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nor even in the temple. Such were, 1. The sparrows, or two clean birds that were offered by the priest in the houses of the lepers for their cleansing, by sacrificing one and letting the other go‘. 2. We may rank among these the heifer, whose head was struck off to expiate a murder, the author of which was unknown". 3. As also the red heifer that was burnt by the priest without the camp; whose ashes were saved to put in the water, wherewith those that had been defiled, by touching a dead body, were wont to purify themselves'. 4. And lastly, the Azazel, or * scape-goat, which was sent into the wilderness loaded with the sins of the people.
As for the sacrifices properly so called, and known by the general name of corban, that is, a holy gift, they may be divided into two general parts ; into bloody or animate, and into unbloody or inanimate sacrifices. The first were of three sorts, viz. whole burnt-offerings, sin-offerings, and peace-offerings. Some were public, and others private ;. there were some appointed for the sabbaths, the solemn feasts, and for extraordinary cases or emergencies. Before we give a particular account of each of them, it will be proper to set down what was common to them all. 1. Sacrifices in general were holy offerings, but the public ones were holiest.
2. It was unlawful to sacrifice anywhere but in the temple. 3. All sacrifices were to be offered in the day-time, never in the night. 4. There were only five sorts of animals which could be offered up, namely, oxen, sheep, goats; and among birds, pigeons and turile-doves. All these animals were to be perfect, that is, without spot
(c) Levịt. xiv., 49, 50, &c. Concerning these ceremonies, see Spencer on the Jewish ceremonies, dis. l. ii. 15, and iii. 10. (d) Deut. xxi.
(e) Numb. xix. 2. * The learned are not. agreed about the meaning of the word azazel. According to some, it was the name of a mountain. According to others, it signifies going, or sent away. Others will have it to mean a devil. Concerning this goat, see Dr. Prideaux Conn. p. 2. b. i. near the beginning..
(5) Lev. xvi. 8.
or blemish. 5. Certain ceremonies were observed in every sacrifice, some of which were performed by those that offered it, as the laying their hands on the head of the victim, killing, flaying, and cutting it in pieces, and washing the entrails of it; others were to be done by the priests, as receiving the blood in a vessel appointed for that use, sprinkling it upon the altar, which was the most essential part of the sacrifice, lighting the fire, setting the wood in order upon the altar, and laying the parts of the victim upon it.
6. All sacrifices were salted.
A holocaust, * or whole burnt-offering, was the most excellent of all the sacrifices, since it was all consecrated to God, the victim being offerings. wholly consumed upon the altar ; whereas some parts of the others belonged to the priests then upon duty, and those that had offered the victim. Accordingly it is one of the most ancient, since we find it offered by Noah and Abraham, but with what ceremonies is unknown, and also by Job, and Jethro the father-in-law of Moses 5. It is commonly supposed that Cain and Abel also offered this kind of sacrifice, which was chiefly intended as an acknowledgment to Almighty God, considered as the creator, governor, and preserver of all things; and this undoubtedly was the reason why no part of it was reserved. This sacrifice was nowithstanding offered upon other public and private occasions, as to return God thanks for his benefits, to beg a favour from him, or atone for some offence or pollution. Whole burnt-offerings, like the other sacrifices, were either public or private. The same animals were offered in these, as in the rest of the sacrifices, and the same ceremonies almost were observed. Only with this difference, that a Holocaust could be offered by a stranger, that is, a proselyte of the gate.
The Greek word Holocaust (ölokavorov) signifies what is entirely consumed by fire. Phil. de Vict. p. 648.
(9) Gen. viii. 20. xxii, 13. Job i. 5.
When St. Paul exhorts the Romans" to present their bodies unto God as a sacrifice, he undoubtedly alludes to the whole burnt-offerings, because the Christian religion requires a perfect sacrifice; we must deny ourselves, and not set our affections
this world. Propitiatory sacrifices were of two sorts, some being Of sin and for sin, and others for trespasses. What trespass offer- the difference between these two was, is ings.
