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Inquiries and Answers.
DRAINING WET LANDI have a piece of land on my farm, that is wet, and holds water until late in spring; it is a side hill, clay subsoil. Will it do to underdrain it? What will the tile cost to drain about five acres; and do you think it will pay? Our lands are generally a black limestone land, as it is called R Franklin, Tenn. [It will not only "do" to drain it, but it will not do to let it remain undrained." bly it will increase its value at least ten-fold. Two inch pipe Very probatile, which will be large enough for eighty rods in length, or an equivalent, under ordinary circumstances, (see Register for 1859, article Draining,) may generally be had at the manufactories for about ten dollars per thousand-they are 12 or 14 inches long. Our correspondent may quickly figure how many will be required for an acre, with drains two rods apart; and also the cost of transportation from the nearest manufactory, each piece weighing two pounds or so. From these data he may easily determine the cost per acre. No doubt it will pay well, ultimately, if not immediately. CLOVER AND PLASTER-I have a field of some twelve acres, which I wish to manure previous to laying down to pasture. It is too far away to haul out manure, and I intend sowing clover and plaster this spring and plow down, seeding with grass next spring. What I wish to inquire is the amount of red clover and quantity of plaster I should apply per acre-when the best time for sowing each and right stage to turn under? HARRY. Sunbury Co, N. B. [Clover seed should be sown very early in spring or it may be a little later, if lightly and evenly brushed in. Or, if sown on newly plowed and evenly harrowed land, it may be covered by means of a roller, which presses the seed in and crumbles the surface. This mode does well, if performed quite early, and is followed by rain. Brushing in is best for late sowing. There should be at least one peck of seed per acre. There will be a good growth by the end of summer, when it may be plowed in, but it would be more profitable to wait another year, when the roots will be larger and the crop heavier. It should be plowed in just as the blossoms are disappearing, and before the stalks become dry. Plaster should be sown early in spring, at the rate of one or two bushels per acre.] SHERWOOD'S GRAIN BINDER. I noticed, some time since, in a daily paper, an article headed "Joy to Farmers," in which it was stated that an apparatus had been invented, and successfully operated, as an attachment to the reaper, for binding the grain into sheaves. Can you inform me if such an invention has been produced; and whether one can be had the present season? A FARMER. [A machine for binding grain, attached to any common reaping machine, has been invented by ALLEN SHERWOOD, of Auburn, N. Y., to whom application may be made for information. We have witnessed its successful performance in the harvest field, an account of which will be found in the 14th volume of the Country Gentleman, p. 121; and a figure and description were given in the 13th volume, p. 330.J
Pilfering of CHICKENS-BEST CULTIVATORS.-Can you or some of your numerous readers, give a mode to prevent the chickens from plucking up the corn, as I wish to plant a field in corn near the barn. To shut them up would be quite a task. I have seen a number of plans given, but do not know if they can be relied on. Also who manufactures the best horse-hoe to work corn with, and the price. LEVI HAWK. [We know of no chicken remedy for the purpose proposed. The best cultivator teeth which we have ever used are those made by SAYRE & REMINGTON, of Utica-they are steel-are light, strong, efficient, and are sharp till worn out. The best cultivator in form is that constructed by MILTON ALDEN, of Auburn, N. Y. It has thills which give the workmen a surprising control of its depth and accurate working. Both these we think are furnished for about eight dollars each. We figured the latter in our last volume.]
WILLOW CULTURE-Will you or some of your correspondents please inform me through THE CULTIVATOR, of the plan to pursue in order to successfully grow the Osier willow? B. U. [For an article on this subject, see Cultivator for Jan. 1858, p. 22.)
MANURE CELLARS.-Will some of your correspondents who are soiling, explain how they construct their manure cellars, so as to answer their primary purpose of saving manure, and the secondary one of fattening swine? How do the porkers get in and out of the receptacle? When soiling a dozen cows in as many stalls, under a shed, with the stall doors opening to the south, into the barnyard, (the front of the shed forming part of the north boundary of the yard) where ought the ma nure cellar to be?
LICE ON POULTRY.-Could any of the readers of the Co. Gent, or its publishers, tell us how to destroy the lice on fowls lishing it in your next. J. K. [Apply sweet oil to the top of effectually? If so, you would do me a great favor by pubtheir heads, under their wings, and elsewhere. Another remedy is to mix, say half a pound of sulphur, with several quarts of feed, and allow them occasionally to eat it. Indian meal would probably be best. We should prefer the oil remedy-which might perhaps be modified by substituting lard. But cleanliness whitewashing the hen-house, and keeping every the best of all remedies is prevention-effected by thorough part constantly clean.]
