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in the union "on an equality of legal privileges with all

citizens under nondiscriminatory law.""

The draft act clearly anticipates these rights and privileges that are extended once an alien enters the United States and provides that: "Entry of aliens into Guam . . . shall not preclude a person who previously has been lawfully admitted for permanent residence in the United States and who is otherwise admissible from being readmitted in Guam upon return to the

United States."

CONCLUSION

When Guam first entered the American Family, it was treated. differently. Under the incorporation doctrine developed by the Supreme Court it is clear that not all of the provisions of the

Constitution apply to unincorporated territories. For many years

this doctrine has been a useful in justifying Congress' plenary

control over the internal affairs of the territories.

The rationale of this doctrine may now be used to justify

the granting of powers to the Guam, traditionally reserved to the federal government. Based on the experiences of Puerto Rico and The Commonwealth of the Northern Marianas, any new division of powers must be clearly set forth and not left open ended or undefined. The provisions of the Commonwealth Act would preserve

id. at 419.

Commonwealth draft act tit.VII sec. 701 (4)(a).

the sovereignty of the federal government, and protect Guam's

right to local autonomy over its internal affairs.

Today, Guam is faced with the difficult question of

remaining in the American system while preserving the cultural

heritage of its people. Admittance into the Union of States would place the Chamorro people on a path of cultural extinction

as experience by the indigenous people of Hawaii.

To remain an

unincorporated territory would place the Chamorro people in a

state of continued degradation, similar to the tragic experience

of the American Indians.

The people of Guam seek to exercise local control of their internal affairs. This desire to exercise their right to self determination is consistent with the foundations of our American heritage. Their quest is one that seeks as one of its noblest goals the preservation of its cultural heritage. All they ask is a means to protect their culture. And a chance to prosper within the american family; and nothing in their request infringes on the rights of their fellow citizens.

Mr. DE LUGO. I tell you, it is too bad that the professor wasn't here to hear that law student. Very, very well prepared argument. Congratulations.

I want to thank all of you for your presentations here. Thank you.

The next panel we will hear from is the Honorable Concepcion Barrett, Mr. Rufo Lujan, Mr. Mark Charfauros, Mr. Clifford Guzman, Mr. Tony Sanchez, Dr. Fae Untalan-Munoz, Mr. Vicent A. Leon Guerrero, Mr. Anthony Pangelinan and Mr. Vicent Q. Sanchez.

PANEL CONSISTING OF CONCEPCION BARRETT, RUFO LUJAN, MARK CHARFAUROS, CLIFFORD GUZMAN, TONY SANCHEZ, FAYE UNTALAN-MUNOZ, VICENT A. LEON GUERRERO, ANTHO. NY PANGELINAN AND VICENT Q. SANCHEZ

Mr. DE LUGO. The statement from Millani Trask will be placed in the record and we will receive Dr. Munoz's own statement.

We would like everybody to please help us along here because we have many other witnesses to hear from and we want to get to the administration witnesses. We would like as well to be able to get lunch.

So let us observe the five minute rule.
First the Honorable Concepcion Barrett.

Ms. BARRETT. Honorable members of the subcommittee, I am Concepcion C. Barrett. I am a Senator and Congresswoman before the Organic Act and I was one of the members who from the 1949 rebellion.

Larry Ramirez is a member, and I am one of the few surviving members who came to support the commonwealth bill. Your Honorable Blaz is one of my pupils and he is a very, very intelligent pupil, too. I am very proud of him.

Mr. Chairman, 39 years ago, I appeared before a similar subcommittee, of course with different members, to advocate and support the Organic Act of 1950 granting Guam U.S. citizenship and civil government. I was rewarded with one pen by which President Truman signed the law.

I am here once more to support the passage of our commonwealth bill. This bill will truly reflect the will to strive and obtain greater participation of self-determination of the people of Guam. You have taught us self-sufficiency and the ideals of democracy. As a matter of fact, we eat the American way, sleep and breathe American.

