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HIST ANTIQ WALFARD 10-3-18 7111776-109

ADD. VOL.

ENCYCLOPÆDIA BRITANNICA.

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Ti-hoang

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с н I China. HINA, a country of Asia, situated on the most buried alive, lest, from their memories, they should China.

easterly part of that continent. It is bounded commit to writing something of the true memoirs of

on the north by Tartary; from which it is divided, the empire. The inaccuracy of the Chinese annals is
Boundaries,
extent, &e partly by a prodigious wall of 1500 miles in length, complained of even by their most respected author Con-

and partly by bigh, craggy, and inaccessible mountains. fucius bimself; who also aflirms, that before bis time
On the east, it is bounded by the ocean ; on the west, many of the oldest materials for writing such annals had
by the extensive country known by the name of Thi: been destroyed.
bet, which separates China from Hindostan ; on the According to the Chinese histories, the first mo- Fabulous
south, it is bounded partly by the kingdoms of Lao, narch of the whole universe (that is, of China), was history of

China.
Tonquin, Ava, and Cochin-China, and partly by the called Puon-ku, or Puen-cu. This, according to some,
southern or Indian sea, wbich flows between it and the was the first man ; but according to Bayer and Men-
Philippine islands. Its length is about 1400 miles, zelius, two of the greatest critics in Chinese litera-
and its breadth about 1150. These are the bounds of ture that have hitherto appeared, the word signifies
China proper; but the Chinese empire extends over a the highest antiquity. Puon-ko was succeeded by Tiene.
vast region lying to the west and north, including Thi hoang, which signifies the emperor of heaven. They call
bet, and great part of the country known by the name him also the intelligent heaven, the supreme king of

of Tartary. China proper contains 15 provinces, exclu- the middle heaven, &c. According to some of their Division

sive of tbat of Lyau-tong, which is situated without the historians, he was the inventor of letters, and of the
into pro-
vinces.

great wall, though under the same dominion. Their cyclic characters by which they determine the place of
names are, 1. Shensi, 2. Shansi, 3. Pecheli, which the

year, &c. Tiene-hoang was succeeded by Ti-boang
are situated on the north side, along the wall; 5. Shan- (the emperor of the earth), who divided the day and
tong, Š. Kyan-nang, 6. Che-kyang, 7. Fo-kyen, night, appointing 30 days to make one moon, and fix-
which are situated along the eastern ocean; 8. Quang- ed the winter solstice to the uitb moon.
tong, 9. Quang-si, 10. Yu-nan, 11. Se-chuen, which was succeeded by Gine-boang (sovereign of men), who
stretch themselves towards the south and south-west; with his nine brothers shared the government among
and, 12. Honan, 13. Hu.quand, 14. Quey.chew, them. They built cities, and surrounded them with
15. Kyang-si; which take up the middle part. For walls ; made a distinction between the sovereign and
a particular description of all these, see their proper subjects ; instituted narriage, &c.
articles.

The reigns of these four emperors make up one of Chinese The origin of all nations is involved in obscurity what the Chinese called ki, “ ages,” or “ periods,” of pretensions and fable, but that of-the Chinese much more so than which there were nine before Fo-hi, whom their most to antiqui- any other. Every nation is inclined to assume too sensible people acknowledge as the founder of their

bigh an antiquity to itself; but the Chinese carry theirs empire.
beyond all bounds. Indeed, though no people on The bistory of the second ki contradicts almost every
earth are more exact in keeping records of every me- thing said of the first; for though we have but just
morable transaction, yet such is the genius of the Chi- now been told that Gine-hoang and his brethren built
nese for superstition and fable, that the first part of cities surrounded with walls; yet, in the succeeding

their history is deservedly contemned by every rational age, the people dwelt in caves, or perched upon trees Why their person.

What contributes more to the uncertainty of as it were in nests. Of the third ki we hear nothing; history is the Chinese history is, that neither we, nor they them- and in the fourth, it seems matters had been still worse, so uncer. selves, have any thing but fragments of their ancient as we are told that men were then only tanght to retain. historical books ; for, about 213 years before Christ, tire into the hollows of rocks. Of the filth and sixtha

the reigning emperor Si-whang-ti caused all the books we have no accounts. These six periods, according to
in the empire to be burned, except those written by some writers, contained 90,000 years; according to
lawyers and physicians. Nay, the more effectually to others, 1,100,750.
destroy the memory of every thing contained in them, In the seventh and eighth ki, they tell us over again
be commanded a great number of learned men to be what they had said of the first; namely, that men lien
Vol. VI. Part I.

