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As the Works of this celebrated Author have become so rare, and so highly valued by Antiquaries, the reproduction of so famous a Work must interest all who delight in the ancient associations of all parts of Wales, and its Borders, as well as in the histories of the old County Families.
Upwards of seventy years have elapsed since the publication of the last edition of PENNANT'S Tours in Wales; a remarkable fact when it is remembered that Mr. PENNANT made himself a high place amongst the Antiquaries and Naturalists of the last century. His works have afforded the data on which almost all subsequent writers on Welsh Archæology, Topography, and Natural History, have based their writings. THOMAS PENNANT (of Downing,) being the representative of a noble Welsh family, had access to fields of enquiry afforded to no other Welsh Anthor.
The following passage from Johnson's Biographer will be read with interest:
“It was wonderful how well time passed in a remote castle, and in dreary weather. After "supper we talked of PENNANT. * * * Dr. Johnson said; PENNANT has greater variety of "enquiry than almost any man, and has told us more than perhpas one in ten thousand could “have done in the time that he took.”—(See Boswell's Journal of a Tour to the Hebrides. 1821, p. 227.)
“PENNANT is the best traveller I ever read. He observes more things than any one “else does.”—Dr. Johnson, Tour in Wales.
“PENNANT's style of writing has always appeared to me the most desirable and satisfac“tory for a Tourist Author to adopt, as avoiding the dull monotony of a County History, "and uniting, under the form a Journal, the pleasiug ingredients of History, Biography, and “Topography.”—R. C. Hoare.
“Whatever he (PENNANT) touched he beautified, either by the elegance of his diction, the “historic illustrations he introduced, or the popular charm he gave to things well known “ before.”-Swainson.
“Our own PENNANT is always lively, full of vivacity and animation, and describes as well “a young caterpillar as an old castle."--Blackwood's Magazine, xxiii. 872.
“Of his literary character the public is the impartial judge; and that public, not only in “this but in foreign countries, has fixed on it the stamp of approbation."-David Pennan, (his son), in European Magazine, June 1800; reprinted in Nichols's Illust., viii. 1858, 593.
The Publisher has spared no effort to ensure an exact reproduction of the Workthe orthography and diction of the author being carefully followed out; and as the original plates, which were copied from Drawings of PENNANT's favourite, MOSES GRIFFITH, have been faithfully copied by the Patent Electro-Photo process, this new edition will, it is trusted, be highly acceptable to the Nobility, Gentry, and Literati of Wales.
LIST OF THE ENGRAVINGS.
PAOE 142 146 168
V. Roman Antiquities.
X. ROMAN gate at CHESTER.
, all Works em, should s in large containing
XX. PISTILL CAIN.
XXV. PULPIT HUGA.
F MADRAS JEOLOGICAL ERN INDIA NMENT OF HE ROYAL Y BRANCH RTH CHINA 1E ASIATIC „N SOCIETY LISH TEXT O IRELAND -THE NEW · BIBLICAL IG SOCIETY MEOPATHIC ECHANICAL "AN AGRI
XXXIII. LLANFAIR Church & PLASNEWYDD
XL. Powys Castle in 1777.
XLV. Arms of the Five Royal Tribes of CAMBRIA.
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A REPLY TO PROFESSOR WHITNEY.
(To the Editor of TRÜBNER'S RECORD.) I shall be much obliged by your kindly laying before your which he is equal, by the help of a new instrumentality. ... readers a few facts in reply to what Prof. Whitney has done | An English speaker, who adds to his acquisitions Chinese or me the honour to publish in the New York Critic upon my Ojibway, remains the same person though he learns to use Ilchester Lectures.
the old tongue and the new with equal freedom, even though 1. Prof. Whitney says: 'Ancient Egyptian is Dr. Abel's he in a measure forget his English and put the other latspecial study, and his fame as a scholar rests mainly on his guage in its place.'" Egyptian work. For a remark so closely verging upon the To each of these pregnant observations I shall give a personal this is singularly inaccurate. Besides my Egyptian special reply: A. In no passage of my book do I contend work, I have been publishing for the last fourteen years that one who learns and uses a new tongue undergoes ! books, treatises, and essays upon comparative lexicography, transforming process of his whole mind and sense. In to semasiology, and psychological linguistics. The languages | passage do I deny that an English speaker remains the same treated in these publications are chiefly English, Latin, person, though he learn to use Chinese with equal freedom Hebrew, and Russian. Notices concerning this part of my as English, and even, in a measure, forgets his own language, work, by Profs. Pott, Sayce, Misteli, Dieterici, Schweizer What I submit is that if an individual adopts a forenz Sidler, Palmer, Lazarus, Bastian, Bruchmann, Duboc and tongue, to the entire replacement of his own, then that part others, were, some of them, in print ten years ago.
