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We have divided the country into some 14 major collecting and distributing centers, at which we make 4-hourly forecasts-every 4 hours day and night--for the aviation interests. In between those 4-hourly periods we have a large number of intermediate reports received over the teletype communication system of the Department of Commerce, as to so-called "spot" weather conditions, or immediate, current, weather conditions.
Mr. CANNON. In what phases of weather is aviation particularly interested? Temperature would not affect aviation at all; I have been told that rain does not affect it. Practically the only thing they seem to fear is fog. Are there other phases of weather that are important to aviation?
Dr. CLARK. Of course these reports of ours include records of conditions in the upper air, which we obtain by pilot balloon observations and also by some few observations made from airplanes going aloft and making observations. These observations are intended to comprehend the wind directions and velocities at upper levels, at different flying levels, and to picture the ceiling and the visibility, and those are comprehended in these immediate hourly and daily reports that come through.
You might, Mr. Chairman, be interested at this time to have a brief explanation of that service from our Mr. W. R. Gregg, who has been in charge of the development and organization of this work for some 10 years or more, and who has just recently been nominated by the President as Chief of the Weather Bureau to succeed Prof. C. F. Marvin, who by the inexorable march of time has reached retirement age. With your permission I am pleased to present Mr. Gregg and to ask him to explain to you some of the features of the aerological work.
Mr. Sandlin. We welcome Mr. Gregg, and will be very glad to hear from him. We are sorry to lose Dr. Marvin.
Mr. Gregg. This map (indicating) gives an indication or picture of the airways system as it is now organized, consisting of 25,000 miles of airways which have been designated as civil airways, a part of the Federal airway system, by the Department of Commerce.
For these airways we have organized and now maintain a weather service that functions in two ways: In the first place, as a factor of safety, and, in the second, as a factor of efficiency. In connection with the first factor, that of safety, the elements, a knowledge of which is most needed, are those that you referred to a moment ago; that is, the question as to whether or not fog is occurring, the height of the clouds, the visability, and the occurrence or nonoccurrence of squalls or thunderstorms or phenomena of that sort.
The information that is most wanted in connection with the factor of efficiency is that concerning the upper air wind movement. Those observations are made by means of pilot balloons which are sent up from some 70 stations, and the data on the movement of winds enable the pilots to determine the most efficient altitude at which to make their flights.
Now, the observations themselves are made at about 600 points, many of them hourly observations, and they are sent to certain centers where they are used as bases for weather forecasts, so-called "shortperiod” forecasts, of about 4 to 6 hours in duration, supplementing the longer-period forecasts issued from the five forecast centers that were mentioned awhile ago, Washington, Chicago, New Orleans, Denver, and San Francisco.
AEROLOGICAL SURVEY OF THE UNITED STATES
One of the projects listed here in our statement is called the Aerological Survey of the United States. It consists of a statistical compilation of these observations and reports, on which to base the preparation of what are called pilot charts of the upper air, similar to those for sea level that everybody is familiar with who has made a trans-Atlantic trip. These charts are made for different levels, showing the frequency of the winds from different directions at those levels.
That is a very brief review or survey of the Weather Service for civil aviation as it is now functioning.
Mr. CANNON. Do you think the service has reached the maximum that will be required of it for some years in this phase of the work, or is the expansion of aviation expected to be sufficient to require a corresponding expansion of this work in the next few years?
Mr. GREGG. About one half of the mileage, or twelve to 13,000 miles of the 25,000 miles I spoke of has service which is now quite complete, and presumably there will not be any necessity of any considerable further expansion for those airways.
There are, however, about the same number of miles of airways along which as yet flying has not become so frequent. The schedules are now increasing, but at the present time there may be in some cases only one regular flight a day in each direction, while in other cases there may be 5 or 6. In other words, the service is not on a continuous 24-hour basis, and, as organized, simply serves those scheduled flights.
As flying increases on those airways, it will be necessary to increase the Weather Service and make it more intensive.