ESTIMATING HAY IN BULK-What number of tons of hay. will the bay or mow, as we call it, hold, when well settled, dimensions as follows-17 by 32 feet, 16 feet posts, and 14 pitch to the roof? A. w. [The rule given by different writers, to estimate hay in tons by the bulk, varies greatly. We have seen in an agricultural paper claiming reliability, the statement that 700 to 800 cubic feet are fequired for a ton of comnion hay, which is obviously beyond all bounds. The bulk and depth of the bay; nevertheless, we think the following varies with the kind of grass, time of cutting, degree of curing, rule a fair average: For clover hay packed solid, about 325 to 350 cubic feet; good timothy about 275 cubic feet, but under a very heavy pressure, one-fourth less. This rule should vary considerably with circumstances. The bay mentioned by our correspondent would contain over ten thousand cubie feet, and would therefore hold from thirty to forty tons, well packed away and carefully stuffed full.]
VARIETIES OF THE RED CLOVER-We have three varieties of clover seed for sale here, termed the "large or Herkimer county," the medium," and the "small" clover. I wish to know whether the "Peavine" clover, advertised in the Co. Gent., is the same thing as the "large or Herkimer Co.," commonly so called. How would the Peavine answer for soiling, say to follow the medium? Would it make a good succession? If I am rightly informed, it ripens later-if so, would it not be in its prime after the other has gone by? One thing more. Is Lucerne adapted to this climate, and would it be valuable for soiling purposes? Where can the seed be obtained-at what price, and how much would it recontinually reproduced from seed, runs largely into varieties; quire to the acre? J., R. [The clover, like other plants and it would be difficult therefore to pronounce on the identity of any local sorts without comparing the same in growth. There is no doubt that any of the larger sorts would do well for soiling-those which run largely to stalk would generally mature later than the dwarf kinds. Many high recommendations have been given of Lucerne, and many experiments made with it--but that they are generally unsuccessful is shown by the fact that its cultivation has not been extensively adopted or permanently carried on. The seed may probably be had of J. M. THORBURN of New-York, but we do not know the price.]
S., Medway, Mass., should subscribe for the COUNTRY inquires, more fully discussed than the limits of THE CULTIGENTLEMAN, where he will find the subject about which he VATOR will allow of our doing in its pages.
TILE-DRAINING.-Do any of the tile manufacturers in your city, ditch and lay the tile? Can you tell me the cost per acre, the drains to be 33 feet apart? There is not a rod of tile-drains in this town, and no factory for making tile in the vicinity. All the tile laid in Worcester are brought from Albany. c. w. G. [There are no tile manufacturers that cut ditches and lay tile for others. The cost of tile-draining per acre, the drains 2 rods apart, and 3 feet deep, the ditches being cut by hand, will vary with circumstances, but may be set down about as follows, as an average:
Digging 80 rods of ditch, 30c. per rod,,
One-half the cost of digging the ditches will be saved, if a drain plow is used, reducing the cost from 839 to $27; and when the soil is favorable, and tile only $10, as in some places, the cost would be still less. If brought many miles by railroad, the expense would be increased.]
