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prescribing the following form of oath justify it, not unlike the sport which, to be taken by all persons who should “the story runs," a certain English be required to do so by any lawful traveller in the south of France deauthority :

clined to share, in words memorable "I, A, B., do hereby abhor, renounce,

for good sense and bad French,—“Je and disown, in the presence of the Al n'aime pas la chasse au loup parceque, mighty God, the pretended declaration si vous ne tuez pas le loup, le loup of war lately affixed at several parish tue vous.” churches, in so far as it declares a war The Christian Carrier played and against his sacred Majesty, and asserts lost. If he had won, he and his that it is lawful to kill such as serve his comrades would have hanged ClaverMajesty in Church, State, army, or coun. house and his dragoons in cold blood,

and gloried in the act; and it is This oath being taken, a certificate rather unfair to canonise him bewas to be delivered to the party tak- cause he met a more merciful death ing it, which was to operate as a free at the hands of those for whom he pass and protection. Of the treason- had prepared a gibbet and a halter. able nature of the declaration it is

It may perhaps be urged that the impossible to entertain a doubt, and despatch of Claverhouse does not in the refusal to take the Oath of Abju- terms negative the account given by ration was, in fact, precisely equiva- Walker and Wodrow of the converlent to a plea of guilty to an indict- sation between Claverhouse and the ment for high treason. The pro- widow of John Brown. This is true ; ceeding, it is true, was summary, and but it appears improbable that Claliable to abuse. The law was harsh; verhouse should have detailed with but the country was in open rebel- so much particularity what took lion, and Claverhouse was no more place, and have noticed the unconcensurable for carrying the laws into cerned manner in which Brown met execution, than a judge would be his fate, and yet have omitted all who should sentence to death a per- notice of so remarkable a scene, if son who pleaded guilty at the bar of it had, in fact, taken place. It is imthe Old Bailey. Here, then, we possible that he could have passed arrive at last at the true history of over without observation any sympJohn Brown, the Christian carrier, toms of mutiny, or even of unwillthe man represented by Lord Mac- ingness to execute his orders, on the aulay as of singular piety, versed part of his troops. Here, then, is a in divine things, blameless in life, distinct contradiction to the most and so peaceable that even the ty- important part of Wodrow's story; rants could find no fault with him, and the total suppression by both except that he absented himself from Wodrow and Walker of all that rethe public worship of the Episco- lates to John Brownen, the nephew, palians."

His peaceableness was to the discovery of the " bullets, shown by his being in arms at Both- match, and treasonable papers” in well; his piety by shouting, “ No the house of John Brown, and of quarter for the enemies of the Cove- the place of concealment and arms nant"— by rallying round the gibbet in the “house in the bill under and the ropes prepared for the ground," throws the greatest possi“ bloody militiamen and malignant ble suspicion on the rest of both nartroopers," over whom the Lord would ratives. The simple account given have given His chosen people an easy by Claverhouse, therefore, disposes victory, but for their “stepping aside” at once of the absurd story of the in sparing the five “brats of Babel” dragoons having refused to obey at Drumclog-and by providing a orders, and renders the poetical secure hiding-place for men and arms, and fanciful additions of both those to be used for future slaughter. very apocryphal writers, to say

Rebellion is a dangerous and des- the least, highly improbable. The perate game, which, as has often death of John Brown_was simply been remarked, requires success to a military execution. He might be

* Worrow, ii. App. 158.

sincere and honest-so was Thistle- upon the street, by a shot from the caswood; he might be bold, and meet tle. I went immediately and examined death unconcernedly—so did Brunt. the guard, who denied point-blank that John Brown was å fanatic of the there had been any shot from thence. same class. His courage was up