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China. gan to leave their caves and dwell in houses, and were he had seen them inscribed on the back of a dragon.

taught to prepare clothes, &c. Tchine-fang, the first horse (an animal shaped like a horse, with the wings
monarch of the eighth ki, taught his subjects to take and scales of a dragon), which arose from the bottom
off the hair fron skins with rollers of wood, and co- of a lake. Having gained great reputation among his
ver themselves with the skins so prepared. He taught countrymen by this prodigy, he is said to have creaied
them also to make a kind of web of their hair, to serve mandarins or oflicers, under the name of dragons.
as a covering to their heads against rain. They obey. Hence we may assign a reason why the emperors of
cd his orders with joy, and he called his subjects people China always carry a dragon in their banners. He al-
clothed with skins. His reign lasted 350 years ; that so instituted marriage, invented music, &c. Having
of one of his successors, also, named Yeou-tsao-chi, established a prime minister, he divided the government
lasted more than 300; and his family continued for of his dominions among four mandarins, and died after
12 or 18,000 years. But what is very surprising, all a reign of 115 years.
these thousands and millions of years bad elapsed with- Alter Fobi followed a succession of emperors, of Miracu
out mankind's having any knowledge of fire. This whom nothing remarkable is recorded, except that in solstice
was not discovered till towards the close of this period, the reign of Yau, the seventh after Fohi, the sun did
by one Souigine. After so useful a discovery, he not set for ten days, so that the Chinese were afraid of
taught the people to dress their victuals; whiereas be- a general conflagration. This event the compilers of
fore they had devoured the flesh of animals quite raw. the Universal History take to be the same with that Hypolk
drunk their blood, and swallowed even their hair and mentioned in the book of Joshua, when the sun and concert
feathers. He is also said to have been the inventor of moon stood still for about the space of a day. Fo-lii this sol
fishing, letters, &c.

they will have to be the same with Noah ''hey ima- and Fc
In the ninth period, we find the invention, or at gine, that after the deluge this patriarch remained some
least the origin of letters, attributed to one Tsang-hie, time with bis descendants; but on their wieked com-
who received them from a divine tortoise tbat carried bination to build the tower of Babel, he separated him-
them on his shell, and delivered them into the bands self from them with as many as he could persuade to
of Tsang-bie. During this period also, music, money, go along with him; and that, still travelling eastward,
carriages, merchandise, commerce, &c. were invented. he at last entered the fertile country of China, and laid
There are various calculations of the length of these ki the foundation of that vast empire-But, leaving these
or periods. Some make the time from Puan-ku to fabulous and conjectural times, we shall proceed to give
Confucius, who flourished about 479 years before some account of that part of the Chinese bistory which
Christ, to contain 279,000 years ; others, 2,276,000; may be more certainly depended on.
some, 2,759,860 years; others, 3,276,000; and some As the Chinese, contrary to the practice of almost
no less than 96,961,740 years.

all nations, have never sought to conquer other counFabulous

These extravagant accounts are by some thought tries, but rather to improve and content themselves history ex. to contain obscure and imperfect bints concerning the with their own, their history for many ages

furnishes plained.

cosmogony and creation of the world, &c. Puon-kn, nothing remarkable. The whole of their emperors,
the first emperor, they think, represents eternity pre- abstracting from those who are said to have reigned in
ceding the duration of the world. The succeeding the fabulous times, are comprehended in 22 dynasties,
ones, Tiene-hoang, Ti-hoang, and Gine-hoang, they mentioned in the following table.
imagine, signify the creation of the heavens and earthi,
and the formation of man. The ten ki or ages, nine

Emperors. Before Christ.
of which preceded Fo-hi, mean the ten generations 1. Hya, containing 17

2207 preceding Noah. This may very possibly be the case ; 2. Shang, or Ing,

28

1766 for about 500 years before Christ, some Jews travelled 3. Chew,

35 into China, who might have made the Mosaic writings

4

248 known there.