WHAT ALLS MY FOWLS ?-When first taken, they act as if trying to swallow-then whirl around like a shaker dancingothers keel over, like a gymnast and at last become stoneblind, seeming to lose all command of the head. They will eat heartily, though it is with great difficulty they pick up their food, the head flying off first one side, then the other. C. w. G. [This disease may be the vertigo-caused perhaps by overfeeding or improper food. We never had any expe
VARNISH.--I wish you would be so kind as to give me a receipt for varnish, through THE CULTIVATOR, A SUBSORIBER. [Varnish is usually made by dissolving gum copal in turpentine, with the addition of some drying oil. But we are unable to give the exact process or proportions, as it is so much easier and cheaper to buy the varnish ready made, which is usually kept by all dealers in paints and oils, and by most druggists.] Jaglow-eyeb
n is the b ble. Autumn best time for application, but much benefit results from spring manuring, if properly spaded in. Rotted manure, or compost, which has been made of equal parts of manure and turf, or manure and muck, and a small portion of leached or unleached ashes, say a twentieth part more or less, is a good fertilizer. We trust our correspondent will avoid the common error of applying manure in a small circle at the foot of the trees, instead of spreading it as far as the roots extend, which is generally as far on each side as the height of the tree. Soap suds, or ashes and water, make good wash for the bark, but we know of no wash to prevent insects from crawling up the stems.] Dios es Ji ti MILLET. Would you or some of your correspondents de-i scribe the difference between the common millet, Setaria italica, and Hungarian grass? My reason for asking for information is, that many of the farmers around here say there is no difference. I received a package of seeds collected in Japan by one of the officers in the expedition with Commodore Perry, in which was a small parcel of the common milfive or six times the size of the others. In place of a single let. During the progress of its growth, I noticed one head spike this was compound. I directly suppressed the small to secure this one. I have one head before me now, eight inches la long, and many of the side spikes one inch long; the foliage is large, fully half an inch diameter, Should it prove different from the Hungarian, I will increase it and make it
GRAPES MIXING BY CLOSE PROXIMITY-Being about to put out a number of grapevines, with the view ultimately of training them to an arbor, I wish to make the following in quiry. The vines will be placed about ten feet apart on each side of the trellis or arbor, of different varieties of fruit, viz., Delaware, Diana, Rebecca, and Annn. Now, being placed in such close proximity, whether there is not a probability of their hybridizing so as to change the character of the fruit ? r. (There is no danger of the fruit mixing or being changed as suggested. Each flower will probably fertilize itself, but. if it does not, and its neighbor performs the office, it will not affect the berries, but only the seed they contain] HORSES AND HOGs-Is it injurious to horses i have trois to have hogs kept underneath their stable to work over J. B. [Horses, to be healthy, must have pure, fresh air and if the fumes of the manure are allowed to come up from be low and load the air and taint the food, the result cannot be beneficial. A perfectly tight floor will exclude the vapor.
SALT FOR WHEAT. I wish to try an experiment with sow-to ing salt on wheat this spring-how much should I sow per acre? JOHN JONES. Golconda, Ill. [Sow from five to ten bushels-it is usually applied in autunm abont sowing time, or soon after-but is said to have done well if applied early in spring.J
SALTING CATTLE.-W. B. inquires respecting salt for cattle. I would say to him that for a number of years I have summered from 100 to 300 head of cattle, and I salt them twice a week, all that they will eat, and I have never had one hurt by eating too much. I have found, in buying fat cattle that had not been well salted, that they never weighed, according to their appearance, as well as those that had been well salted. In the spring of the year I find an advantage in mixing ashes with their salt after they are put on grass. It is a help towards shedding the old coat and starting them to thrive. Ohio Farm, Ill.
FEED FOR HORSES AND Cows. Can feed for five horses and two cows be raised on nine or ten acres fair ground-(I have no manure to start with, and the ground is an old pasture pretty well run out)-and what rotation would you advise for that object? w. A. M'c. Pittsburg, Pa. [Some horses and some cows will eat nearly double the feed of others, and hence all general estimates can be only approximative. We understand our correspondent to ask if food for the whole year can be grown on the ten acres, to be applied wholly to feeding them. A horse will require at least three tons of hay to carry him through winter, and he should have 30 to 40 bushels of grain. A cow will need about two thirds as much hay as a horse. Consequently the five horses will require at least 15 tons of hay--possibly 20 tons and the cows 4 tonssay 22 tons in all. At 2 tons per acre, (a good crop) eleven acres of meadow would be needed: Corn sown in thick drills, (at the rate of 3 bushels per acre,) will yield nearly three to cows and partly to horses-which would bring the required times as much fodder per acre, and may be fed exclusively land for the winter fodder within the ten acres - leaving a portion for raising the grain. P
If our correspondent merely intends to support the animals exclusive of the winter season, the estimate would stand about as follows: Pasturage for five horses, if good, eight acres; for two cows, two acres-to which should be added two acres of corn fodder, &c., for soiling in autumn, and during any severe drouth which might occur in the latter part of summer. If the old pasture, pretty well run out," could be plowed up and re-seeded heavily, (twice as much seed as usual, or more, it would doubtless greatly increase the amount of pasturage. MANURE FOR FRUIT TREES-Will you inform me, through the medium of your valuable paper, what is the best fertilizer that can be placed around the roots of fruit trees at this season of the year. Also, what is considered the best wash for the bark of apple-trees to prevent the ascent of worms and promote the health of the tree. L. C. T. Tarifville, Conn. As a general application for all localities, stable manure and composts made from it, are most valuable and relia
cattle are very fond of it. Mr. John M man, President of the Agricultural Society of Maryland, exhibited it at Chicago last fall, and a certificate of merit was awarded for it. SAM FEAST. Cockeysville, Md. [What we call "common millet," because most commonly cultivated, and generally known as millet, or German millet, is thei Setaria germanica, not ilalica and is the same as that sent out by the Patent Office under the name of Moha de Hungrie, and the same as the famous Hungarian Grass of Iowa. The annexed figure was drawn from a head of Hungarian Grass received by us from Iowa, and is undoubtedly the true Ger man millet. The Italian millet, Setaria italica, differs from the above, in having a thicker stalk, and longer but much less compact spikes, being composed of several roundish clustered spikes. From our correspondent's description, we think it not unlikely that the single plant to which he reto fers may be the true Italian millet.]
