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from their division (Marine-Theile). They are under the orders of the director and direction officer, but they are also obliged to report separately to the Commander-in-Chief, the military members of the committee on studies, and the commanding officer of the first division of seamen. The temporary students, or Hospitanten, report only to the director and direction officer.
The regulations governing attendance at lectures and exercises are exceedingly precise and strict, considering the age of the officer-students. Each has his place in the lecture-room, which he must always occupy. The most punctual attendance is required, and no officer can absent himself from an academic exercise, except in case of illness, leave of absence, or special dispensation; or, in the case of hospitants, details for special duty. In case of sickness the fact must be reported without delay. Applications for leave or for other dispensations are made in writing to the director, and are only granted in cases of urgent necessity.
S. Ex. 51-13
SCHOOL OF ENGINEERING AND PILOTAGE.
The school of engineering and pilotage is at Kiel. It has its own officers of government, but, as in the case of the Naval School, they are under the general orders of the Commander-in-Chief of the Baltic station. At the head of the school is a line-officer, as director, who is appointed by the Emperor, and who has the same authority over the personnel of the institution as the commander of a naval division. The director is therefore responsible for the military discipline of the school, and has general supervision of the studies and course of instruction. He has an asssistant, called the direction officer, acting in the capacity of a chief of staff. The latter is a line-officer ordered by the Ministry to this duty, on the recommendation of the Commander-in-Chief of the station; and besides his ordinary duties, he has charge of the director's office and the library, and he may be detailed for the supervision of practical exercises.
The instructors are either military or civil officers of the Navy, ordered on the application of the Commander-in-Chief, or special teachers, or military or civil instructors, under provisions similar to those of the Naval School. The director engages the special teachers, paying them regular fees, subject to the approval of the Admiralty. For the management and care of instruments, models, &c., a lieutenant is ordered as house-superintendent (Haus- Verwalter). The officers ordered as instructors perform the duty of supervision of the students, for which duties, as well as for instruction, the house superintendent may be specially detailed.
Students are quartered and messed, as far as possible, in the school itself, and in the barracks. The rest board at one of the naval messes of the station, or at private boarding-houses, but in company, as far as is practicable.
The school consists of three divisions, (1) the school of engineering, (2) the school of pilotage, and (3) the class of paymaster-applicants. The first and third are the only divisions that can be considered as forming a part of the system of education of officers. The object of the pilotage school is to prepare for the prescribed examinations such boatswain's-mates, and quartermasters as wish to become navigating boatswains. It does not therefore properly come within the scope of the present subject.
The object of the school of engineering is to give machinists (Maschinisten) a scientific training, and to prepare them for the examinations for
promotion to mechanical engineers. It includes four classes, as follows (the lowest class being the first):
1. Machinist's-mates' class.
2. Second machinists' class.
3. First machinists' class.
4. Engineer class.
There are also several parallel courses, each of which is limited to twenty-five students.
In the machinist's-mates' class applicants for appointment as machinists (Maschinisten Applikanten) are prepared for the first examination. In the second machinists' class the machinists and upper machinist'smates are prepared for the examination of machinist of the watch. In the first machinists' class machinists of the watch are prepared for the leading machinists' examination. This course is also open to those machinists and upper machinist's-mates, provisionally examined at sea, who have shown remarkable proficiency in the machinist's-mates' examination. As a general rule, each student must attend the second machinists' class and pass the examination before he can be received into the next class. In the engineer class upper machinists, and properly qualified machinists near the head of their grade, are prepared for the engineer examination; on passing which they receive commissions in place of their warrants.
The course for all four classes generally begins on the 1st of October. At that time is held the test examination for upper machinists. There is a vacation of two weeks at Christmas, and the last fortnight in March is occupied by the examination, at the close of which the students are transferred to their respective divisions. Attendance upon the engineer and first and second machinists' classes is indispensable in order to receive permission to come up for the examinations at the close of these courses.
The dockyard divisions send up those upper machinists, machinists, upper machinist's-mates, and applicants who are qualified to attend the school, by September 1 in each year, and they are transferred at the time fixed for the beginning of the course. At its close they return again to their divisions. Those machinists or upper machinists who have not been classed as good at the preceding examination, are required to pass anew at the beginning of their course by presenting an essay on a prescribed subject, and performing certain other exercises. The director decides as to the fitness of the candidates, and those who fail are immediately sent back to the dockyards.
The course of instruction is arranged in accordance with a programme approved each year by the Admiralty. The only addition allowed to the prescribed course is in a general permission to give extra instruction in modern languages not specified in the programme, which are useful in maritime intercourse, and for which there may be teachers at the school.
