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AGBNTS IN NEW-YORK :
EDITORS AND PROPRIETORS, 395 BROADWAY, ALBANY, N. Y. cross-bred bullocks find their way thither to be sold and J. J. THOMAS, ASSOCIATE EDITOR, Untos SPRINGS, N. Y. : fattened. If I am not mistaken, we saw some of the old
long-horned stock, which at one time had a brush with the C. M. SAXTON, BARRER & Co., Ag. Book Publishers, 25 Park Row, Short-horns for supremacy; there were also Irish cattle THE CULTIVATOR has been published twenty-six years. A New not quite so long in horn or large in frame as those, but Series was commenced in 1853, and the seven volumes. Cool Ch. 4, 5, 6, thicker, and described to me as better to take on flesh; 7, 8 and 9, , bound and post-paid, at $1.00 each Ten of the Asso AL REGISTER OF Rural
Arpairs, with one of each have learned, they said, to keep the best at home for their TERMS_FIFTY CENTS A FEAR. Ten copies of the COLTIVATOR and there was Scotch blood, too, but the canny North Britons free to the Agent, Five Dollars.
"THE COUNTRY GENTLEMAN." a weekly Agricultural Journal own feeding; and so the collection—that day scarcely so of 16 quarto pages, making two vols. yearly of 416 pages, at $2,00 per year, is issued by the same publishers.
full I think as usual—was made up, and the farmer who
went out to buy had need be good in judging to know Editorial Votes Abroad. what to choose and how much to pay. There were sheep
and lambs in large numbers, quite generally I think of a * No. XXXI---VISIT NEAR NORWICH. Leicester cross, although the marks of other breeds miglit
also be detected. And to conclude, a stable-full of borses The Norwich Cattle Fair-the Grain Market or Corn Exchange
Plumstead and Agricultural Pupils--the Wire Worm--Live Stock - were to be brought out at a later hour under the hammer
In some cases there are corporation or other tolls on It was the object of the last letter in this series, to con- the animals marketed, and thus an accurate register of the voy a general idea of the County of Norfolk, and the pro- sales is kept. There is no such guide to consult in reductiveness there attained. With Mr. Read, to whom, by gard to the number disposed of at Norwich, but with the conversation and through the Essay already alluded to, construction of railroads, the attendance there is said to was indebted for many of the facts there detailed, I had have been annually increasing in magnitude “ to the extinothe pleasure of visiting Norwich Hill on the day of the tion of almost all the local fairs in the county.” Norwichi, weekly Fair or cattle-market.
it may be added, is a city much the size of Albany. We are as yet deplorably deficient, as a general rule, in My attentive conductor also went with me to the cornanything exactly corresponding to the fairs, markets and exchange, where, very appropriately, a portrait of Mr. market-days of Great Britain. I shall not attempt at pre- Coke looks down upon the proceedings of many who sent to point out their advantages, as opportunities will be cherish his memory and example. Here the farmers of hereafter afforded for recurring more particularly to the the county, when they are ready to sell their grain in subject. That they form a part, and an essential part, in whole or in part, bring samples of what they have, and the machinery, so to speak, of English Agriculture, no the corn-brokers and millers who occupy stands in the visitor can fail to observe; and, in the facilities for buying apartment, examine the quality of what is offered, and and selling, for selection on the part of the farmer who conclude their arrangements for purchase. Dispatches purchases, and competition of bidders for the farmer who constantly received from London show how the markets has anything to dispose of, their establishment and regular there are tending, and, if the prices do not suit, the far. recurrence at stated times supplies an advantage parallel mers's pocket will carry his samples back again as easily in some respects to that which the British cultivator also as it brought them. There is generally an "ordinary” or possesses over us, in the readier and more abundant ob- general dinner, set at the public houses frequented by the lainablencss of experienced agricultural labor.
