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" The tables given were all of them calculated from the direct results of the different analyses, and not from the average per cent. statements. By comparing the results of the determinations as given in the above tables, we shall arrive at the following conclusions.
"A much larger amount of starch is contained in all the specimens analyzed, than of nitrogenous constituents. Food, to be properly constituted, should contain the elements which support respiration and furnish fat, as well as those which form the tissues. We shall, however, see, by comparing tables 2 and 3, that the proportions of starch differ very much less when compared with each other, than the nitrogenous ingredients do. The proportions of starch in the first six and last four specimens are about equal to each other, whilst we have in Farina twenty times as great a quantity of nitrogenous constituents as in Corn-Starch No. 1, or Tapioca. I have, therefore, in the last table, given the nutritive powers of the different specimens based upon the amount of the nitrogenous constituents, the starch being nearly enough equal in all to compute their nutritive power upon the nitrogen alone. Arrowroot was taken as the standard. 127.5 parts of cornstarch are required to equal in nutritive power 100 parts of arrowroot, &c.
- We shall also see,
“ That the specimens analyzed may be divided into two classes, according to their relative quantity of nitrogen. The first of which will include the starches; the second, farina, maccaroni, rice flour, and prepared potato.
“ That the members of the second class are very much better fitted for nutrition than those of the first class, farina being sixteen times as nutritious as arrowroot, and twenty-three times more nutritious than tapioca.
“ That the members of the second class contain, with the exception of rice, less moisture than the first.
“ That two specimens of corn-starch may differ from each other largely, one containing three times as much nitrogen as the other.
“ That the members of the first group contain from one sixth to one ninth their total weight of moisture which may be expelled at 100° C.; those of the second, from one seventh to one tenth.
“ With regard to the ashes we find,
“ That potato, dried at 100° C., gives over four times as much ash as any other specimen analyzed.
“That the ashes of corn-starch and farina are chiefly composed of alkalies, and give little or no reaction for carbonic acid.
“ That all the ashes contain iron. The ash of Corn-Starch No. 1 also gave a distinct reaction for manganese.
“ Finally, as different specimens of the same article of food may differ in constitution on account of variety in the soil or in the mode of preparation (which latter was probably the cause of the marked difference between the two specimens of corn-starch), these determinations cannot be taken as giving an absolute standard of nutritive value, but only as affording a probable index of results and a means of comparison of the nutritive powers of each.”
Professor Horsford also exhibited specimens of the metal Aluminum, to show its malleability, silver lustre, and other physical properties. It was first obtained by Sir Humphrey Davy, and has recently been prepared by Wöhler's method on a more extended scale by Deville of Paris. It is obtained from common alum most conveniently, from 100 parts of which about 5.78 parts of aluminum can be obtained by a very expensive process; it is made by decomposing the chloride of aluminum by potassium or sodium. Its weight is 2.56.
Professor Gray presented the following paper, entitled, “Characters of New Genera of Plants, mostly from Polynesia, in the Collection of the United States Exploring Expedition, under Captain Wilkes (continued)."
“ ACICALYPTUS, Nov. Gen. Myrtacearum.
“ Calyx subulæformis, acute tetragonus, clausus; apice subulatorostrato operculiformi sub anthesi circumscisse deciduo ; fauce ultra ovarium longe producta. Petala 4, in operculum leviter cohærentia, sub anthesi dejecta. Stamina plurima, discreta, margini calycis tubi inserta : filamenta filiformia ; antheræ biloculares, loculis ovalibus. Stylus filiformis : stigma obtusum. Ovarium biloculare, dissepimento · tenui. Ovula in loculis 8- 10, anatropa, subcurvata ? (Fructus ignotus, forte carnosus indehiscens.) – Arbor vel arbuscula ; foliis oppositis ovatis penninerviis impunctatis ; floribus cymosis terminalibus.
“ ACICALYPTUS MYRTOIDES. - Feejee Islands.
“SPIRÆANTHEMUM, Nov. Gen. Saxifragacearum. “Flores polygamo-dioici, vel hermaphroditi. Calyx quadri-quinque. fidus, æstivatione valvatus, persistens. Corolla nulla. Stamina 8 vel 10, imæ basi calycis inserta, fere hypogyna : filamenta filiformia, fl. masc. exserta, hermaphrodito-fert. calyce haud longiora : antheræ didymæ, biloculares, longitudinaliter dehiscentes. Squamulæ disci hypogynæ fl. masc. 4 vel 5, subcoalitæ, apice dentatæ ; fl. fert. 8 vel 10, staminibus alternæ, sæpe emarginatæ. Ovaria maris nulla ; fem. 4 vel 5, discreta, libera, calycis lobis alterna, ovoideo-fusiformia, in stylos breves attenuata ; stigmata terminalia subcapitata. Ovula gemina collateralia, vel solitaria, pendula, subanatropa. Folliculi 45, compressi, cartilaginei vel coriacei, intus longitudinaliter dehiscentes, mono-dispermi. Semina oblonga, compressa ; testa membranacea aut superne aut utrinque alato-producta. Embryo subcylindricus, albumine carnoso parum brevior; cotyledonibus oblongis planiusculis radicula supera dimidio brevioribus. — Frutices vel arbusculæ Polynesicæ ; foliis oppositis seu verticillatis simplicibus ; stipulis interpetiolaribus deciduis ; floribus parvis paniculatis ; pedicellis articulatis.