After enduring many and long constraints, it is now our duty to request the necessity for a change and to alter the Organic Act. Please unleash the shackles and grant us the Commonwealth Act for the advancement of our social and political status.

I hope and pray that this quest for more self-determination will be approved during my lifetime so we can live in peace and prosperity

Si Yuus Maase and thank you.
Thank you.
[Prepared statement of Ms. Barrett follows:)

December 11, 1989
The Honorable Ron De Lugo
Chairman
House Subcommittee on Insular

and International Affairs
Honolulu, Hawaii
Dear Mr. Chairman,

Thirty-nine years ago, I appeared before a similar subcommittee, of course with different members, to advocate and support the Organic Act of 1950 granting Guam U.S. citizenship and civil government. I was rewarded with one pen by which President Truman signed the law.

I am here once more to support the passage of our Commonwealth Bill. This B111 will truly reflect the will to strive and obtain greater participation of self determination of the people of Guom. You have taught us self-sufficiency and the ideals of democracy. As a matter of fact, we eat the American way, sleep and breathe American. After enduring many and long constraints, it is now our duty to request the necessity for a change and to alter the Organic Act. Please unleash the shackles and grant us the Commonwealth Act for the advancement of our social and political status.

I hope and pray that this quest for more self determination will be approved during my lifetime so we can live in peace and prosperity.

Si Yuus Maase and Thank you.

Concepcion C. Barrett
CONCEPCION C. BARRETT

Mr. DE LUGO. Thank you very much.
I want to tell you you did a very good job with General Blaz.
Ms. BARRETT. Thank you. I am proud of him, too.
Mr. DE LUGO. We are all proud of him.
Now, Mr. Rufo Lujan.
Mr. LUJAN. Mr. Chairman, like Mr. Barcinas, I would ask to be
excused right after I speak. I have a plane to catch, also.

Mr. DE LUGO. Fine.
Mr. LUJAN. Thank you, Mr. Chairman.

Mr. DE LUGO. We appreciate the fact that you have taken the time to be with us.

Mr. LUJAN. Mr. Chairman, and members of the committee, I want to express my sincerest appreciation to you for having me here today.

For the record, my name is Rufo J. Lujan, a Chamorro and native resident of Guam.

The prehistory and history of Guam is long and varied. Prehistoric human evidence goes back some 3,000 years. These findings attest to the fact that the Chamorros have been around for some time and not just a passing fancy. I think we have claimed the right to say we have always been here.

The Chamorros have been subjugated by three different nations since the initial colonization in the late 17th Century. The Spanish ruled for 230 years. The Americans had an interrupted rule from 1898 to 1941 and from 1944 to the present. The Japanese seized Guam in 1941 and ruled it for three harsh years until the recapture by the Americans in 1944.

While the American rule can be characterized as benevolent for the most part, it has been one of benign neglect. The Department of the Navy administered Guam from 1900 to 1941 and again from 1945 to 1950. Since the Navy's main interest in Guam was for a refueling station for its ships, there was virtually no economic development in the private sector of the local economy.

The Navy continued to exert control over the economic development of Guam up until 1962, even after civilian control was initiated in 1950.

The Americans, too, have not always acted in the best interest of or justly to the Chamorros. The recapture of Guam from the Japanese was fierce and resulted in the virtual destruction of the island. But, because of the Korean War and the need for military bases in Japan which was close to Korea, the United States forgave Japan of its war debts to the people of Guam. The American destruction in World War II and land taking for W.W. II and the Korean War are subjects of controversy that continue to the present.

The Chamorros of Guam have been loyal to the United States of America first as citizens of Guam and then as citizens of the United States. As citizens of Guam, the Chamorros have the dubious distinction of being the only native people under the United States to be conquered and enslaved by an enemy. The Chamorro sons of Guam died in defense for the nation that they were not even a citizen of.

As U.S. citizens, Chamorros again paid with their lives in the Korean and Vietnam wars. If the sacrifice of lives was to be meas

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