Briefly, the airways for which the service is now continuous, on a 24hour basis, are the Transcontinental Lines from New York to San Francisco and from Atlanta over to Los Angeles. Then there are north-south lines between New York and Atlanta, and Chicago and Dallas, and on the Pacific coast from Portland and Seattle down to Los Angeles and San Diego. On the others, for instance, such as those between Los Angeles and Salt Lake City, and the far northern airway, and some others the service is not yet on a 24-hour basis.
So there will be a necessity, as the amount of flying increases on those airways, to increase the service on them to some extent.
Mr. SANDLIN. Can you give us the figures showing the increase in the last 12 months in the frequency of the air service, and the air mail as to the number of trips?
Mr. Gregg. I have not those figures here. I know there has been a very considerable increase in the number of passengers carried in the past 12 months, and particularly in the past 6 months, showing a greater number for that period than in the same 6 months a year ago. I do not recall the most recent figures as to the air mail. The amount of express has considerably increased, and I think the air mail also. I can get those figures for you, if you would like to have them. Mr. Sandlin. It might be well to have those figures in the record. Mr. Gregg. I will get them for you.
(The information referred to above is as follows:)
The following figures show the increase in the number of passengers carried and the number of passenger-miles flown during the 5-month period, July to November 1933, inclusive, as compared with July to November 1932, inclusive. Data for December 1933 are not yet available:
July-November July-November Percentage 1932
233, 802 65, 588, 581
258, 703 98, 334, 987
Information concerning express and air mail carried during the latter half of 1933 has not yet been compiled, but the following figures give comparative data for the 6-month period January to June, inclusive, 1932 and 1933:
January-June January-June 1932
Express carried, pounds.
441, 192 $9, 198, 060. 32
660,082 $9, 303, 914
Mr. Hart. I notice that the total of the emergency fund allocated to the States under the appropriation for general weather service and research is $32,990. On what basis was that allocation made?
Dr. CLARK. That project, as has been stated, is a public works project for which we secured money to make available employment for the unemployed, on work out in the States, and it was simply allocated to those States where we have a weather Bureau building in need of emergency repairs. Twelve thousand dollars of it, as I have already stated, is to safeguard the Weather Bureau building at Cape Henry, Va., which was struck by a hurricane last fall, and the other amounts were similarly allocated.
Mr. HART. That was due entirely
Dr. CLARK (interposing). To the exigencies and urgent needs of the particular station.
I said also that we have some 48 Weather Bureau buildings, valued at a million dollars or more, and our maintenance costs on those have been kept down too low. In fact, we have spent on those 48 buildings, with a valuation between one and two million dollars, about $13,000 a year for repairs and maintenance, and really that has been too small an amount to keep them in proper condition.
We received a very good opportunity for putting men to work in the States by securing an allotment of this $32,990, which made possible the making of the more urgent repairs that were needed.
FRIDAY, JANUARY 19, 1934.
BUREAU OF ANIMAL INDUSTRY
STATEMENT OF DR. JOHN R. MOHLER, CHIEF BUREAU OF ANI.