“ 1. SPIREANTHEMUM SAMOENSE (sp. nov.): ramis pubescentibus ; foliis oppositis ovalibus subacuminatis basi rotundatis serratis insig. niter penninerviis ; paniculis folia excedentibus ; folliculis dispermis ; seminibus utrinque appendiculatis. — Samoan of Navigators' Islands.
"2. SPIRÆANTHEMUM VITIENSE (sp. nov.): glabrum ; foliis oppositis et verticillatis obovato-ellipticis oblongisve obtusis basi attenuatis integerrimis paucivenosis paniculas excedentibus ; folliculis monospermis ; semine superne alato. — Feejee Islands.
“REYNOLDSIA, Nov. Gen. Araliacearum. “ Flores polygami. Calyx basi nudus ; tubo cum ovario connato; limbo brevissimo integerrimo vel subrepando. Petala 8-10, epigyna, valvata, apice in calyptræ formam coalita, sub anthesi dejecta. Stamina 8 – 10, cum petalis inserta, iisdem alterna : filamenta brevia : antheræ lineares. Ovarium inferum, 8-17 loculare : stylus nullus vel subnullus : stigma indivisum, 8- 18-radiatum. Ovula in loculis soli. taria, suspensa, anatropa. Drupa baccata, globosa, 8- 18-pyrena ; pyrenis cartilagineis. Embryo in apice albuminis dense carnosi minutus; radicula supera cylindrica. — Arbores insularum Pacifici, glabræ, inermes, exstipulatæ ; foliis simpliciter pinnatis sæpissime
trijugis cum impari, foliolis subdentatis ; umbellis racemisve compositis paniculatis laxifloris.
“1. REYNOLDSIA SANDWICENSIS (sp. nov.) : foliolis subcordatis; corolla clausa oblonga: stigmate 8 - 10-radiato ; drupa 8 - 10-pyrena. - Sandwich Islands.
“ 2. REYNOLDSIA PLEIOSPERMA (sp. nov.): foliolis ovatis seu lanceolato-oblongis ; corolla clausa conica vel ovoidea; stigmate 15 – 18radiato; drupa 15 – 18-pyrena. — Samoan Islands.
“ TETRAPLASANDRA, Nov. Gen. Araliacearum. “ Flores polygami? Calyx tubo hemisphærico cum ovario connato ; limbo brevissimo truncato vix denticulato. Petala 7-8, epigyna, valvata, leviter calyptratim cohærentia, caduca. Stamina cum petalis inserta, iisdem numero quadrupla, nempe 28 v. 32, uniseriata : filamenta brevia : antheræ oblongæ, subsagittatæ. Ovarium 7 – 10loculare : stylus nullus : stigma indivisum, obsolete 7 – 10-radiatum, stylopodio brevi conico impositum. Ovula in loculis solitaria, suspensa, anatropa. Drupa baccata, 8-10-pyrena; pyrenis coriaceis. (Embryo haud visus.) – Arbor procera, inermis ; foliis exstipulatis pinnatis 5 - 7-foliolatis subtus incanis ; umbellis decompositis paniculatis.
“ TETRAPLASANDRA HAWAIENSIS. — Hawaii, Sandwich Islands.
“ PLERANDRA, Nov. Gen. Araliacearum. “Flores polygamo-monoici vel dioici ? Masc. Calyx tubo turbinato cum ovario connato ; limbo brevissimo post anthesin repando-undulato. Petala 4? epigyna, oblonga, æstivatione valvata, mox decidua. Stamina indefinita, epigyna, pluriserialia : filamenta filiformia : antheræ oblongæ. Ovarium 14 - 15-loculare ; ovula in loculiis solitaria, parva, suspensa, sæpius abortiva vel nulla. Stigma truncatum, obsolete multiradiatum, stylopodio conico impositum. Fæm. ignoti. — Arbor 20-pedalis, macrophylla; foliis digitatis 9-foliolatis ; umbellis compositis. “ PLERANDRA PickeringII. — Feejee Islands.” VOL. 111.
Four hundredth moeting.
May 9, 1854. — MONTHLY MEETING. The President in the chair.
Dr. Kneeland exhibited to the Academy a large piece of the bark of the Wellingtonia gigantea, and a lithograph of one of these immense trees executed in San Francisco.
Professor Gray remarked that the bark resembled that of the Southern Cypress, being, however, less fibrous and stringy. He suspected that there would be found on this tree two kinds of leaves, as in the Deciduous Cypress; and was still inclined to suppose that it is not generically distinct from Sequoia, although the question can hardly be settled until the male flowers are known. These specimens gave rise to an interesting discussion on the age of this tree, and on the size and age of large trees generally.
“Voted, That the meeting of the fourth Tuesday of May be omitted, on account of the proximity of the Annual Meeting.”
· Four hundred and first meeting.
May 30, 1854. — ANNUAL MEETING. The VICE-PRESIDENT in the chair, in the absence of the President.
Professor Lovering, from the Committee of Publication, and Dr. Shurtleff, from the Library Committee, made verbal reports of the operations of these committees. Dr. Shurtleff announced that a complete card-catalogue of the Library had been prepared.
The report of the Treasurer was read, and his statement of accounts was ordered to be entered on the records.
The chair reported, from the committee raised to consider the subject of lectures for the present year, that the committee deemed it inexpedient to arrange for a course of lectures for the ensuing winter; and the committee was discharged.
The chair announced that the Academy had sustained the loss of the following members by death during the last two years, viz. :