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WEEKLY EARNINGS.

The following series of tables exhibits the average weekly earnings and range in weekly earnings of employees of the silk goods manufacturing industry in this region. The first table submitted shows, by general nativity and race, the number of male employees 18 years of age or over earning each specified amount each week. Table 86.— Number of male employees 18 years of age or over earning each specified

amount per week, by general nativity and race.*

(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.)

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* This table shows wages or earnings for the period indicated, but no account is taken of voluntary lost time or lost time from shutdowns or other causes. In the various tables in this report showing annual earnings allowance is made for time lost during the year.

In the following table the percentage of female employees 18 years of age or over earning each specified amount per week is shown according to general nativity and race: Table 87.-Per cent of female employees 18 years of age or over earning each specified

amount per week, by general nativity and race.*

(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.) [This table includes only races with 80 or more females reporting. The totals, however, are for all races.)

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* This table shows wages or earnings for the period indicated, but no account is taken of voluntary lost time or lost time from shutdowns or other causes. In the various tables in this report showing annual earnings allowance is made for time lost during the year.

The preceding table shows that the greatest proportion of female employees earn $5 or over per week; 99.7 per cent earn $2.50 or over per week, 54.7 per cent earn $5 or over, 17.8 per cent earn $7.50 or over, and 6.8 per cent earn $10 or over per week. Less than 1 per cent earn $12.50 or over or $15 or over per week. Native-born of foreign father show the highest percentage earning $2.50 or over per week, followed by foreign-born and native whites born of native father, in the order mentioned, all three showing between 99 and 100 per cent earning the above-specified amount. Native-born of foreign father show the greatest proportion earning $5 or over per week, closely followed by native whites born of native father, foreign-born showing a somewhat smaller proportion. All three, however, show over 50 per cent earning the above amount. Native-born of foreign father also show the highest per cent earning $7.50 or over and $10 or over per week, foreign-born and native whites born of native father following in the order named. There is little difference between the percentage of native-born of foreign father and foreign-born earning $12.50 or over and $15 or over per week, while native-born whites of native father show slightly smaller proportions. Females whose fathers were born in Germany show the highest earning capacity, small proportions earning $12.50 or over and $15 or over per week, as compared with no females of English or Irish parentage earning these amounts.

The following table shows, by general nativity and race, the percentage of male employees 14 and under 18 years of age earning each specified amount per week: TABLE 88.-Per cent of male employees 14 and under 18 years of age earning each specified

amount per week, by general nativity and race.*

(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.) [This table includes only races with 40 or more males reporting. The totals, however, are for all races.]

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* This table shows wages or earnings for the period indicated, but no account is taken of voluntary lost time or lost time from shutdowns or other causes. In the various tables in this report showing annual earnings allowance is made for time lost during the year. a Not computed, owing to small number involved.

Of 318 males reporting, 95.3 per cent earn $2.50 or over per week, 29.6 per cent earn $5 or over, and 9.7 per cent earn $7.50 or over per week. Native-born of foreign father show a slightly higher percentage earning $2.50 or over than native-born whites of native father, while the latter show larger proportions earning $5 per week than native-born of foreign father. Native-born of foreign father exhibit a higher percentage earning $7.50 or over per week than native whites born of native father.

The following table shows, by general nativity and race, the percentage of female employees 14 and under 18 years of age earning each specified amount per week: TABLE 89.- Per cent of female employees 14 and under 18 years of age earning each specified

amount per week, by general nativity and race. *

(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.) (This table includes only races with 40 or more females reporting. The totals, however, are for all races.)

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This table shows wages or earnings for the period indicated, but no account is taken of voluntary lost time or lost time from shutdowns or other causes. In the various tables in this report showing annual earnings allowance is made for time lost during the year.

Of 1,957 female employees 14 and under 18 years of age 87.6 per cent earn $2.50 or over per week, 12.1 per cent earn $5 or over, 1.2 per cent $7.50 or over, and 0.1 per cent $10 or over per week. Female employees of foreign birth show the highest percentage earning $2.50 or over per week, Closely followed by the native-born of foreign father and the native whites born of native father, in the order mentioned. The same order is preserved by the female employees earning $5 or over per week, while the native whites born of native father and the native-born of foreign father with the same percentage show a larger proportion earning $7.50 or over per week than the foreign-born. The native-born of foreign father show 0.1 per cent earning $10 or over per week as contrasted with none of the nativeborn of native father or the foreign-born earning this amount. Of employees who are native-born of foreign father, those whose fathers were born in Germany show the highest percentage earning $2.50 or over per week, and those whose fathers were born in Russia the smallest percentage earning this amount. Female employees whose fathers were born in Austria-Hungary show the highest percentage earning $5 or over per week and female employees whose fathers were born in Wales the smallest percentage earning this amount. Female employees whose fathers were born in Germany show the highest percentage earning $7.50 or over per week, while none of the employees of English and Welsh parentage earn this amount. Employees whose fathers were born in Germany show 0.3 per cent earning $10 or over per week as contrasted with no employees whose fathers were born in other specified countries earning this amount.

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HOURS OF WORK PER DAY AND WEEK IN THE INDUSTRY.

Ten hours per day and fifty-five hours per week constitute the regular working hours in the silk mills of this locality.

EFFECT OF IMPROVED MACHINERY UPON INDUSTRY AND EMPLOYEES.

The introduction of improved machinery has had the effect of decreasing the number of employees and at the same time increasing the output of the mill. An excellent illustration of this is the improved bobbin.” While its cost is nearly three times that of the old style, it has proved a great labor-saving device, for one girl can operate five of the new, where formerly she could operate but three of the old, style. Again, where certain processes were formerly separate, machines have been introduced where two and sometimes three are done at once.

EMPLOYERS' OPINIONS OF RECENT IMMIGRANTS.

As regards the efficiency, progress, and adaptability the employers, in the order of their preference place the representatives of the various races employed as follows: Poles, Slovaks, Magyars, and Lithuanians. The Poles are also considered the most industrious, the employers expressing no preference as between the others. As regards tractability, on the other hand, there is little difference noted between the Poles, Slovaks, Magyars, and Lithuanians.

CHAPTER IV.

SALIENT CHARACTERISTICS. Literacy--Conjugal condition-Visits abroad-Age classification of employees—[Text

Tables 90 to 95 and General Tables 62 to 66).

LITERACY. The degree of literacy which prevails among employees of the silk goods manufacturing industry in the anthracite coal region of Pennsylvania is set forth in the following table. It shows, by sex and general nativity and race, the percentage of employees who were able to read and percentage who were able to read and write. Table 90.- Per cent of employees who read and per cent who read and urite, by sex and

general nativity and race.

(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.) (This table includes only races with 80 or more persons reporting. The totals, however, are for all races.)

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Of 4,309 persons reporting 3,743 are females and 566 are males. Of this number 99.3 per cent can read and 98.7 per cent can both read and write. The percentage of males who can read and who can both read and write is slightly higher than that of females. Native whites born of native father and native-born of foreign father show 100 per cent of males who can read and who can both read and write, females in each instance showing slightly smaller proportions. Foreign-born show 99 per cent of males who can read and who can both read and write and 96.1 per cent of females who can read and only 92.3 per cent who can both read and write. Of the native-born of foreign father, those whose fathers were born in England and Wales show that all males and females are able to read and write. Persons whose fathers were born in AustriaHungary, Germany, Ireland, and Russia show 100 per cent of males who can read and write, the proportion of females in each instance being somewhat smaller; those of Russian parentage show the 48296°--VOL 11-11-8

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