farmers, and as the same cireles meet so frequently at the Norwich is a city of the ancient times, but the old Cas- same places, mutual acquaintance and association of intertle that surmounts its highest summit is now occupied as ests are promoted. Pipes and tobacco often constitute the a prison, and the triple battlements that protected this concluding luxury, in the enjoyment of which our English Norman keep, have not for many years frowned down brethren have nothing to learn from us—indeed I was upon any force more warlike than the humble company scarcely prepared to find the “weed” still in so high and that occupies on Saturdays the crowded pens below- general estimation, puffed in the primitive pipe with long gathered from every part of the kingdom to eat of the and curving stem. production of Norfolk husbandry, so that in the end the Some notes jotted down in visiting “Plumstead," as hungry eaters of the metropolis may be filled. In fact it is Mr. Read's farm, several miles from Norwich, is calledestimated that not above one bullock in twenty that is I will be read, I am sure, with an interest equal to the kind
ness with which he afforded its hospitalities to an unex- some three hundred are annually fed, together with one pected stranger. It is illustrative of the spirit and intelli- hundred bullocks. As to breeds, in conversation with gence which he has brought to its management, and I hope regard to their respective merits, the remark was made not a matter of indelicacy previously to mention that Mr. that formerly meat was grown perhaps more for the genRead is still a young man, graduated as a farmer after try; or rather, that until more recently, flesh was put on some years' experience in managing for others, acquired a cost, from the length of time required to mature it, upon estates in South Wales, Oxfordshire and Bucking which the wealthy could better afford to pay, while in hamsbire, and having proved his powers of observation in point of fact, the poorer classes consumed comparatively all three instances by the preparation of Reports upon the very little. The South-Down, with its superior mutton, Farming of the Counties named, which received the Prizes well-matured, for example, still furnishes what a landed of the Royal Agricultural Society. Since his occupancy of proprietor desires to graze for his own eating, or the epihis present farm, he had, like many of the best farmers in cure to buy from his butcher; while, on the other hand, England, taken several pupils for instruction in the practi- the great objects sought by the farmers who produce meat cal details of Agriculture. There are always many de- for the multitude of purchasers are hardiness and size, sirous of such instruction, either the 'sons of farmers at combined with early maturity. Without these three qnasome distance who wish to acquire a knowledge of the lities, cach of equal importanee it may be the Norfolk systems elsewhere in vogue, or sometimes young men from feeder cannot buy and sell at a profit. Continuing to the city with a taste for rural life and pursuits; and in no speak of sheep, the larger kind of Leicester, or Leicesters way perhaps can a knowledge of farming be so well and with a tinge of Cotswold, (or perhaps Lincolnshire,) are said thoroughly obtained. With three or four pupils, in the to give the desired size and maturity, and at the same time active seasons of the year, the oversight of all the trans- lengthen the wool; the purer Leicesters, as they are someactions of the farm is explained and illustrated, practice times regarded, such for instance as those of Mr. SANDAY, in determining upon and performing them, is always to be perfect as they are of their kind and for some localities, had, and the exercise of judgment in relation to live stock are here considered too fine to produce a cross embodying of different kinds as well as field operations, is elicited all essential points so perfectly as the others. The ewes and directed to proper standards. Lectures are given are the Downs, the best of them from Suffolk, hardier in twice a week in winter, upon both theory and practice, constitution and finer-wooled than the males with which followed by conversational discussions upon mooted points they are put. or farther explanation of difficult ones. I do not doubt It has been claimed here, and the opinion has its adhe. at all the correctness of the opinion expressed by Mr. R., |rents in Great Britain, that the meat produced is really that one year of such tuition, following a year or more deteriorated as its maturity is forced; and there is little spent at an institution like that at Cirencester, would pro- doubt that if one is content to wait the convenience of vide the best education which an intelligent young man some of the old breeds in getting themselves ready for the could have before undertaking the management of a farm, knife, he may be better suited with the filesh they give and I can not but wish that more of our good farmers him. But with sheep, the cross above described, for excould be induced to receive pupils into their families for ample, makes a better leg of young mutton, say when similar instruction. The price paid there by the pupil is slaughtered at a year old, than could be had at similar age in the neighborhood of $850 per annum, but little if any- from the best South Down, while the latter would in turn thing being expected from his labor; while, in many cases be preferable at three years old. With cattle it is much he provides himself with a horse, it may be for hunting the same as with sheep. There are still some, although or other purposes, which increases the price paid by him not very many, Devons in Norfolk, notwithstanding Mr. per year to about $1,000.
