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OF

LATIN CHRISTIANITY;

INCLUDING THAT OF

THE POPES

TO

THE PONTIFICATE OF NICOLAS V.

BY HENRY HART MILMAN, D.D.,

DEAN OF ST. PAUL'S.

VOLUME IV.

LONDON:

JOHN MURRAY, ALBEMARLE STREET.

1855.

110. b. 294.

The right of Translation is reservul.

LONDON :

PRINTED BY W. CLOWES AND SONS, STAMFORD STREET,

AND CHARING CROSS.

PREFACE.

I CANNOT offer the concluding volumes of the History of Latin Christianity without expressing my grateful sense of the kind and liberal manner in which the former portion of the work has been generally received. In these volumes I trust that I have not fallen below my constant aim-calm and rigid impartiality; the fearless exposure of the bad, full appreciation of the good, both in the institutions and in the men who have passed before my view. I hope that I may aver without presumption that my sole object is truth-truth uttered in charity; and where truth has appeared to me unattainable from want of sufficient authorities, or from authorities balanced or contradictory, I have avoided the expression of any positive opinion. I am unwilling to claim the authority of history for that for which there is not historical evidence. I would further remind the reader that if the course of affairs during these ages should appear dark, at times almost to repulsiveness, still in the dreariest and most gloomy period of Christian history there was always an undercurrent of humble, Christian goodness flowing on, as the Saviour himself came, “ without observation,” the light of which we can discern but by faint and transitory glimpses. Only one book, as far as I know, has appeared since

the publication of the first part of my work, which has further elucidated any of the subjects treated in those volumes—the Life of Mohammed' by Dr. Sprenger. After the perusal of that work, so much more full than any former history on the earlier and more authentic traditions of the Prophet, I have the satisfaction to find that though I might be disposed to add a few sentences, I find nothing in my own more brief and rapid sketch to alter or to retract. Moreover (I write with diffidence), it appears to me that Dr. Sprenger has hardly drawn the line, if it can be drawn, between the Historical and the Legendary in the life of Mohammed. I cannot but think that the Kôran, after all, is the one safe and trustworthy authority for the life, the acts, and the aims, of the founder of Islam.

Some, even of my most friendly critics, have observed certain negligences and inaccuracies of style in the former volumes. Most, I will not venture to say all of these, are to be traced to errors of the press and of punctuation; some few, perhaps, to an injudicious attempt at too close condensation of the multifarious materials. I would respectfully request the reader's attention to the page of additions and corrections. In one point, too, I must solicit his indulgence. During the course of printing I have thought it better to make some alteration in the distribution; I will therefore request that the second part of Book IX. be read as Book X. It is so corrected in the running-title of contents,

Some of these Errata have been noticed before.)

VOL. I.

In Chronology, p. 13, insert “ A.D. 138, Antoninus Pius." p. 17, A.D. 387, for

"at” read “ad.” p. 29, add to Note", "A Saint Martial de Limoges on chantait en Grec dans le

me siècle, à la messe du jour de la Pentecôte, le Gloria, le Sanctus, l'Agnus Dei: le fait est établi par un MS. de la Bibliothèque Royale, No. 4458. Jour

dain, Traductions d'Aristote, p. 44.” p. 52, Note. I ought to have noticed the more than doubtful authenticity of this

passage, which is not in the best MSS. or earliest copies of Cyprian. Cyprian's view of St. Peter's position as regards the other apostles was more vague and

indistinct. p. 69, line 9, for “Constantine” read “ Constantius." p. 87, line 21, for “ geater" read greater." p. 89, for “ Valentinian II.” read “Valentinian III. :” correct date “ A.D. 421.” p. 99, line 9, for “by no means” read “in no way." p. 122, Note“, for “ Proculus" read “ Lazarns." p. 126, Note, for “ toto " read “tota.” p. 207, line 11 from bottom, for “Macrianus" read “ Maximus." p. 222, Chronology, insert “A.D. 530, Boniface II.” before Dioscorus Antipope. p. 224, head of Chapter, for “Monophytism " read “Monophysitism.” p. 229, Note. This kind of asceticism was the admiration of the East to a late

period. Eustathius of Thessalonica addressed a Stylites in the 12th century, admonishing the saint against pride, yet asserting this to be the utmost height of religion. Eustathii Opuscula, ed. Tafel. p. 182. For Walfilaïc, the one

Stylite of the West at Trèves, see Greg. Tur. viii. c. 15. p. 251, for “Anastasius I.” read “ Anastasius 11." p. 255, after “doctrines” dele comma. p. 263, Note, for “ folgende” read “ folgenden;" for “dem ” read “den;" for

“81” read “61:” for “ Bede, 11-13" read “ Bede, ii. 13.” . p. 287, for “ Rheims" read “ Rouen." p. 315, line 13, East and West“ are” at peace. p. 332, Note, for “ Restitutus” read “Reparatus.” p. 339, four lines from bottom, dele“ rather." p. 344, for “ 545” read “ 554;" for “ 546" read “ 556.” p. 353, line 16, for “ having” read “ had.” p. 378, line 22, for “arise” read “ arises." p. 379, for “condemmed" read “condemned.” p. 410, line 5 from bottom, for “ dangerous” read“ perilous.” p. 429, line 9, “ Benedict I.” p. 440, line 1, for “region” read “ district.” p. 448: the better reading is “ Ethelbert and Bertha. There was a letter to

each." p. 449, Notes, for “ cultivators as " read “as cultivators of." p. 456, Note 4 has been repeated from p. 438.

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