SALARIES AND EXPENSES
Mr. SANDLIN. We will take up the estimates for the Bureau of Animal Industry. First, we have the item for the introductory paragraph which is as follows:
For carrying out the provisions of the Act approved May 29, 1884 (U.S.C., title 7, sec. 391 ; title 21, secs. 112–119, 130), establishing a Bureau of Animal Industry, and the provisions of the act approved March 3, 1891 (U.S.C., title $, secs. 75, 76), providing for the safe transport and humane treatment of Iport cattle from the United States to foreign countries, and for other pures; the act approved August 30, 1890 (I'.S.C., title 21. secos. 101-105), proiding for the importation of animals into the United States, :und for other purposes : and the provisions of the act aj preveri Felirna ry 2. 1903 (U.S.C.. title 21, secs. 111-113, 120-122), to enable the Secretary of Agriculture to more effectually suppress and prevent the spread of contagious and infectious diseases of livestock, and for other purposes; and also the provisions of the act approved March 3, 1905 (U.S.C.. title 21, secs. 123–128), to enable the Serretary of Agriculture to establish and maintain quarantine districts, to permit and regulate the movement of cattle and other livestock therefrom, and for other purposes; and for carrying out the provisions of the act of June 29, 1906 (U.S.C., title 45, secs. 71-74), entitled "An act to prevent cruelty to animals while in transit by railroad or other means of transportation"; and for carrying out the provisions of the act approved March 4, 1913 (U.S.C., title 21, secs. 151-158), regulating the preparation, sale, barter, exchange, or shipment of any virus, serum, toxin, or analogous products manufactured in the United States and the importation of such products intended for use in the treatment of domestic animals; and for carrying out the provisions of the Packers and Stockyards Act, approved August 15, 1921 (U.S.C., title 7, secs. 181-229); and to enable the Secretary of Agriculture to collect and disseminate information concerning livestock and animal products; to prepare and disseminate reports on animal industry; to employ and pay from the appropriation herein made as many persons in the city of Washington or elsewhere as he may deem necessary ; to purchase in the open market samples of all tuberculin. sprums, antitoxins, or analogous products, of foreign or domestic manufacture, which are sold in the United States, for the detection, prevention, treatment, or cure of diseases of domestic animals, to test the same, and to disseminate the results of said tests in such manner as he may deem best ; to purchase and destroy diseased or exposed animals, including poultry, or quarantine the same whenever in his judgment essential to prevent the spread of pleuropneumonia, tuberculosis, contagious poultry diseases, or other diseases of animals from one State to another, as follows:
GENERAL ADMINISTRATION EXPENSES
Mr. SANDLIN. This is followed by the item for “ General administrative expenses”, as follows:
General administrative expenses : For necessary expenses for general administrative purposes, including the salary of chief of bureau and other personal services in the District of Columbia, $162,185.
I notice the appropriation this year was $170,915, and your estimate for 1935 is $162,185.
Dr. MOHLER. The following explanation is presented for this item: Appropriation, 1932
$185, 575 Appropriation, 1933
184, 025 Appropriation, 1934
Estimated obligations, 1934.
153, 824 162, 185
Increase, Budget 1935, compared with estimated obligations,
8, 361 The reduction of $8,370 in the 1935 estimate of $162,185 below the appropriation of $170,915 for 1934 consists of: Impoundment of 643 percent of 15 percent pay cut.
-$11, 147 Curtailment in 1934 working funds_
-5, 944 5 percent salary restoration
WORK DONE UNDER THIS APPROPRIATION
This appropriation is used for payment of overhead charges difficult of allocation to individual divisions, or projects, as the expenses of the chief's office, including appropriation estimates, audits, appointments, library, and editorial activities.
Mr. Sandrix. What has been and will be spent this year, Dr. Mohler?
Dr. MOHLER. There will be an estimated expenditure of $153,824 this year, and for 1935 we have estimated an expenditure of $162,185. This represents a decrease of $11,147 as an impoundment of 623percent of the 15 percent pay cut, a further curtailment in the reguIar activities of the project of $5,944, and an increase of $8,361 for the 5-percent salary restoration, which makes a decrease in this year's appropriation of $8,730.
Mr. Sandlin. How is the personnel of your office? The same as last year?
Dr. MOHLER. It is slightly less in the number of regular employees—4,746 on July 1, 1932, and 4,407 on July 1, 1933—but there is a considerable increase in the number of temporary employees on account of the emergency funds, which I will discuss later.
INSPECTION AND QUARANTINE
Mr. SANDLIX. The next item is:
Inspection and quarantine: For inspectiou and quarantine work, including all necessary expenses for the eradication of scabies in sheep and cattle. the inspec. tion of southern cattle, the supervision of the transportation of livestock, and the inspection of vessels, the execution of the 28-hour law, the inspection and quarantine of imported animals, including the establishment and mainteance of quarantine stations and repairs, alterations, improvements, or additions to buildings thereon; the inspection work relative to the existence of contagious diseases, and the mallein testing of animals. $622,090.
It might be well for you to state the work that is done under this item, Doctor.