I went and heard the bailie take deheld by religious and political enthu- positions of men that were looking on,

who declared upon oath that they saw siasm. He was one of thousands who, in those days, were equally pre- horse immediately fall. I caused also

the shot from the guard-hall, and the pared to commit the most savage search for the bullet in the horse's atrocities, or to endure the most head, which was found to be of their terrible extremities, secure, as they calibre. After that I found it so clear, thought, of the approbation of the I caused seize upon him who was orderGod of mercy, of the crown of mar- ed by the sergeant in his absence to tyrdom, and the joys of paradise.

command the guard, and keep him pri. Whether the oppressions of the

soner till he find out the man, which I Government justified the rebellion suppose will be found himself

. His of the Covenanters, or whether the

name is James Ramsay, an Angus-man, outrages committed by the Cove- horse, as I am informed. It is an ugly

who has formerly been a lieutenant of nanters justified the severities of the business ; for, besides the wrong the Government, are matters which we

poor man has got in losing his horse, it are not now called upon to discuss.

is extremely against military discipline They in no degree affect the ques- to fire out of a guard. I hure appointed tion as regards the character of Cla- the poor man to be here to-morrow, and verhouse. It would be as reason- bring with him some neighbours to declare able to hold Sir John Moore or the worth of the horse ; and have assured Massena answerable for the justice him to satisfy him, if the captain, who and morality of their respective sides is to be here also to-morrow, refuse to

do it." + in the war of the Peninsula, as to hold Claverhouse responsible for the Again, he hears complaints that, policy of the Government he served. before his command had commenced,

We have bestowed so much space some of the dragoons had taken free upon an examination of this par- quarters in the neighbourhood of ticular charge that we have none Moffat; this, he remarks, was no left to follow Claverhouse through charge against him, as the facts had his gallant career to its brilliant occurred before he came into that close. We must content ourselves part of the country, but he immewith one or two instances of his diately institutes an inquiry. “I conduct during his command in the begged them,” he says, to forbear west, which seem to us wholly to till the captain and I should come disprove the view of his character there, when they should be redressed taken by Lord Macaulay, and to in everything. Your lordship will remove the dark stains which Sir be pleased not to take any notice of Walter Scott supposed to have ex- this till I have informed myself upon isted.

the place.”+ It is a curious illustraIn the early part of the year 1679, tion of the perversion of language Claverhouse was stationed at Dum- and of diversity of character, that at fries. Not Wellington himself could the very time when that worthy be more sedulous in suppressing gentleman,” Hackston of Rathillet, outrage and maintaining discipline inspired by “zeal for the cause of amongst his troops than we find this God,” was butchering, the Arch"chief of Tophet” to have been. bishop on Magus Muir, “Bloody

On the 6th of January he thus Claver'se” was delaying the march of writes to the commander-in-chief :- his prisoners in consideration of the "On Saturday night when I came

illness of one of them, a conventicle back here, the sergeant who commands preacher of the name of Irwin. He the dragoons in the castle came to me;

thus writes to the commander-inand while he was here, they came and chief on the 21st April 1679 :-“I told me there was a horse killed just by was going to have sent in the other


* Napier's Memoirs of Dundee. VOL. LXXXVIII.NO. DXXXVIII.

† NAPIER, 122.



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prisoners, but amongst them there is Writing at the end of the same
one Mr Francis Irwin, an old infirm year, and giving an account of his
man, who is extremely troubled with stewardship to the Privy Council,
the gravel, so that I will be forced he thus reports the success of his
to delay for five or six days.” He just and merciful experiment:-
again apologises for the delay, on the
same ground, on the 6th of May, is not only as peaceable but as regular

It may now be said that Galloway three days after the murder of the

as any part of the country on this side Archbishop. This man, so consider- Tay. And the rebels are reduced withate of the sufferings of his prisoners, oui blood, and the country brought to Lord Macaulay would fain have his obedience and conformity to the Church readers believe to have been a “chief government without severity or extortion ; of Tophet, of violent temper and of few heritors being fined, and that but obdurate heart.The kindliness of gently, and under that none is or are to his disposition breaks out repeatedly be fined but two or three in a parish; in his correspondence. With the mur

and the authority of the Church is der of Magus Muir, the slaughter of restored in that country, and the minis

ters in safety. If there were bonds Drumclog, and the high gallows and

once taken of tbem for regularity herenew ropes of Bothwell fresh in his after, and some few were put in garrison, memory, he can yet write, --“I am

which may all be done in a few months, as sorry to see a man die, even a that country may be secure a long time Whig, as any of themselves; but both to King and Church." + when one dies justly, and for his own faults, and may save a hundred to