COKE's efforts to popularize them there ; they make excel. The land at Plumstead was last summer occupied nearly lent beef, and when ready to kill, you have a nice fat as follows:
little wretch ”—but not enough of him; the size and still 125 acres. | In Clover and gain foin, 100 acres. earlier maturity of the Short-Horn, and of Short-Horn
crosses, therefore render their blood preferable to any The usual four-course system of rotation is employed, as other. It is observed in Mr. Read's Essay, of the cattle might be anticipated. About 32 bushels of wheat per that are now offered for sale on Norwich Hill, that the acre, 40 bushels of barley, and 48 of oats are regarded quality of the Short-Horns has been wonderfully improas average crops in this vicinity; 14 to 2 tons of bay are ving, or rather perhaps it was intended to say that the usually cut. Mangolds is a crop in growing favor, and grade of Short-Horn blood has been becoming a higher will yield 30 tons per acre, bearing unlimited manuring, one from year to year, as it certainly has with the beeves while turnips if pushed too hard are found to run mostly sold at the cattle markets of New-York; and especially to tops and necks. The wire-worm is the greatest foe he says, that the cattle now brought over from the Emerald with which he has had to contend; coming along last spring, Isle, bear very little resemblance to the long-horned breed attacking the barley, touching the wheat a little, destroy- originally produced there; “by judicious crosses with the ing the first sowing of mangolds, and a second sowing of Short-Horns,” they now obtain what the English farmer Swedes put in to replace them, and doing much damage calls “very useful cattle,” that show “much of the quality to the white turnips, which made a third sowing on the of the new blood, yet retain a great deal of the flesh and same ground. Some fields of mangolds, however, had frame of the old stock." escaped, and some of the Swedes had been only badly From the pleuro-pneumonia many cattle had been lost, thinned.
and few lots of cattle were received from Ireland, Mr. As to live stock, the labor of the farm is partly done by Read informed me, that were not more or less infected oxen, 4 yoke and 16 horses being kept. The breeding with this complaint—if free from it when starting, often flock of sheep numbers about a hundred, and in addition taking it, he said, by being crowded together in crossing
In Beans and Peas,.... 50 do.
the channel in vessels where diseased animals had pre- $30 to $35 per acre over the farm. The difference beceded them. There are one or more companies to insure tween this sum and the land charges for rent, &c., and the against loss from the pleuro-pneumonia, but as they did sums paid for labor, will constitute, when further diminnot take risks exceeding in amount something like half ished by the heavy additional expenditures that are rethe value of the animal, he had never had recourse to this quired for fertilizers, feeding materials, wear and tear of source of protection. The state of excitement upon the machinery, &c., the farmer's net avails for his own time subject in this country, at the time of writing out these and for interest upon the capital he has invested. notes, is such as to lead me to wish that I had pursued my The box.feeding of cattle, which has been in growing inquiries upon it a little farther. It was introduced into favor, as compared with other systems, Mr. Read was preGreat Britain by cattle from the Continent, and there seem- paring to adopt, I think; there is thought to be less food ed to be little doubt there of its being as infectious as it consumed, and the resultant manure is considered richer bas here been represented.
than when the cattle are fed in open yards. By adequate The subject of insurance against a particular disease in attention in keeping the litter in the corners and middle, cattle, was brought up by the casual mention of that of level; no odor escapes even if the deposit remains undisanother kind, which illustrates singularly, as such little turbed in the box from autumn until spring. On the other items often do, how Agriculture in Great Britain has been hand, Mr. R. remarked that the first cost of the boxes systematized, like commerce, into a branch of industry is greatly against them, and while tenants gladly employ with its own risks to run, and its calculated chances of them if provided by proprietors, the general prefer. escaping them. Much grain is every year damaged there ence otherwise appears to be for “small yards for 10 or 12 by hail storms; but by the payment of 6d. (say 12 cents) | beasts, on two sides of which are warm and wide open per acre for the surface down, companies insure one against sheds.", whatever loss may result from this cause. A storm the The character of the soil is such that draining is not neprevious year had done much injury to a field of beans at cessary except for the purpose of cutting off springs, when Plumstead, but this insurance having happily been effected, one or two drains will dry an area of perhaps three or four appraisers on examining into the facts of the case, rated acres. Sainfoin, succeeds well here, a plant that scems the loss at £27, (say $135,) which amount was duly re- to require the presence of chalk or lime to flourish to adcovered.
