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ington, and you will find it more convenient to limit your association with the question to reporting to this Department any phases thereof which may be brought to your attention, and awaiting instructions. I am, etc.,
T. F. BAYARD.
(Inclosure 1 in No. 4.)
DEPARTMENT OF STATE,
Monroria, February 14, 1888. (Received March 26.) Sir: I have the honor by direction of the President to bring to the notice of the Government of the United States the following facts with reference to certain occurre ices which bave recently taken place in the district of Half Cavalla, and parts adjacent, near Cape Palmas, in this Republic, the inhabitants of wbich district are now, and have been for months past, in a state of armed rebellion against the authority of the Government of the Republic of Liberia.
During the month of November or December last a company of missionaries arrived at Cape Palmas from the United States, and in pursuance of a permission given by this Government to Bishop William Taylor, of the Methodist Episcopal Church of the United States, who is at present engaged in important and extensive missionary work within the Republic, commenced their journey up the Cavalla River for the purpose of beginning the work to which they were assigned by Bishop Taylor, viz, the opening of mission stations in the interior of the Republic.
At a certain distance up the said river their further progress was arrested by a tribe in sympathy with the rebellious inbabitants of Half Cavalla, and who in obe. dience to written orders and the instructions of emissaries from the latter tribe, made prisoners of the said missionaries, plundered them of their property to the amount of several hundreds of dollars, and placed them in imminent risk of their lives, which were only spared or saved by an unqualified submission to the lawless demands of their captors, after which, stripped of all their belongings, they were forced into their boats and compelled to return to their point of departure, Cape Palmas
This unfortunate occurrence, in the opinion of the President, amounts to an emergency calling for the intervention or aid of the United States under the eighth article of the treaty, in order that the perpetrators of this cruel action upon the persons of unoffending missionaries may be effectually punished for their misdeeds. The Goyernment of the Republic of Liberia, while proceeding to do all in its power to suppress the outbreak at Half Cavalla, of which these outrages are the undoubted consequences, is not able unaided to bring these offenders to justice for this violent and unprovoked attack upon the persons and property of peaceful American citizens.
I inclose herewith for the information of the Government of the United States a copy of a proclamation recently issued by my Government as an initiatory step towards its active efforts to suppress the above-mentioned outbreak, and to disintegrate the combination that had been formed against its authority. I have the honor to in lose also copy of a dispatch of the 8th of June last, which this Department addressed to Mr. Taylor in response to a request enianating from the officer preceding him in the United States legation in this city, who desired to be informed as to the particulars of the Half Cavalla affair, so that oid information miglat be duly communicated to his Government. I have, etc.,
E. J. BARCLAY.
[Inclosure 2 in No. 4.]
DEPARTMENT OF STATE,
Washington, June 4, 1888, SIR: I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your note of February 14, last. In this communication you state that you are directed by the President of Liberia to bring to the attention of the Government of the United States the following facts :
In December last a band of American missionaries arrived at Cape Palmas, in pursuance of permission given by the Government of Liberia to Bishop William Taylor. of the Methodist Episcopal Church, with the intention of ascending the Cavalla River in order to open up mission stations in the interior. On proceeding a “certain distance” up that river, their further progress was barred by one of the aboriginal sayage tribes acting in sympathy with and, as you state, under the order of the Half Cavalla tribe, which is now, and for some tiine past has been, in rebellion against the authority of the Government of Liberia. The missionaries were made prisoners, plundered of their property, and then forced to their boats and to descend the river to their point of departure, Cape Palmas.
You then proceed as follows: “ This unfortunate occurrence, in the opinion of the President, amounts to an emergency calling for the intervention or aid of the United States, under the eighth article of the treaty, in order that the perpetrators of this cruel action upon the persons of unoffending missionaries may be effectually punished for their misdeeds. The Government of the Republic of Liberia, while proceeding to do all in its power to suppress the outbreak at Half Cavalla, of which these outrages are the undoubted consequences, is not able to bring these offenders to justice for their violent and unprovoked attack upon the persons and property of peaceful American citizens."
The Department has carefully considered the facts stated in your note and the grounds of the requisition made on this Government to employ its naval and military forces to punish the tribe which plundered the American missionaries.
Article VIII of the treaty of 1862 with Liberia provides as follows: “Should any United States citizens suffer loss in person or property from violence by the aboriginal inhabitants, and the Governinent of the Republic of Liberia should not be able to bring the aggressor to justice, the United States Goverament engages, a requisition having been first made therefor by the Liberian Government, to lend such aid as may be required."