The biographer of Locheil has a fall in the like, I have no scruple.

passage which it would have been Again, in 1682, he writes

well if Lord Macaulay had con

sidered before hazarding the charge “ The first thing I mind to do, is to of profanity against Claverhouse. fall to work with all that have been in Speaking of the high sense of honour the rebellion, or accessory thereto by and fidelity to his word by which giving men, money, or arms ; and next, Dundee was distinguished, he saysresetters; and after that, field conventicles. For what remains of the laws

“ That it proceeded from a principle against the fanatics, I will threaten much, of religion, whereof he was strictly obbut forbear serere erecution for a while; servant; for besides family worship, for fear people should grow desperate, performed regularly evening and mornand increase too much the number of ing in his house, he retired to his closet our enemies."

at certain hours, and employed himself

in that duty. This I affirm upon the On the 1st of March 1682, com- testimony of several that lived in his menting upon what was occurring in neighbourhood in Edinburgh, where his other parts of the country, he says

office of privy councillor often obliged

him to be; and particularly from a “ The way that I see taken in other Presbyterian lady who lived long in the places is to put laws severely against story or house immediately below his great and small in execution, which is lordsbip's, and who was otherways so very just; but what effects does that pro- rigid in her opinions, that she could not duce but to exasperate and alienate the believe a good thing of any person of hearts of the whole people? For it ren- hie persuasion till his conduct rectified ders three desperate where it gains one; her mistake.

His lordship and your lordship knows that in the continued the same course in the army; greatest crimes it is thought wisest to par- and though somewhat warm upon occadon the multitude and punish the ring- sions in his temper, yet he never was leaders, where the number of the guilty heard to swear.” is great, as in this case of whole coun. tries. Wherefore I have taken another The same writer thus sums up the course here."

character of Dundee :



NAPIER, 130.

+ Ibid., 136. # Memoirs of Locheil, 278, 279. It is a remarkable confirmation of this somewhat peculiar characteristic of Claverhouse, that Crookshank, who records the oaths of Westerraw, Lagg, and others, with peculiar gusto, never, as far as we have observed, attributes such expressions to Claverhouse.




“He seemed formed by Heaven for

which we would fain great undertakings, and was, in an emi- linger. nent degree, possessed of all those quali- In days notorious for profligacy ties that accomplish the gentleman, the there was no stain on his domestic statesman, and the soldier.

He was, in his private life, rather parsimo- the almost universal treachery of its

morality-in an age infamous for nious than profuse, and observed an exact economy in his family. But in public men, his fidelity was pure and the King's service he was liberal and inviolate. His worst enemies have generous to every person but himself, never denied him the possession of and freely bestowed his own money in the most undaunted courage, and buying provisions to his army: and to military genius of the highest order. sum up his character in two words, he He was generous, brave, and gentle, was a good Christian, an indulgent hus- -a cavalier

sans peur et sans reband, an accomplished gentleman, an proche;” and as long as the summer honest statesman, and a brave soldier.

sun shall pour his evening ray Such is the portrait of Dundee, through the dancing birch-trees and painted by the grandson and bio- thick copsewood down to those dark grapher of the heroic Cameron of pools where the clear brown waters Locheil

, “the Ulysses of the High- of the Garry whirl in deep eddies lands," † a writer cotemporary with round the footstool of Ben Vrackie, Wodrow, I and to whom Lord so long will every noble heart swell Macaulay makes frequent reference. at the recollection of him whose spirit How happens it that he has over- fled, with his fading beam, as he set looked the testimony of what he on the last victory of “Ian dhu nan himself justly calls these “singularly Cath,”—of him who died the death interesting memoirs" ? $

which the God of Battles reserves We are compelled, by want of for His best and most favoured sons, further space, to terminate our re- alike on sea or mountain, ou the blue marks. We quit the subject with wave of Trafalgar, or the purple hearegret. The character of Dundee is ther of Killiecrankie.