vantage. Calcareous material may be cheaply had by using Portable engines are now to be found on many of the lime from gas works-on the subject of which there ling most extensive farms, for thrashing and other farm pur- been considerable inquiry here during late years. Mr. R. poses, but thrashing is very frequently done by steam there, thought it might be a useless, or even a very destructive as in some parts of the country here it is done by horse application, if not rightly employed. His way I underpower-viz., one or more individuals owning an engine, stood to be, to spread about three tons per acre upon the will go from farm to farm to thrash out the grain as de- land after harvest, for the turnips to be sown in June or sired at a certain rate per quarter, or per coomb, a favorite the mangolds sown in May of the succeeding year. The Norfolk word, signifying a half-quarter or four bushels. I price of this gas lime was only 62 cents for a load of met a farmer who had been interested in one of these no- about a ton and a half. Salt, which costs say $5.75 per ton, madie “steamers," as they are called, and from whom I is also a common manure, applied at about two cwt. per
, gathered that the business, originally a quite profitable one, acre, with an equal amount of guano for barley or oats was now suffering rather from competition, or from the too after a wheat crop, as on a portion of the land a double common purchase by farmers of “steamers” of their own. grain crop is thus often taken.
The rent here was 358. per acre, or with tithes and As we walked out among the fields that refreshing poor-rates added, equivalent to about 45s., say $11.28. In English summer evening, after an American summer's the agreement between landlord and tenant, is cus- day, the management of the white thorn hedges was among tomary for the former to provide materials for any new the subjects that came up, and I remember at least one erections that it becomes necessary or expedient to build, practical suggestion. It is found better to trim them with while the tenant pays for from one-half to the whole of a hook, than with shears, for although the latter prothe labor, according to agreement. In repairs, the land- cess is neater and quicker, it is said to produce knots, lord will keep the exterior of the dwelling and other struc- while the hook gives a clean, healthy cut. I rememtures generally, in order, painting as often as may be cov. ber too, our sitting under the trees upon some benchenanted, say once in 3, 5 or 7 years, while the tenant must es in the simple contrivance of which I should have generally bear the burden of whatever interior painting, thought there might have been a touch of Yankee ingepapering, &c., may be required.
nuity, and which I should despair of rendering intelligible It is a matter of some interest to know to what sources without the aid of a diagram. The seat was provided with the profit of the farm is due, for in some years of the ro
a low back, and was itself composed of tation taken by themselves, there is a constant outlay with
two boards, attached by hinges at a, as little pecuniary return. Through the four years of the
shown in the accompanying section, 80 course, I understood that the annual cost of labor would
that one of them with the back (6) would average per acre about 30c., say $7.50; while, with prices as
turn over and form a roof for the rest of they had usually rated for several years, (the low prices of the
the seat when not in use, keeping it dry past season being perhaps regarded as exceptional) the two and clean in all kinds of weather. One who has gone out
white crops,” or the wheat and barley years in the rota- | in the early morning to find every garden chair a miniation, should bring in a gross return of fifty dollars each ture pond, or a favorite roost for any stray bird that has per acre, and the other two years of clovers and roots, reposed in the vicinity, will appreciate so ready a mode of an equivalent to twenty dollars each per acre-that protection. is an average return, for each of the four years, of
In the morning my friend kindly drove me into the
railway station, in season for a train to Elmham, where it will require to bring a lot weighing 80 or 90 pounds up Mr. FULCHER-to whom I had been indebted for the sug. to 130 or 140 pounds. But if the position that 1,400 gestion of this visit at and near Norwich, as well as for pounds of animal organism requires no more for its supthe means, through Mr. Read's acquaintance, of acquiring lity, age and all the attendant circumstances being alike,
port than 900 pounds of the same kind, character and qua. much information as to the general agriculture of the then I ask why should 2,000 or even 3,000 require any county-was so obliging as to have a cart awaiting my more than 1,000? arrival--and by a cart, I mean one of those very handy
John Johnston sars a steer fed 100 days, will gain more two-wheeled one horse vehicles, to which I have already the lust 35 than the first 65 days. This is no doubt coralluded as universal there, and as being one of our as-yet-thin of flesh at the commencement.