5. Han,

25

206 What we have now related, contains the substance

After Christ. of that part of the Chinese history which is entirely 6. Hew-han,

220 fabulous. After the nine ki or “ages” already taken

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465 notice of, the tenth commenced with Fo-bi; and the

8. Song,

8

220 history, though still very dark, obscure and fabulous,

5

479 begins to grow somewhat more consistent and intel- 10. Lyang,

4

502 7 ligible. Fo-hi was born in the province of Shensi. 11. Chin,

4

557
Reign of
Fo.hi.

His mother walking upon the bank of a lake in that 12. Swi,
province, saw a very large print of a man's foot in 13. Twang,

20

618 ihe sand there ; and, being surrounded with an iris or 14. Hew-lyang,

907 rainbow, became impregnated. The child was named 15. Hew-lang,

4

923
Fo-hi ; and, when he grew up, was by his country. 16. Hew-tsin,
men elected king, on account of bis superior merit, 17. Hew-han,
and styled Tyen-tse, that is, “the son of heaven.” He 18. Hew-chew,

3

951 invented the eight qua, or symbols, consisting of three

19. Song,

18

960 lines each, which, differently combined, formed 64 cha- 20. Iwen,

1280 racters that were made use of to express every thing. 21. Ming,

1368 To give these the greater credit, he pretended that 22. Tsing,

1645

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4. Tsin,

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China.

This table is formed according to the accounts of of emperor; founded the 16th dynasty; and changed China.
the Jesuit Du Halde, and is commonly reckoned to be bis name to that of Kaut-su. But the Kitan general
the most authentic; but according to the above-men- refusing to acknowledge him, he was oblig:d to pur-
tioned hypothesis of the compilers of the Universal chase a peace by yielding up to the Tartars 16 cities
History, who make Yau cotemporary with Joshua, the in the province of Pecheli, besides a yearly present of
dynasty of Hya did not commence till the year

before 300,000 pieces of silk.
Christ 1357; and to accommodate the history to their This submission served only to inflame the avarice
hypothesis, great alterations must be made in the dura- and ambition of the Kitan. In 959, they broke the
tion of the dynasties.

treaty when least expected, and invaded the empire Incursions

The most interesting particulars of the Chinese bi- afresh. Tsi-vang, the emperor at that time, opposed of the Tar- story relate only to the incursions of the Tartars, who them with a formidable army; but through the treach. tars. at last conqnered the whole empire, and who still con- ery of his general Lyew-chi-ywen, the Tartars were tinue to hold the sovereignty ; though by transferring allowed to take him prisoner.

allowed to take him prisoner. On this, Tsi-vang was the seat of the empire to Peking, and adopting the glad to recover his liberty, by accepting of a small Chinese language, manners, &c. Tartary would seem principality ; while the traitor became emperor of all rather to have been conquered by China, than China China, and, changing his name to Kaut-su, founded by 'Tartary. These incursions are said to have begun the 17th dynasty. The Tartars, in the mean time, very early; even in the time of the emperor Shun, ravaged all the northern provinces without opposition, successor to Yau above mentioned, in whose reign the and then marched into the southern. But being here miraculous solstice happened. At this time, the Tar- stopped by some bodies of Chinese troops, the gene. tars were repulsed, and obliged to retire into their own ral thought proper to retire with his booty into Tarterritories. From time to time, however, they conti- tary. In 962, Kaut-su-dying, was succeeded by his nued to threaten the empire with invasions, and the son In-ti. The youth of this prince gave an opportunorthern provinces were often actually ravaged by the nity to the eunuchs to raise commotions ; especially Tartars in the neighbourhood. About the year before as the army was employed at a distance in repelling Christ 213, Shi-whang-ti

, having fully subdued all the the invasions of the Tartars. This army was princes, or kings as they were called, of the different manded by Ko-ghey, who defeated the enemy in seveprovinces, became emperor of China with unlimited ral battles, and thus restored peace to the northern power. He divided the whole empire into 36 pro provinces. In the mean time, In-ti was slain by his vinces; and finding the northern part of his domi- eunuchs, and the empress placed his brother on the nions much incommoded by the invasions of the neigh- throne : but Ko-ghey returning in triumph, was sabouring barbarians, be sent a formidable army against luted emperor by bis victorious army; and the em

them, wbich drove them far beyond the boundaries of press being unable to support the rights of her son, Great wall China. To prevent their return, lie built the famous was obliged to submit, while Ko-ghey, assuming the

wall already mentioned, which separates China from name of Tay-tsu, founded the 18th dynasty. Nine
Tartary. After this, being elated with his own years after this, however, the grandees of the empire,
ploits, he formed a design of making posterity believe setting aside Kong-ti, the third in succession from Tay-
that he bimself had been the first Chinese emperor tsu, on account of bis non-age, proclaimed his guar-
that ever sat on the tbrone. For this purpose, le ore dian, named Chau-quang-yu, emperor ; who assuming
dered all the historical writings to be burnt, and caused the name of Kau-tsu, founded the 19th dynasty, called
many of the learned to be put to death, as already men. Song or Tsong.
tioned.

