustive work on Certain numerous verses of the Rig-veda be repeated at these China which has appeared during the present century. Ceremonials, care has been had that all those verses may be Messrs. Trübner & Co. will probably issue it next year. frand among the Vedic selections. The dictionary will be SWEDENBORG ON THE BRAIN.-It is proposed to publish absolutely complete for the text given. It will also combine the Treatise on the Brain-consisting of portions hitherto some of the features of Professor John Williams White's unpublished of the “ Animal Kingdom," and the “ Economy projected Greek word-book; that is, about each root, not of the Animal Kingdom," by Emanuel Swedenborg, transonly verbal root, but also those of nouns and pronouns--will lated and edited by R. L. Tafel, A.M., Ph.D., in four De grouped all the derivatives of that root occurring in the volumes, large Svo.cloth, at the subscription price of 18 dols.; Teader. There will probably be brief mentions of the cognate atlas of plates, 4 dols. 50 cents, providing enough subscribers Gek, Latin, and English words. The notes will be short, can be obtained to pay the cost. This encyclopædic treatise

will give ample assistance. They will explain allusions has been translated from the photolithographed MSS. of to the bistory and antiquities of India, contain references Swedenborg, by Dr. RL. Tafel. It contains the first comaroughout (especially for irregular forms) to Whitney's

I plete theory of the brain and of the nervous system that has inmar, and give concise literary introductions to the ever been set forth. As the work was written one hundred

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