rect, so far as gain in weight is concerned, if the animal is
It takes consideraupattained conveniences. I was under farther obligations ble time of liberal feeding to bring the animal organism to Mr. Fulcher, which it. will require another letter to up to the highest development of health and strength of explain, while I did not leave Plumstead, short as my visit which it is capable; and until this is accomplished, the there had been, without recollections of friendly attentions major part of the nutriment is consumed in strengthening which I shall long cherish, and of much good farming of and expanding and giving tone to the vascular, and dila
the vital force, adding to the gastric juice and other fluids, which I must again regret that I can now only present so ting the cellular system. But when the animal reaches detached and fragmentary a pictures,
this point, then all the food he is capable of digesting, be
yond what is necessary to sustain him in present condition, (For the Country Gentleman and Cultivator.)
is added either in natural growth or accumulations of fat. NUTRIMENT ACCORDING TO SIZE,
And here lies the rationale of several important facts. The
circumstances must be very extraordinary if a man can Ens. Co. GENTLEMAN— There are but few, I' presume, afford to keep his cattle or sheep poor, or allow them at more ready than myself to lay aside theory; however plau- any time to get poor. sible, when it is disproved by practice. But there are On the prairies of the west, where millions of tons of some things that do not admit of being disproved by prac- grass go to waste annually, a man, if very short of food in tice, or in any other way. If a man was to tell us that he winter, may afford to let his cattle get thin, if they do not had proved by practical experiment, that a whole acre of get so thin as to lose their health, because they will recuground of any kind would be just as thoroughly irrigated perate in the summer without cost to him. But in the with any given quantity of water, as half the same area, middle or eastern states, where food of all kinds is more or that it takes no more fuel to generate 1,500 volumes valuable, it can scarcely ever be afforded. If a man does of steam than 1,000; or no more motive power to run a not feed his stock enough to keep them up to present confactory with 14 sets of machinery, than 9 sets-however dition, he loses not only what he feeds them, but a portion much confidence we might have in his practical knowledge of animal flesh every day, and gets a little drib of poor and general correctness, we should of course give these manure in return. If he feeds them just enough to keep statements no credence, but indulge in the reflection, if them up to present condition, he just has the manure for not in the remark-even this man, too, falls into errors. the feed and labor, unless there be an advance in the mar
I have been to-day looking over some copies of the Co. ket for his class of animals from the time he commences Gent, which came while I was from home; and the above feeding till be sells. But if he gives a little more feed, thoughts were suggested by reading an article from the say as much as the animal can digest to advantage, it adds pen of our friend JOAN JOHNSTON, in the paper issued 2d to the animal in natural growth and accumulations of fat, mo. 9th, in which he takes the strange position that “it and he not only has the advantage of any general rise in takes no more to fat a steer that weighs 1,400 pounds live the market, but he enhances the market value of the aniweight, than it does to fat one weighing 900 or 1,000 lbs.; mal by making it of a superior quality, and in this way and that the largest will always gain the most with equal gets paid, not only for what he has added to the weight of feed, if they are of the same age.” Also that “it takes the animal, but realizes an advance upon the entire no more feed to fat a lot of sheep averaging 140 or 150 weight. Wu. H. LADD. Richmond, Ohio. pounds, than it does the same number averaging only 85 or 90 pounds.” Or, in other words, it requires no more
(For the Country Gentleman and Cultivator. ) nutriment to sustain 1,400 pounds of animal organism of
COTTON SEED MEAL. any given kind and quality, than to sustain 900 pounds of the same.
MESSRS. Ens.-As I am now writing, I will give you I think this must be acknowledged to be a fair statement my opinion, for the benefit of Inquirer, of Cotton-seed of the position, for, if it took any more to sustain the meal.' Early last spring, I had two cows which were near1,400 pounds in present condition, or iu statu quo, than ly dry—they both giving but thrce quarts a day. I comthe 900, there could not be so much left to go to fat. And menced giving them three quarts apiece of the meal, mixnow I ask if these propositions are not just exactly equi- ed with cut meadow hay and straw, and they commenced valent to those above, and just as palpably erron cous? It to improve rapidly in fesh, soon having a coat as glossy seems to me the difficulty arises from drawing conclusions and smooth as a well fed horse, and in three weeks time from partial and insufficient data. John Johnston tells they gave between eight and nine quarts of milk per day, us he arrived at this conclusion from feeding cattle meal of very excellent-quality. Now, considering the poorer in stalls, and finding the largest ones gaining the fastest. quality of hay and straw that I am enabled to work up, I But he tells us he only gives them three to four quarts of consider that cotton-seed meal and straw does not cost meal per day, and feeds them hay in boxes in the yards, much more (if as much) than good English bay, besides which they go to at pleasure; and further that this hay is keeping the cattle in much better order, and the manure of the very best quality.