(For the Cultivator and Country Gentleman.] L. TUCKER & SON-In renewing my subscription for "The Cultivator," from its origin, under the lamented Judge BUEL, a quarter of a century ago-continuously to the present time-I take pleasure in bearing my testimony to its long continued usefulness, and the interest with which I receive each successive number by due course of mail, every one of which contains something both interesting and useful, and some especially so. Indeed, I have long considered it the best monthly agricultural periodical of our country. Though of course, where there are so many con-s fixed adherence to early and erroneous conceived opinions tributors, some of the articles bear evidence of theoretical enthusiasts, while on the other extreme, some of a rather But there are other writers, who aid much in "dissemi nating useful knowledge among men." There are men of science, of learning, of practical experience, and of clear and sound discriminating mind and judgment, of which latter-many are included, who have not been blest in their early days with as liberal an education as so many of the rising generation can avail themselves of-some communications from them are often among the most practical and useful, and I would encourage them, more especially as it is a greater effort for them to pen an article for the public eye, than from men of science and literature.
I have often felt strongly impelled to expose some of the fallacies of some writers, believing they often do much harm, but do not like to appear in that light-yet it cer tainly ought to be done by some one or more-while those that merit it, ought so to be set forth and sustained,..
[For the Cultivator and Country Gentleman.]
Clod Crushers, Book Farming, &c. Ebs, CULT, AND CO, GENT. Do good and communicate," you say, and I say that if any one expects to, they must make a beginning. I will give a little evidence of the value of taking agricultural papers, which I began to take and read 18 years ago, and have not been without one or more since. I do not think it spoils the value of any information to go through the agricultural printing press as some do, although they, would practice the same if it was told them by their neighbors. I often have got information from one number of your paper, and others, which was of more value than the cost of the paper for years. I will give you an instance of it.
The Clod Crusher which you gave a description of in 1858, and also the evidence of another person as to the
COOKED FEED FOR HOGS.
et basd of
IVATOR AND CO. GENT.I will give you my experience in feeding cooked feed to hogs.
I weighed five shoats their gross weight was 566 lbs. Fed 150 lbs, wheat bran, cooked, in eight days-weight 628 lbs., 62 lbs.
Fed 280 lbs., or four bushels poor frost-bit corn, cooked, in eight days-weight, 646 lbs.-gain, 18 lbs. Fed 245 lbs, or 34 bushels secondquality corn, cooked, in eight days-weight, 698 lbs.-gain, 52 lbs.
If calculate right, the bran, cooked, at four cents per pound for the gain on the logs, paid 33 cents per bushel of 20lbstiThe frost-bit corn paid 18 cents per bushel→→→ that was as qnuch as could be expected of such corn. Two of them were boars that I altered while feeding this corn;3 they gained nothing. The second quality corn paid 594 This corn would not have brought more than 30 cents
value of it, in 1859. I drew on the meadow last spring a cents per busheshel in market.
quantity of scrapings from the yard, which was mostly dirt, and could not be spread so but there was a great many lumps, both great and small; and remembering the articles above named looked them up, (having kept all my back vols, and not used them for kindling wood 1 have known some to do and went to work and us as a crusher. I went to work with it, and the way it crushed and spread the lumps (doing more and better work in one hour, than three or four men could do in a day,) would convince those most set against book farming, that there is a profit in taking the papers; (and by the way some of them think they will have one made this year.) Mine had to do a great deal of work last year at home and at the neighbors, fitting land for grain and roots, and covering) grass seeds. I think it is equal to its recommends by your fortner correspondents, although mine was not made after your pattern exactly. Not having any plank of the right shape, I made it out of common 2 inch plank, and if it was larger, it did its work well, and answered for a stone boat to draw off the stone from the land at the same time.