Under this monarch the empire began to recover
Kitan Tar.

What effect the great wall for some time had in itself; but the Kitan still continued their incursions. tars settle preventing the invasions of the Tartars, we are not The successors of Kau-tsu opposed them with various in China. told; but in the tenth century of the Christian era, success; but at last, in 978, the barbarians became so

those of Kitan or Lyau got a footing in China. The strong as to lay siege to a considerable city. Tay-
Kitan were a people of eastern Tartary, who dwelt to tsong, successor to Kau-tso, detached 300 soldiers, each
the north and north-east of the province of Pecheli in carrying a light in his hand, against them in the night-
China, particularly in that of Lyau-tong, lying with time, with orders to approach as near as possible to the
out the great wall. These people having subdued the Tartar camp. The barbarians imagining, by the num-
country between Korea and Kashgar, became much ber of lights, that the whole Chinese army was at hand,
more troublesome to the. Chinese than all the other immediately fled, and, falling into the ambuscades laid
Tartars. Their empire commenced about the year for them by the Chinese general, were almost all cut
916, in the fourth year of Mo-ti-kyan-ti, second em- to pieces.
peror of the 14th Chinese dynasty called Hew-Lyang. This check, however, did not long put a stop to
In 946, Mingt-song, second emperor of the 15th dy, the ravages of the Kitan. In the year 999, they laid
nasty, being dead, Sheking-tang his son-in-law rebelled siege to a city in the province of Pecheli; but Ching-
against Mingt-song, his son and successor, whom he tsong, successor to Tay-tsong, came upon them with
deprived of his crown and life. This he accomplished his army so suddenly, that they betook themselves to
by means of an army of 50,000 men furnished by the flight. The emperor was advised to take advantage
Kitan. Fi-ti, the son of Mingt-song, being unable to of their consternation, and recover the country which
resist the usurper, fled to the city Ghey.chew; where had been yielded to them ; but instead of pursuing his
shutting himself up with his family and all his valuable victory, he bought a peace by consenting to pay an-
effects, he set fire to the palace, and was burnt to nually 100,000 tael (about 34,00ol.), and 200,000
ashes. On his death, Sheking-tang assumed the title pieces of silk. The youth and pacific disposition of

Jin-tsong,

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China. Jin-tsong, successor to Ching-tsong, revived the cou. Along that she had been divorced, they left hier behind. Chin:

rage of the Kitan; and, in 1035, war would have This proved the means of saving the empire ; for by
been reneved, had not the emperor condescended to her wisdom and prudence she got the crown placed on
as shameful a treaty as that concluded by his father. the head of Kau-tsong, ninth son of the emperor Whey-
Two years after, the Tartars demanded restitution of tsong by bis divorced empress.
ten cities in the province of Pecheli, which had been Kau-isong fixed his court at Nanking the capital
taken by Ko-ghey founder of the 18th dynasty : upon of Kyang-pan; but soon after was obliged to remove
which Jin-tsong engaged to pay them an annual Tri- it to Kang-chew in Che-kyang. He made several ef-
bute of 200,000 taels of silver, and 300,000 pieces of forts to recover some of his provinces from the King
silk, in lieu of these cities.

but without effect. Ili-tsong the Kin monarch, in the Kitan dri. From this time the Kitan remained in peaceable pos- mean time, endeavoured to gain the esteem of his van out by session of their Chinese dominions till the year 1117. Chinese subjects by paying a regard to their learning the eastern Tartars;

Whey-tsong, at that time emperor, being able nei- and learned men, and honouring the memory of Conther to bear their ravages, nor by himself to put a fucius. Some time after he advanced to Nanking, stop to them, resolved upon a remedy which at last from whence Kau-tsong bad retired, and took it: but, proved worse than the disease. This was to call in receiving advice that Yo-si, general of the Song, or the Nu-che, Nyu-che, or Eastern Tartars, to destroy southern Chinese, was advancing by long marches to the kingdom of the Kitan. From this he was dissua- the relief of that city, they set fire to the palace, and

17 ded by the king of Korea, and most of his own niini- retired northward.