is worth a third more. Now is it not very plain that much the largest portion of This winter I have used over three tons of the meal. It the animal's gain is from the bay, of which he may eat as costs at this place, one dollar and a balf per hundred lbs. much as he pleases, and that the larger puts on more fat By its use I have been enabled to keep eight head of cows than the smaller animal, simply because he has the capa- and a yearling, better than five cows were ever kept on city to eat and digest: more food. A steer that weighs 50 the place before. I cut up all my hay, straw and stalks. pounds more than another, because he is in that much bet- It made some of the old farmers stare last fall, to see ter flesh, will not require so much food to keep him in that me stocking up so much more heavily than common, some condition, as it will take to bring the other up to his con- of them stating that I had not so much liay as would keep dition ; neither will a lot of sheep averaging 130 or 140 five cows, and that I must remember that if I had to buy pounds, because they are fat, require anything like the hay it would cost pretty dearly before spring. But I had food to keep them to that weight, or gaining a little, that I more confidence in the information that I derive from the COUNTRY GENTLEMAN than in these searecrows which they is the Danthonia spicata of the botanist. It will grow in set up. By feeding in this way, I have sold this winter these old pastures and fields, where none of the better vatwo hundred dollars worth of milk. By not selling milk, rieties are found. It is fast gaining foothold over large I could have kept the same number of cows with half the tracts of pastures and fields in nearly all the older and long amount of meal. Geo. D. FORISTALL. Holliston, Mass. settled portions of the hilly, rocky portions of New-Eng
land. And where the stock is kept summer and winter on (For the Country Gentleman and Cultivator.)
this grass, the cattle generally have a hankering after bones.
If cattle back in the interior do not find soda (salt) enough Cattle Nibbling their Mangers.
in their food, (and they seldom do,) the farmer usually Messrs. EDITORS—“A Subscriber," in the Co. Gent, of feeds it to them. If he neglects this, they will let him March 8, inquires " the cause of cattle nibbling the man- know their wants, if there is an old meat or fish barrel ger and other boards within their reach, while tied in the comes within the reach of their tougues. A certain stable.” Doubtless he is right in his conjecture that it is amount of iron is necessary for the healthy condition of caused by “a lack of something in the soil, thereby ren- the blood. Sometimes the assimilating vessels do not tako dering the bay deficient of something that is necessary to up enough from the food for this healthy condition, and the health of the animal.” Probably the hay is deficient weakness follows. Upon application to the physician, he in the “ bone-forming materials,” that is, phosphoric acid at once understands the “cause and the remedy."