Now if I could induce one or more to try it by calling their attention to it again, I should think I had done some good by trying to communicate. Would it not be well for you to give a description of it again?
The ink which this is written with, is also an evidence of the value of taking these papers, it being made from the receipt in the Feb. Cultivator, page 51, a quart costing only three cents. BOOK FARMER.
Vernon, N. Y. Agreeably to the suggestion above, we reprint the des cription of the clod crusher alluded to. It was furnished for our papers by Mr. D. McCULLOCK, of Loudon Co., Va. MATERIALS.-One scantling 3 by 4, and 12 feet long, to be sawed into three pieces-7 planks 5 feet long, and 7 inches wide, two inches thick on one edge, and the other edge half an inch thick; (sawyers can saw them by raising one edge of the log,) and one plank 14 inches thick, and
12 inches wide.
Hogs at four cents per pound are below the market price here, but I calculated them at four cents to make the same figures.
Mr. Proctor's good corn, as reported in your paper some time since, paid three cents per bushel for the trouble of feeding my second-quality corn paid 293 cents per bushel for the trouble of cooking and feeding, and on the same quality of cornshe fed, it would have paid 10 cents per bushel more. His gain is about the average of feeding on dry corn, J. WIDNEY. Ohio Farm, Il,
[For the Country Gentleman and Cultivator.] Films on the Eyes of Cattle.
MESSRS. EDITORS-I have seen inquiries about films on the eyes of cattle. I have never had a trial on cattle, but have cured or taken off films twice or three times from the eye of a young mare, by applying new milk from the cow two or three times a day for three or four days. Take a little in the mouth, and it is easily deposited in the eye. It is mild, easily tried, and not expensive.
[For the Country Gentleman and Cultivator.] Ice Cream and Cake.
FOR "JENNIE,”—and if she does not think it "excellent," she will differ from many others who do.
One quart good sweet cream-2 quarts new milk-2 teaspoons arrow-root mixed with two of good butter-14 pounds white sugar, and the yolks of 5 eggs well beaten up.
Boil the milk, and stir in the mixture of arrow-root and butter, and as soon as that boils, set it off, and stir in the sugar and eggs, and let it cool. Then stir the cream in, and flavor with a little mauilla, lemon, or what else best suits the taste, and then freeze.
The whites of eggs not used in the ice cream, will help to make a very nice cake to eat with it, called "Silver" "Lady" cake. Half a pound sugar, 6 ounces flour, three ounces butter, whites of 5 or 7 eggs, well beaten, and flavored with extract of bitter almond. LUCY. Burlington Co., N. J..
For the Country Gentleman and Cultivator.]
MESSRS. EDITORS-Nutieing an inquiry for a cheap paint to put on old buildings, in answer I would say I have had some experience in that line, and will give the desired infor
HOW TO MAKE IT.-Lay down the pieces of scantling 2 feet apart; lay on one plank, thick edge to the end, take an inch auger and bore through the plank and scantling countersink the holes through the plank with a chisel, so that the pins will not draw through; then take the next plank and lap it one inch over the thin edge of the other, and put the pins through so that they will catch both planks; when the last plank is on, slope off the scantIn the first place take some fine oil meal, mix it with cold ling like a sledge runner; then put on the wide plank, turn water; then put it on the stove, and keep stirring till it boils. over, wedge pins, bore a slanting hole in each piece about Then reduce it to the desired thickness with warm water. If a foot from the front, to pull by. Put a chain of suitable you wish it white, stir in whiting, or any color you like. Ap length on the pins; hook your swingle trees to the middle;ply with a brush, the same as paint. It fills the pores in the driver to stand on the hind end. If not heavy enough, wood, so that after two coats it will cost no more to paint an It penetrates the wood, put on stone. It does not answer well on stony land, be old building than it would a new one. cause the stones don't break. If the land is wanted very and does not peel off like whitewash. It is never safe to paint fine, and once over is not enough, harrow up the clods, over whitewash. It will last a number of years, as the oily nature of the meal keeps it from washing. and go over again. Farmers living on clay loams will find this tool of great advantage. We use it after the harrow, and it saves one harrowing. It has several advantages over the roller-costs less, turns casier, pulverizes better, and levels. &
DAMP BEDS.-Mr. H. E. Stanley, of Stourport, Scotland, recently died at that place, from the effects of sleeping over night at Ross in a bed with damp clothes. Medical aid was speedily called but proved of no avail.