This provision did not invest the Government of Liberia with the right to originate its claim to call upon the United States for such aid “as might be required” to overawe the hostile force of the aboriginal inhabitants. The right and sole discretion to decide whether a case exists, which is to put this article of the treaty in motion, resides in the United States. Therefore, when a citizen of the United States shall present a proper case to his own Government it will then be for it to decide whether it will present the case to the Government of Liberia; and if it shall then be informed that Liberia is powerless to execute the demand so made upon her by the United States, then, and in such event, Liberia may make requisition" upon the United States " to lend such aid as may be required” to effect the object demanded by the United States.
The locality of the outrage is also a matter of controlling importance. It has been generally understood that the territory of Liberia extended as far south as the Sau Pedro River, although that claim has been questioned by the Government of France. But the interior boundary line, especially of that portion of the Republic lying between Cape Palmas and the San Pedro, has always been vague and uncertain, and the actual authority exercised by the Republic over that territory even more so. The original deeds to the colonists who formed the Liberian State of Maryland do not define the interior limits so that they can now be recognized on the map.
In the caso now presented the inissionaries are said to have acivanced " a certain distance up the said river” (Cavalla), but how far in the interior the Department has at present no means of knowing; and as the provision of the Article cited can only apply to "the aboriginal inhabitants” dwelling within the bounds of the Republic, the Government of the United States needs further light on this point.
Regretting the delay in answering your note, which has only been due to the time needed for the consideration of the important question raised by it, I have, etc.,
T. F. BAYARD.
Mr. Rives to Mr. Smith. No. 6.]
DEPARTMENT OF STATE,
Washington, June, 23, 1888. SIR: I have been afforded an opportunity to read a letter recently addressed to Dr. Oliver Wendell Holmes, of Boston, by Mrs. (or Miss) Mary B. Meriam, an American missionary residing at Cape Mount, in which reference is made to a strong feeling of race prejudice alleged to be prevalent among the Liberian colonists, and which, it is said, is most prejudicial to the interests of the few white persons resident in that Republic. It is asserted that no white person going to the vicinity of Cape Mount would be sure of safety; that they can get no justice done them in case of well-grounded complaints, and that they are exposed to insults and violence. It is said that this inhospitable treatment is not experienced from the native Africans, “who respect and like the white people."
The Department does not, as a rule, make vague and general statements of this character the occasion of international complaint, and seldom feels called upon to instruct its agents abroad in respect thereof, preferring to act upon specific cases of complaint.
But in regard to this allegation of an unfortunate race prejudice in Liberia, confirmatory of intimations in the same sense which had pre. viously reached the Department through more or less direct channels, and in view of the slowness of communication with Monrovia and between Monrovia and outlying points on the Liberian coast and in the interior, which might make delay in the ascertainment of facts inexpedient and perhaps dangerous, it seems proper to say for your general guidance that nothing could be more contrary to the true interests of Liberia or more sincerely to be deprecated than any exhibitions of hostility based upon color. Contrary to the principles of equal rights, upon which all good self-government is founded among men, it is furthermore expressly contrary to the constitutional precepts and statutory enactments of the country from which the settlement of Liberia has been mainly effected. It is trusted that in the event of any just complaint of wrong in this regard being bronght to your attention you will be earnestly outspoken in favor of the equal and humane treatment of whites in Liberian jurisdiction. I am, etc.,
G. L. Rives,
CORRESPONDENCE WITII TIE MINISTER OF FOREIGN AF.
FAIRS FOR LIBERIA.
DEPARTMENT OF STATE, Monrovia, October 4, 1887. (Received November 21.) SIR: The Lon. Charles II. J. Taylor, minister resident and consulgeneral of the United States to Liberia, having given official notice to this department under date ofthe 26th ultimo of his immediate departure for the United States, I have the honor, by direction of the President, to address you again on the subject of the claims advanced by France to certain portions of the territories of the Republic embraced between Cape Palmas and the San Pedro River, and to inclose for your information copy of a dispatch, with an inclosure, received from our chargé d'affaires in Paris, dated 8th September last, in which he informs this Depart. ment in a letter lately received from the French ministry of foreign affairs that the minister refuses to settle the matter in question with the minister of the United States, on the ground trat our chargé d'affaires being the only agent acknowledged to represent the Republic of Liberia in France, the minister of the United States can not act for our Gov. ernment.
Mr. Carranco further informs us that he has interviewed Mr. McLane on the subject, and, while acknowledging that the United States take the utmost interest in the matter, intimates that it is necessary that our Government send him immediately - a special power to settle the question, and full orders pecessary to come to this conclusion," etc.
Referring to the latier portion of the third paragraph of your esteemed dispatch of the 11th October, 1886, with relation to that "little natural fear on Mr. Carrance's part that you (we) might credit in the wrong quarter the good result of his official efforts and services," I would remark that that natural fear of Mr. Carrance alluded to in that communication seems to be greatly increased, since he has persistently endeavored to have our Government ignore the reasonable intervention of our next (best) friend, and to place the solution of the matter entirely in his hands, notwithstanding the adinission made to this department two or three years ago “that he was on best terms of friendship with all the French Government men."