* Memoirs of Locheil, 273-279.

+ Mac., iii. 321. I Wodrow's History was published in 1722. The Memoirs of Locheil were written some time before 1737. The exact date cannot be ascertained.

See Preface, p. xlix.

§ Mac, iii. 321.


It was lately remarked by a London jungle to jungle, till the miserable journal, “ Our national life is now remnant found refuge in the boundvery different to what it was in those less forests of Nepaul. Tantia Topee 'piping times of peace,' during the ad- and his followers, on the contrary, ministration of Lord Melbourne, Sir had nothing to do with forts-like Robert Peel, and Lord John Russell

. the Douglas of old, they liked better In those days the heroes of our In- to hear the lark sing than the mouse dian victories would have been the squeak. They had no district to delions of a succession of seasons, and fend, but wandered about an immense the battles of Oude or the Mahratta territory ruled by independent chiefs, country would have been celebrated whose soldiers only waited for forin every form.

tune to show any signs of turning in "It may be said, with truth, that the favour of the rebels, to join their two campaigns in Affghanistan were standard, and force their employers more studied and talked about than (nothing loth in some instances) to all the deeds by which our Indian head the movement. The rebels had empire has been saved.

every quality required in soldiers for Perhaps if the present peaceable such a roving commission, except disposition of the European poten- courage, and in that they were not tates last, and England has time to altogether deficient, if their leaders revert to former occurrences, the great had known how to evoke it. At any exploits of the late war will receive rate, the British officers found no the attention due to them as the most difficulty in making their countrymen extraordinary historical events of our in the Bombay infantry follow them own time. The courage with which up to the muzzles of Tantia’s guns. a handful of Europeans stood at bay No troops in the world could endure among millions of enemies, and the so much fatigue, sleep so well on the energy with which the mother coun- hard ground, or do without sleep at try placed a hundred thousand men all, and be content with so little food. on Asiatic soil, and crushed the in- The cavalry were well mounted, and surrection in little more than six light weights; the infantry had a months, deserve all the fame that number of hardy ponies to help them historian or poet can give them.” in long marches. All were well

The struggles at Delhi and in Oude armed from British arsenals. have found several narrators. The The troops of the Malwa and Rajbrilliant campaign of Sir Hugh Rose pootana divisions in which the camin Central India has also not been paign was carried on, applied themleft unrecorded. It is of the pursuits selves resolutely to exterminate their after Tantia Topee, subsequent to the slippery foe. They fought sixteen capture of Gwalior, and which form actions, and wrested guns from him the sequel to Sir Hugh Rose's cam- when fighting as one to twenty. No paigu, that

we propose now giving a respite was given him to establish sketch. This campaign comprised a footing in the country—wherever operations of a totally different char- he.led, the British troops followed, acter from those which were going on throughmuddy plains or sandy dein Oude. Lord Clyde had to conquer serts, across broad rivers or mountainthat country by sheer force of arms. ranges. Parties of the 83d Regiment The whole population was against and 12th Native Infantry marched him. The native army held every thirty and fifty miles into action unfort and every pass, and forts are as der an Indian sun. Captain Clowes's common in Oude as church-steeples troop of the 8th Hussars marched in England. It was by the slow ad- altogether more than two thousand vance of parallel columns, each of four hundred miles. The rebels themwhich brought siege-guns along with selves only disappeared as an organthem, that they were driven from ised body, after their weary trail had stronghold to stronghold, and from covered three thousand miles.

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