For the Country Gentleman and Cultivator.] Death of a Distinguished Agriculturist.
On the 11th of April Mr. B. V. FRENCH, of Harrison Square, Dorchester, Mass., departed this life at the ripe age of 69. His funeral took place on the 12th, at Dr. Starr's church in Braintree, where Mr. F, formerly resided, and was attended by a very large concourse of people.
Mr. Benjamin Vinton French was born in Braintree, July 29th, 1791-learned the business of a grocer began trade in 1812, and followed it 25 years. As early as 1818 he began to interest himself in farming, and soon after became a landholder-enlarging his farm in 1824, and in 1836 gave up his business in Boston, after having acquired a good property by dilligence and assudity in lús calling. To prevent ennui, on quitting the busy marts of city activity, his friends advised him to furnish himself with a fishing tackle and a sporting gun, which he did, but found no occasion to use them for the purpose anticipated, for he found his rural employment ample for this.
His farm comprised about 200 acres, mostly under cultivation. It consisted of a great variety of soils, from the gravelly to the mucky. He inclosed his grounds with stone walls-the materials being taken from his fieldsoften trenching deeply before building the wall. His moist grounds were drained and made cultivable and productive.
He collected the meanwhile, the largest and most valuable Agricultural Library in the State-to which he added the best current Agricultural and Horticultural journals, both domestic and foreign... He was a constant reader of his books, magazines and papers-thus seeking to unite practice with science.
As a Pomologist, his judgment and skill were generally acknowledged. He had at one time over 400 varieties of the apple in cultivation, with as many pears-with large varieties of pluins, cherries, and of the smaller fruits. This was done to test the varieties, for the purpose of determining the best for economical purposes or uses in cultivation.
CORN CULTURE IN KENTUCKY.
EDS. CO. GENT.-I would have written an article upon the cultivation of Indian Corn, some time since, but Helt A Hoosier corresit was like taking coals to New-Castle. pondent, in your issue of March 29th, tells how they culnite as to be of very little use to one needing instruction. I think, therefore, that the precise mode of cultivation, of some good practical farmer, would be much more to the purpose. As I have been at the business a good while, and have tried a good many plans, I will give an account of my practice last season, by which I produced six thousand bushels shelled coin on less than one hundred acres. The land was all spring-plowed--which was done as deep as my teams could possibly draw the plows. Did not plow an acre of ground when too wet. Let patience have its perfect work in this particular. Harrowed when the ground was in proper order, with heavy two-horse diamond harrows, twenty-four teeth. Laid off both ways, three feet and a half, with one-horse diamond plow, as deep as horse could pull. Planted white flint corn, small cob; covered with hoe; plenty of dirt. Best field planted 10th of May.
tivate corn in his State; but makes his account so indefi
Did not work my corn until it was stout enough to bear close severe plowing. Implement used was the one-horse diamond plow-narrow and deep, nade to order-run the bar and split the middle. This is done twice in immediate succession, before leaving each field; then drop the plow and thin. (My land bears three stocks.) Then treat the next field in like manner until you get round the whole crop. By the time this is done, the first field is able to bear the mould-board. Throw two furrows, deep and strong as deep as the horse can pull, and as close as the plow can get, and split the middle. Do this once, and proceed to No. 2, and so on. When you get through all, repeat this immediately. This will make four plowings, which is about all that we can do with 100 acres or more.
Our wheat harvest comes in here from the 20th June to 1st July, and our corn is rarely ever large enough to lay by at that time. The crop is almost always greatly benefitted by plowing thoroughly after harvest. Do not abandon the plowing on account of drouth. Plow-plow
He built a very costly barn-one which has been described in the Gentleman and Cultivator. Though it was deemed " a model barn" by many, yet it was too expen-plow, in dry weather-fear not. sive for common farmers to imitate.
Mr. French was one of the founders of the Massachusetts Horticultural Society, the National Pomological Society, the United States Agricultural Society, the Norfolk Co. Agricultural Society, the Mass. Board of Agriculture, of which he was a member until a short time before his death; and by his influence an act was past by the Legislature in 1856, for the establishing of a Massachusetts School of Agriculture.