In this connection I am directed by the President to inform you that 80 great is the confidence wbich he feels in the kind exertions of the Gov. ernment of the United States on behalf of Liberia in this matter, that if the conduct of Mr. Carrance should constitute an obstacle in the way of an amicable settlement of the matter, he would feel no reluctance waatever to remove that obstacle, and leave the question to be finally settled between the French Government and that of the United States, acting on behalf of the Republic of Liberia.
Soliciting an expression from you as to the correctness of the information furnished by Mr. Carrance, I have the honor, etc.,
E. J. BARCLAY.
Paris, September 8, 1887. EXCELLENCY: I have the lionor to inclose herein copy of a letter which Mr. Floureps, minister of foreign affairs, has addressed me concerning the claim the minister of the United States in Paris has been commissioned to put forward on your behalf.
As your excellency will read, the minister of foreign affairs refuses to settle the matter with the minister of the United States, stating that, as I am the only agent ackpowledged to represent the Republic of Liberia in France, this agent can not act for your Government.
My only wish being the welfare of Liberia, I went to see Mr. McLane, minister of the United States, to let him know of the letter I had just received from Mr. Flourens, as this reutleman requires me only to interfere in the matter.
My opinion is that we will agree together and will conie to a conclusion satisfactory to Liberia, for the United States take the utmost interest in the matter, but it is necessary that your excellency should send mo immediately, and by wire if possible, a special power to settle the question and full orders necessary to come to this conclosion.
Your excellency knows me well enough to be aware that in every point I take and mpbold the interests of Liberia, which are as dear to me as my own, and in this matter I feel the more confident that I shall be backed up by the minister of the United States, although I shall have to settle along with the French Government.
I hope we will come to a satisfactory solution, but so as to act quickly it is necessary that your excellency should send me by the shortest way the full necessary orders and power, In this expectation, I have, etc.,
[Inclosure 2.- Translation.) Mr. Flourens to Mr. Carrance.
Paris, August 27, 1887. MONSIEUR: I lave had occasion to inform you, in the month of July of last year, of a proposal made to my department by the United States minister at Paris, in favor of the State of Liberia, in regard to the incident caused by tho calling of a French man-of-war at Beriby.
Mr. McLane, under orders from his Government, has just addressed to me a new coinmunication, in which, always taking into consideration the interests of the Republic of Liberia, ho proposes to us to determine precisely the frontier line between the eastern provinces of this stato and the neighboring French possessions.
Though we are never disposed to reject the idea of a natural boundary (delimitation de nature) to prevent any difficulty with a country with whom we have sentiments of sympathy, it seems difficult to receive overtures which have not an official character, and that have not yet been regularly addressed by your agency.
I will be, therefore, very much obliged to you to inform me if you have been charged by the Government which you represent in France to transmit to us propositions tending to the determination of the common irontier, and I await your reply before having an understanding with the minister of marine upon the subject of the measures it might be proper to take, with a view of regulating, if necessary, the question which the minister of the United States has thought it his duty to call to my atten
Mr. Bayard to Mr. Barclay.
DEPARTMENT OF STATE,
Washington, December 9, 1887. SIR: I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your letter of October 4 last, relative to the friendly counsels of the United States minister at Paris in endeavoring to bring about a settlement of the questions between Liberia and France touching the Beriby district.
In demonstration of its uniform attitude of friendliness toward Liberia, the Government of the United States has frequently interposed its good offices to procure the harmonious and honorable adjustment of difficulties between Liberia and foreign states. The effectiveness of such endeavors depends on the acceptability to both parties of the kindly intermediation of the United States, and this in turn upon the disinterestedness of the tender. The representatives of the United States speak in such cases for the Government of the United States, and not as the ageat or advocate of one of the conflicting parties. This has been the course pursued by Minister McLane at Paris, and which he is instructed to continue. It has not been supposed by the Government of the United States tbat the Government of France de. sires or expects that the representative of the United States at Paris sball be empowered as the agent of Liberia to settle the question. That would be to substitute representation for mediation, which would be contrary to the established policy of the United States.
The true function of the United States minister in France is to act, so far as may be admissible, as a conciliatory medium between the agent of Liberia and the French Government. In this sense the presence of a duly accredited representative of Liberia at Paris is no obstacle; it is rather indispensable to the accomplishment of the ends contemplated in the instructions to Mr. McLane.
It is of course quite beyond my province to express an opinion as to the personal qualifications of the present representative of Liberia in Paris. All I can say is, that if the Liberian Government should recall Mr. Carrance, it would not be practicable to confer on Mr. McLane authority or power to act as the diplomatic agent of Liberia. But short of that, his best efforts will always be available to maintain a good un. derstanding between Liberia and France. I am, etc.
T. F. BAYARD,