Yo-si arrived time Progres sters; but, disregarding their salutary advice, be join- enough to fall upon their rear-guard, which suffered the Kin ed his forces to those of the No-che. The Kitan were very much ; and from this time the Kin never dared checked thien everywhere defeated; and at last reduced to to cross the river Kyang. In a few years afterwards such extremity, that those who remained were forced the Chinese emperor submitted to become tributary to

to leave their country, and fly to the mountains of the the Kin, and concluded a peace with them upon very 14 west.

dishonourable terms. This submission, however, was Thus the empire of the Kitan was totally destroyed, of little avail : for, in 1163, the Tartars broke the sume the

but nothing to the advantage of the Chinese ; for the peace, and, invading the southern province with a forname of Kin, and

Tartar general, elated with his conquest, gave the midable army, took the city of Yang-chew. The in vade name of Kin to his new dominion, assumed the title of king, having approached the river Kyang, near its China.

emperor, and began to think of aggrandizing him- mouth, where it is widest as well as most rapid, com-
sell, and enlarging bis empire. For this purpose, he manded his troops to cross it, threatening with his
immediately broke the treaties concluded with the drawn sword to kill those who refused. On recei-
Chinese emperor; and, invading the provinces of Pe. ving such an unreasonable command, the whole ar-
cheli and Shensi, made himself master of the greater my mutinied; and the king being killed in the be-
part of them. Whey-tsong, finding himself in danger ginning of the tumult, the army immediately re-
of losing his dominions, made several advantageous tired.
proposals to the Tartar ; who, seeming to comply From this time to the year 1210, nothing remark-Tiey al
with them, invited bim to come and settle matters by able occurs in the Chinese bistory; but this year, attacke
a personal conference. The Chinese monarch com- Jenghiz-kban, chief of the western Tartars, Moguls, Jenghi
plied: but, on his return, the terms agreed on seemed or İlungls, quarrelled with Yong-tsi emperor of the khana

the
intolerable to bis ministers ; so that they told him the Kin; and at the same time the king of Hya, disgusted of Hya.
treaty couid not subsist, and that the most cruel war at being refused assistance against Jenghiz-khan, threat-
was preferable to such an ignominious peace. The ened bim with an invasion on the west side. Yong-tsi
Kin monarch, being informed of all that passed, bad prepared for his defence; but in 1211, receiving news
recourse to arms, and took several cities. Wbey- thai Jenghiz-khan was advancing southward with his

tsong was weak enough to go in person to hold a se- whole army, he was seized with fear, and made pro13 cond conference; but, on bis arrival

, was immediate- posals of peace, which were rejected. In 1212, the They take ly seized by the Tartar. He was kept prisoner un- Mogul generals forced the great wall; or, according forced 1 the empe- der a strong guard during the remaining part of his to some writers, had one of the gates treacherously Jeng bi: cor prison- life ; and ended his days in 1126, in the desert of opened to them, to the north of Shansi ; and made in-kban.

Shamo, having nominated his eldest son Kin-tsong to cursions as far as Peking, the capital of the Kin ensucceed him.

pire. At the same time the province of Lyau-tong Kin-tsong began his reign with putting to death six was almost totally reduced by several Kitan lords who ministers of state, who had betrayed his father into bad joined Jenghiz-khan ; several strong places were the bands of the Kin Tartars. The barbarians in taken, and an army of 300,000 Kin defeated by the the meantime pursued their conquests without oppo. Moguls. In autumn they laid siege to the city of sition. They crossed the Whang-ho, or Yellow river, Tay-tong-fu ; where, although the governor Hujaku wliich a handful of troops might have prevented; and fled, yet Jenghiz-khan niet with considerable resist

marching directly towards the imperial city, took and Having lost a vast number of men, and being Imperial plundered it. Then seizing the emperor and his con- himself wounded by an arrow, be was obliged to raise city and sort, they carried them away captives: but many of the siege and retire into Tartary; after which the Kin another

the priucipal lords, and several of the ministers, prefer- retook several cities. The next year, liowever, Jenemperor

ring death to such an ignominious bondage, killed them- ghiz-kban re-entered China; retook the cities which taken. selves. The Kin. being informied by the empres3 ihe Kin bad reduced the year before ; and overthrew

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