A short time before his death, the estate of Mr. French was found involved in irrevocable debt, and was sold at a terrible sacrifice, really not less than relatively. After his homestead and effects were sold, Mr. F. removed from Braintree to the place where he resided at the time of his death-and soon after opened a Farm Agency office, in North Market street, Boston, where he held constant and congenial intercourse with farmers in matters relating to He disrural economy-buying and selling stock, &c. posed of a part of his library to the State Board of Agriculture, a part to a gentleman in Boston, and retained a part down to the time of his demise. He was often heard to regret that he sold his books such as had been his constant companions and silent counsellors for many years.
The death of such a man is a great public loss-leaving void a place that cannot be easily filled. He was a man of highly cultivated taste, of great enterprise and energy of character-an advocate of progress, and promoter of improvement in everything that concerned the welfare of society-remarkably genial and entertaining in conversation-always abounding in good humor-full of anecdote, and ever ready to communicate valuable information on a wide range of subjects. But Mr. French's work is done, and well done, in testimony of which, the Massachusetts Horticultural Society has decided to erect a suitable monuCOLUMELLA. ment over his grave in Braintree.
As to other implements for cultivating corn, I have eight of the five hoc cultivators; and as to shovel plows, showers of them. These are all very good, but the heaviest crops I ever made, to wit-7,500 bushels and 6,000 bushels-were made without them. Boon County, Ky. A KY. FARMER.
COMPOSTING ANIMAL MATTER. EDITORS CORNTRY GENTLEMAN-Having noticed an inquiry in the Country Gentleman in respect to animals for manure, I will give you my practice. I have been in the habit of killing from 40 to 50 calves a year at four days old. I make a pen 12 feet square; then cover the bottom four inches deep with swamp muck; then place on the carcass of a calf, and cover it with one load of muck, and so on until they are all in-one two-horse wagon load of muck to each calf. If I lose a cow or any other animal in the course of the year, it is put into the heap, with the same proportion of swamp muck. When it has laid one year, I apply it to the land. According to my experi ments, it is worth twice its bulk of stable manure. 1856 I applied 25 two-horse wagon loads of stable manure to the acre on an old meadow, and plowed it in. Then I plowed a piece on one side of it without any manure, on which I applied about half as much of the animal compost to the acre as I had of the stable manure; then harrowed it all, and planted to corn; the next spring sowed it to oats and seeded it to timothy and clover. There has been quite a perceptible difference in each crop in favor of the compost. I could see a difference in color and in growth of each crop, for more than fifty rods from the field, for three years past, I did not harvest it separately to know the exact difference the land and treatment all the same. West Fawlet Vt.
We have given in another part of this paper some account of the feeding operations of Mr. Jurian Winne. Since our visit at his place, he has sold 100 of the sheep, and we find the following paragraph in the last market reports of the N. Y. Times:
At O'Brien's also, in Sixth-street, there were a few sheep on hand, of 1.434 received during the past week. Some of them were of prime quality, especially 100 State Leicester sheep fed by Jurian Winne, a few miles out of Albany. Mr. Winne has well earned the reputation of being one of the best feeders in the State, of which some stock yet to come to market will be conclusive evidence. The 100 alluded to were sold by McGraw & O'Brien, as follows: 3 to W. Lalor, $51; 20 to B. Lawrence, at 7c. per lb., live weight, or $235.72; 55 to M. Tabin, $643.62; and 22, scattering, for $264, making a total of $1.194.34, or an average of $11.94 each. The 20 sold to B. Lawrence weighed 157 lbs. each.
"How to Cultivate and Preserve Celery," by Mr. THEOPHILUS ROESSLE of the Delavan House, is now ready. It is preceded by a preface, containing an account of the author's life, from the pen of HENRY S. OLCOTT. The price of the book is $1.
Mr. ROESSLE is very concise in his style, and 60 or 70 pages of large type, comprise the whole results of his experience with the celery plant. There is considerable in his instructions which will probably be novel to the gardener, and at first perhaps received with doubt. But coming as it does, from a man who has proved in long practice the correctness of what he writes, and who claims that equal success is attainable by any one who carefully follows the directions he gives, we can but regard this brochure as worth its price to any grower or lover of celery. It is illustrated, it should be added, with a number of Colored Plates, and comprises the care and treatment of both summer and winter crops of this vegetable.
ENLARGEMENT.-Our friend WM. THORBURN, whose seed store on the corner of Broadway and Maiden Lane, Albany, has been well known for twenty years or more, has found it necessary, from the increase of his business, to enlarge his borders, which he has done by annexing the the adjoining store. The partition having been removed and the two stores made into one, he has now a spacious establishment, well filled with all the varieties of seeds necessary for the farm and the garden. See his advertise
PLEURO-PNEUMONIA.-A communication having been lately received by the Royal Agricultural Society of England from the Central Society of Agriculture in Belgium, requesting information on Pleuro-pneumonia and the means adopted to combat the disease, having particular regard to the effects of inoculation--a reply was ordered to be made that inoculation was not found in Great Britain to rest on any scientific basis, and as such it has not received the sanction or support of the Royal Society.