He at and lime. This is the case in some of the older settled once administers some preparation of iron as a medicine. sections of New-England, where the pastures have been This restores the patient to health and strength. So in the long grazed, and the tields long mown, without having case of bone disease. Ground bone is the remedy. But been top-dressed or otherwise manured. The soils of it would, if practicable, be a better way to supply the soil these old pastures and fields have become so exhausted with the necessary phosphates, as bas been extensively of the phosphates, that the grasses do not yield to the done upon the long grazed portions of Cheshire, Eng. cows enough of them to supply the daily waste going on If“ A Subscriber," will place within reach of his cattle in the bones and other parts of the system, and at the horn-piths, or other large bones, and they are eager for same time supply the large demand for phosphates, made eating them, as is the case with the cattle here on many of by the milk secreting organs, or in furnishing the mate- our old farme, he may be pretty sure that there is a derials for building up the osseous frame-work of the embryo ficiency of phosphates in bis hay. If he is not in the calf before its birth. Every 40 gallons of milk contain habit of giving his cattle salt, it is possible that the “nibone pound of bone earth, besides other phosphates. The bling" may in part be due to that. Please try both, and milk of a good cow in a year, contains, of earthy phos- report the result through the columns of the Country phate, as much as is present in 30 lbs. of bone dust, The GENTLEMAN. • Do good and communicate.” milk, and the annual calf, if sold off the farm, and the Warner, N. H., dlarch, 1860. L. BARTLETT. wasted urine (allowing only one-third of this to run to waste,) of a good cow, annually removes from the soil as
(For the Country Gentleman and Cultivator.] much of earthy phosphates as is contained in 56 lbs. of
CHEAP DRAINING. bone-dust. Now it is not surprising, that the grasses of some pastures and fields, that have been grazed and nown MESSRS. EditoRS—Having noticed an article in the for 80 or more years, are deficient in the necessary phos- August number of the Cultivator 1869, on subsoiling and phates, the bone-forming materials of animal food. Cows ditching plows, I had some ditching to do, but had no and young cattle, thus poorly fed upon these innutritive ditching plow, and being a small farmer, and not able to grasses, whether in their green or dried state, instinctively get all the new and improved tools, I resolved to try it turn to the proper remedy, and neglect no opportunity to with a common plow. I commenced by plowing three gnaw upon any old bones they may be able to find. In furrows (all from one way,) about ten inches wide. These the absence of these, they seek out old boots, shoes, or were pulled out with a dung hook. I then went up one other leather, or “nibble their manger and other boards side and down the other with the plow, thereby loosening within their reach." Says Prof. Johnson of Yale—“The about six inches of the subsoil, which was then shoveled results of continued feeding on such poor pastures, are a out. The plow was then passed up and down again, and loss of health on the part of the cows, especially mani- the loose dirt shoveled out as before ; then plowed again, fested in a weakening or softening of the bones—the bone keeping one horse in the ditch until it got so deep that disease, that is not now uncommon in our older dairy the whippletrees rubbed on the edge of the ditch so that districts."
the plow could not go to a sufficient depth. I then plowed The disease can be partially reinedied by directly feed- withi one horse putting bim in the ditch, using a short ing finely ground bone meal to the animals, mixed with whippletree that would not rub on the sides of the ditch, salt or provender of some kind. Two or three gills weekly thus plowing and shoveling out the loose dirt until I got will answer. Within the past ten years, I have procured the ditch from three feet to three and a half deep. I then many barrels of fine bone-dust, such as is made at the put in stones, putting a row on each side of the ditch, button-mold factory at Brighton, near Boston. Besides, leaving an open passage in the middle, from three to four some of our traders keep it for sale as a "medicine for inches square, covering it over with larger ones. I then bone-sick cows."
put in small stones until the ditch was nearly half full. I Some persons who write for the agricultural papers, say then put some straw on the stones, and plowed the dirt in this story about a lack of phosphates in the soil, bone dis again with two horses, putting them both on one side of ease, &c., is all a chimera-an idle fancy.
the ditch, and as near it as possible, so that the dirt would Cows and young cattle grazed in newly cleared pastures fall in on the straw, and when the straw was covered, I and the clover fields of Western New-York, and fed input one horse in the ditch, and as the earth was all thrown winter on roots, grain, and good English hay, are not out on one side of the ditch I passed the plow along in troubled with the bone disease. Roots, grain and English the ditch, thereby smoothing and settling the earth down hay, can only be grown where the soil is naturally rich, when going one way, and filling in while going the other or artificially made so by the application of manure. Inway, until the ditch was about full. I then turned a fur either case the soil contains all the necessary constituents row on the ditch, from each side, thereby ridging it up of plants, and as a sequence, the crops contain all the higher than the ground around it by turning five or six necessary elements (including the phosphates) for the furrows toward the ditch on each side. healthy growth and sustenance of the cattle.
I believe there are many farmers who think as I did But the condition of the soil and crops are quite differ- that none but experienced ditchers could dig a ditch. By ent from the above, in those districts where the bone dis- doing it when the ground is neither too wet nor too dry ease of cattle prevails. These old pastures and fields year any common farm hands with a common farm team ma after year only produce a light crop of poor, innutritive ditch as easily as to do common farm work. I have n grass, known as the “wild oat grass, white top," &c. It doubt but that tile is better and more durable for under