of a man's intellectual identity, which is comprised in law 2. Prof. Whitney is good enough to go on : • Dr. Abel is guage, may be absolutely effaced and a new set of standard a deep thinker and venturesome speculator on the phe ideas imprinted upon his mind.' Accordingly my state at nomena of primitive language: with what effect upon the is the reverse of what Prof. Whitney finds fault with. B. Hy opinion of other scholars remains to be determined, since his query, whether any nation is not raised to the inteletal contributions to the subject are of recent date.' My first status of any language it may happen to acquire,' is dispei treatise on primitive language, printed in June, 1879, is a of by Prof. Whitney insisting that a German brute remeia discursive repetition of facts published in my •Coptic Re a brute, 'though he may learn English and carry on the sca searches,' toward the latter end of 1876. Not one Egyptian of mind and soul to which he is equal by the help of a w scholar has since contradicted inversion or any of the cognate instrumentality.' Does the criticism touch the assertion its fundamental facts alluded to in reference to primitive speech. intended to refute? A whole nation occupies the level of its
3. Farther on, Prof. Whitney observes : ‘Dr. Abel appears language; the individual member of a nation moves on to over-estimate, and that in no small degree, the reach and that part of the level accessible to himself. In learning scope of his comparisons. It is the fate of words every English a German brute preferably takes to the brutal pari where, and under all circumstances, to extend, contract, and of the tongue, and, if Anglicized to the entire replacement of shift their applications, and these processes of change are of his native idiom, is changed in the style and type of his course liable to be in some points quickened and heightened, | brutality only. His general character remains the es when a people adopts a new tongue. But there is nothing the specific mould of his views undergoes denationalization, in Dr. Abel's instances which might not be paralleled out of He will speak of kicking as an Englishman, when, as a languages that have gone down by direct and quiet descent | German, he would, preferably, have spoken of Holzen.' from father to son.' The scope of my comparisons is to prove Prof. Whitney's observation marked C, admitting this, wil that Slavic significations, preserved in purely Slavic lands, be found to answer his observation marked B. have considerably changed in Finno-Russian speech : the 6, According to Prof, Whitney, 'Dr. Abel repeatedly in• requisite proof being given, the scope of the comparison sists that ancient Egyptian is considerably the oldest lanis reached. As to whether similar changes might not be guage in the world. I never said this. I said that ancient discovered in other languages, quietly handed down from Egyptian records probably contain the oldest presried father to son, this is a point I neither affirm nor deny; my | specimens of human speech,' This invalidates other reonly aim being to show that, in this particular instance, à marks based upon the attribution to me of the statement differentiating change on the largest scale has occurred in that Egyptian is older than other tongues. the borrowed language, without taking place in the mother 7. •Egyptian,' Prof. Whitney goes on, 'at its earliest be. tongue. I am, however, constrained to add that, besides ginnings was already the tongue of a highly developer being unprovoked, Prof. Whitney's remark on change of people. We have no reason to believe that either Semites meaning is very erroneous. Meanings no doubt change or Indo-Europeans of the same period were anywhere nearly in all languages; but the particular change occurring in a 80 far advanced, and yet there was nothing of this alleged particular tongue is expressive of national peculiarity of Egyptian chaos in their speech.' The preserved anthente thought, and is hardly ever repeated in exactly the same and deciphered specimens of ancient Semite or Iodeform, wise, and hue in any other idiom. Still less are quite European speech being very considerably younger than the a number of such changes ever repeated. If Prof. Whitney's oldest linguistic relics of Egypt, naturally display a mere remark were true, national semasiology, synonymy and advanced state of language. Moreover, the most ancient psychology would not exist.
Egyptian records preserved are composed not in the tongue 4. In his concluding remarks on the same point my learned of the time from which they date, but in that of an earlier critic holds the following language: Unless one succeeds in age, in which the priestly dictionary and grammar were grasping the whole vocabulary of a tongue, in its details and in the main — settled once for all. Thirdly, eren 10.16 in their sum, and can hold them beside the like totality of others highest development, Egyptian never attained anything like (a well-nigh impossible task), this method of comparison can
the distinctness and versatility of either Semite or Indo not well lead to solid results.' To grasp the Russian concept European tongues. No wonder, then, it was more primi. of liberty, it cannot be necessary to analyze the Russian tive in the period referred to. notion of space, time, or revenge as well. Cognate notions, 8. My learned critic's remonstrance is carried on that: such as manliness, independence, etc., might indeed be • No tongue, of however rude a tribe, has ever been met with profitably treated side by side with liberty. No doubt the in real use in a condition even remotely resembling that o task is great. But in setting itself a task of tremendous the cultivated Egyptian as described by our anthor. As proportions, comparative lexicography is in the same glorious regards the date of the Egyptian speech analyzed by me, predicament as every other branch of philology. It is, more- ! I may refer my critic to what has just been stated. With over, in its first infancy; to charge the new teaching with in- reference to the occurrence of similar phenomena in het completeness, is to complain of an imperfection which it will į languages, I have undertaken to prove one branch of Indon require centuries to remedy.
| European languages to contain numerous instances of 1 5. Prof. Whitney proceeds to offer a grave and complex | version of sound and sense: to prove his own assertion, objection: (A) "The author speaks as if some transforming beg to submit that Prof. Whitney should have disproved mulle. process passed over the whole mind and sense of one who 1 9. Prof. Whitney winds up with a telling reservation learns and uses a new tongue; (B) as if it might reasonably Until Dr. Abel or some one else finds such another primo be held, that a nation is raised to the intellectual status of tive tongue, or until other Egyptian scholars come to any language it may happen to acquire. But this is exag- I support (for his views are not yet known to be shared, geration. There are infinite degrees of difference in respect any one else), and assure us that the facts of hieroglypa to knowledge and culture between the speakers of the same language read unmistakably thus, and not otherwise, cultivated tongue; pure ignorance or brutishness may mani- shall be at liberty to hold our own opinion in suspen: fest themselves in English or in German accents. (C) One The hieroglyphics quoted in my disquisition concerns who comes in from outside and acquires such a tongue simply | Egyptian and primitive grammar are, with hardly an learns to carry on and express the acts of mind and soul, to | ception, read according to the accepted interpretatio