TRIAL OF REAPERS, &C.-The Royal Agricultural Society of Holland propose to have an exhibition and trial of steam cultivators and reaping machines in August next, offering first and second prizes of about £30 and £15 in each class. These sums of course are not likely to tempt competition; but the probability of custom is. The level lands of Holland are particularly well adapted for both
Mr. Edw. Elliott, of East Greenbush, has laid on our table some specimens of a seedling sweet apple with out name. They were in good order, showing at least the possession of fine keeping qualities.
doubtful kinds of cattle cake. It is used by almost every cattle or sheep feeder we know; and even the game keeper knows nothing cheaper than the best wheat for bis birds. These uses of it must enormously increase its consumption, and the low price which it inaintains in spite of this unusual demand is as remarkable a thing in its way as is the high price of mutton in the face of the enormous supply of sheep weekly poured into the metropolitan market.”
An act of incorporation has recently passed the Legislature of Pennsylvania, for an association whose design it is to institute a "Model Farm," to be located probably in Chester, Delaware, or Montgomery county, including also a Botanic Garden, and opportunities, in connection with the Polytechnic College at Philadelphia, for the instruction of a limited number of Agricultural pupils. The Philadelphia Ledger states that "the list of corporators includes the names of some of the most energetic, respected and wealthy citizens of the five south-eastern counties of the State, men of action, who never begin an enterprise which they do not carry through." The capital stock is fixed at $50,000, and it is thought such an establishment may be so managed as to be an interest-paying as well as a useful and practical institution.
GOOD CROP OF OATS-BENEFIT OF DRAINING.-Mr. AL
BERT VAN VOAST, Pond Grove, Schenectady, believes in thorough draining, having carried it out on a large farm. adjoining his farm, which had been so run down, that it He bought in 1858, eight and three-quarters acres of land had not rented for years for more than a dollar an acre. He underdrained it thoroughly, and sowed it to oats last spring. His account with the crop is as follows:
OAT LOT-3% ACRES. Dr. To 9 days team plowing, dragging, &c., @ $2.50.. 2% do. sowing, &c., @ 75c.,.
* 24 bushels of oats for seed, @ 54c.... 28 days cradling, binding, &c., @ 75c. 2 days, team drawing in barn.... Interest on land at $700,.. Tax.....
$21 25 188 12 96
Here is a clear profit of over $14 per acre, after deducting $7 per acre for rent, from land which before draining would not rent for more than $1 per acre.
CARELESS LETTer-Writers.—We lately received a letter from a subscriber, complaining that he had been cheated by a person who some time since advertised some seeds in this paper-that is, he had sent the required stamps, but had received no seeds in return. Knowing the advertiser to be an honest man, we sent our correspondent's letter to him, that he might explain the cause of the failure. In reply he says "I have received over 300 letters since the publication of my advertisement in the COUNTRY GENTLEMAN, and in twelve of them the writer's name is wanting, and several of them no post-office or any thing else by which I could find out his residence, is given. I have now over 20 of these letters which I have been unable to answer, either for the want of the name or residence of the writers. These letters have given me a vast deal of trouble, and I wish you would try to impress upon your readers the necessity of giving their full address." Our advice to those who have sent stamps for seeds, and have not received them, is to write again, and be careful to give their names, post-office, county, and State.
OREGON TIMBER. The trade in wood for 1859 at London, as reported in the Farmer's Magazine, shows the arrival there of four cargoes from Oregon and Vancouver's Isle“ magnificent trees," it is stated, "said to be Abies
WHEAT FOR CATTLE FEEDING.-The London Agricultural Gazette, in answer to the inquiry-" which is the cheapest food for cattle-wheat, barley, oats, cake, maize || Douglasii-creating as much wonder in the naturalist as or beans?-says:
"At the present prices the first of these is as economical as any. Wheat at 1d. per lb., is as cheap a food as can be bought-if we except some of the cheaper but still somewhat
in the trade." Their chief purpose is for masts, for which it is added, they "combine all the qualities required, and have already attracted the attention" both of the British and other foreign governments-“in_length_from 100 to