not agreed among the Jewish writers. All that can be made out from what they have said upon this point, is, that the sacrifice for sin is that which was offered for sins or offences committed through inadvertency, and undesignedly against a negative precept *, or a prohibition of the law : And indeed it appears from scripture", that there was no sacrifice or expiation for sins committed wilfully, presumptuously, and out of defiance to the divine Majesty, and that such an offender was punished with death. As for trespass-offerings, it is not well known what they were. It is however generally supposed that they were offered for sins of ignorance. So that the Hebrew word, which has been rendered sin, signifies such an offence as we are conscious of, but have committed undesignedly; and that which has been translated by trespass, denotes an action, concerning which we have reason to doubt whether it be sinful or not. But this, after all, is very uncertain, since both these words are promiscuously used. We shall therefore conclude this article by observing, that it is the opinion of the most learned among the Jews, those sacrifices could not really atone or make satisfaction for the sins of men. They were only designed for a confession or remembrance of men's iniquities, and as a kind of intercession to God for the remission of them, who actually forgave them upon condition of repentance, without which there
(h) Rom. xii. 1.
* The Jews reckoned 365 negative precepts, and 248 affirmative ones. (i) Levit. iv. 2, Numb. xv. 27. (k) Ibid. ver. 30–32. Heb. X. 26, &c.
could be no remission. This is Philo's notion of the matter?. But St. Paul is very express upon this point, when to shew that the sacrifice of JESUS CHRIST was the substance and original of what was only prefigured by the sacrifices of the law, he says, the expiation and atonement of these last was only typical and figurative. Upon this head you may consult our preface on the epistle to the Hebrews.
Peace-offerings, or sacrifices of gratitude, are so named because they were offered to God in hopes of obtaining some favour from Peace-offerings. him, or as a thanksgiving for having received some signal mercy from his bountiful hand. In the first sense, they were termed salutary, that is, for safety; and in the second, they were called eucharistical, i. e. of thanksgiving, or sacrifices of praise. Besides those that were appointed for festivals, and which were public, there were also some private ones. These were consecrated to God by a vow, to crave some blessing from him, or else they were voluntary, to return him thanks for favours received. The first were of an indispensable obligation, upon account of the vow; in the others, men were left more at liberty. There are in scripture numberless instances of these two sorts of sacrifices m. In them the blood and entrails were burned upon the altar, the breast, or right shoulder belonged to the priest, and the rest of the flesh with the skin, was for the person that made the offering. For this reason this kind of sacrifice is by some Jewish authors called a sacrifice of retribution, because every one had his share of it.
We may rank among the peace-offerings that of the paschal lamb, of which we design to give an account hereafter ; that of the first-born, whether man or beast", and also the tenths of cattle. All these belonged to
(1) Philo. de Vit. Mos. 3. p. 51.
(m) Judg. xi. 30, 31. 2 Sam. xv. 7, 8. 2 Chron. xxix, 30, 31. Psal. lxvi. 13, 15. Jonah ii. 9.
(n) Exod. xiii. 15. Numb, iii. 13.
Of oblations or inanimate sacrifices.
God, according to the law. The first-born of the children of Israel were offered to God as a memorial of his having spared the first-born of their fore-fathers in the land of Egypt; but they were redeemed, and the price of their redemption given to the high-priest'. As for clean beasts, they were offered to God in sacrifice, and the flesh belonged to the priest”. If the animal was unclean, a lamb was offered in his place, or else they struck off his head, but never sacrificed him 9. The tithes of herds and of flocks were also by the Jews consecrated to God, as a thanksgiving for his having blessed their cattle ". It remains now that we should say a word or two
concerning unbloody sacrifices ; which were, 1. The offerings and libations ; 2.
first-fruits ; 3. tenths, and 4. perfumes. Some offerings were accompanied with libations, as the whole burnt-offerings of four-footed beasts, and peaceofferings, but it was not so with propitiatory sacrifices. This offering consisted of a cake of fine flour of wheat, and in some cases of barley, kneaded with oil without leaven, with a certain quantity of wine and salt, and sometimes of frankincense. Besides these offerings that were joined with the bloody sacrifices, some were offered singly, and apart ; either for all the people on feast-days, or for particular persons on different occasions.
They were nearly the same with those that accompanied the sacrifices of living creatures.
Some oblations were made without any libation at all, as the omer or handful of corn that was offered at the feast of the
the two loaves at the feast of Pentecost, and the shew-bread, of which an account hath been given before. We have but two or three things more to observe concerning the offerings. The first of which is, that the children of Israel were expressly forbidden to mix honey with them';
(c) Numb. xviii. 15. (T) Levit. xxvii. 32.
(0) Exod. xiii. 13.