For the examinations examining boards are convened by the Commander-in-Chief, at the request of the director. The oral examination is conducted by the board. For the written examination each member of the board prepares a paper on all the subjects; and from these the president of the board makes a selection. The instructors of the school cannot examine at all in their own branches of instruction, except informally.
The scale of marks, and method of obtaining final results, are nearly similar to those used by the board for the examination of line officers, and already described. A final mark, equivalent to 5, "satisfactory" (55 per cent. of the maximum), is required in order to pass; but if the candidate has less than 77 per cent. in the majority of subjects he is characterized as having "barely passed." There are also certain subjects in each of which 55 per cent. is required.
At the final meeting (Schluss Konferenz) of the board a report (PrüfungsProtokoll) is drawn up, containing the names of the candidates in order of merit, and recommendations as to re-examination, &c. Certificates are granted at the same time, stating the character and aptitude for the service of the candidates and their general qualifications for promotion. In cases of re-examination the necessary preparation may be made at the school, if the director permits, and if it is attended with no ineonvenience; otherwise, the unsuccessful candidate must depend on himself.
The course of instruction is chiefly devoted to steam-engineering, mathematics, and modern languages. Considerable time is given to physics and chemistry, but the course is not of a very high character. The details of instruction are as follows:
(20 lessons a week.)
1.-STEAM-ENGINEERING: 3 lessons.
General study of steam and its properties as far as is necessary for the management of a ship's engine, but omitting all calculations; different kinds of engines, high and low pressure, compound engines, &c., and their details, and the peculiarities of various types; different types of boilers; propellers and fitting them; boat engines and boilers, and their details; care and preservation of engines, and the prompt repair of injuries; auxiliary engines and machinery used on shipboard, including that for raising the anchor and for turning turrets, steam-steering apparatus, ventilating apparatus, fire-extinguishers, &c.; distilling apparatus, its details, use, and preservation; diving apparatus; German and foreign measures, weights, and coins.*
2.-MATHEMATICS: 4 lessons.
Arithmetic; algebra through equations of first degree with one unknown quantity; elementary plane geometry.
3.-MECHANICS: 2 lessons.
Elementary propositions relating to motion, velocity, acceleration. The combination, division, and equilibrium of forces; laws of inertia, reciprocal action, gravity, mechanical work.
Classified under this head in the authorized school programme.
4. PHYSICS: 1 lesson.
Physical properties of bodies, expansion, volume, form, impenetrability and porosity, attraction, gravity, weight, divisibility, cohesion, density, hardness, elasticity; laws of pressure of gases, and instruments relating thereto; laws of hydrostatic pressure, hydraulic press, Segner's water-wheel, turbine, &c.
5.-CHEMISTRY: 1 lesson.
Elementary principles and processes, filtration, distillation, evaporation, crystallization: reaction and reagents; chemical combinations and elements; salts, metals, and metalloids; affinity and atomic weight; oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen, and carbon.
6.-MECHANICAL DRAWING: 5 lessons.
7.-GERMAN: 2 lessons.
Preparation of an essay free from rhetorical and orthographical errors; word formation and classification; punctuation.
8.-ENGLISH: 2 lessons.
Reading and translation of easy authors.
The examination of machinist-applicants who have completed the course is held as usual by a board, composed of the director of the school as president; a lieutenant-commander (Kapitän-Lieutenant) for German and English; a mechanical engineer, for mechanics and drawing; and a constructing engineer, for engineering and mathematics, physics, and chemistry.
The examination in English is oral, and is purely optional; in all the other subjects there are required examinations, both oral and written. In the first class of subjects, with a coefficient of three, are engineering, mathematics, and mechanics; in the second class, physics, chemistry, drawing, and German; and in the third class, English. In each of the first-class subjects, 55 per cent. is required in order to pass. Sixteen papers are given in all; of which one is in German; two each in mechanles, physics, and chemistry; four in mathematics; and five in steamengineering, two of which are on weights and measures.
After passing the examination, the machinist-applicants are qualified for the grade of upper machinist's-mates, and are prepared to enter the second machinists' class.
II. SECOND MACHINISTS' CLASS.
(22 lessons a week.)
1. STEAM ENGINEERING: 4 lessons.
Hatory of the development of the steam-engine, and especially of the marine engine; the origin and extension of steam navigation; distilling apparatus; diving apparatus in all its details, its preservation, use and repair; different systems of pumps for armored ships, details and use, and instructions for critical occasions; arrangement and effective use of a ship's machinery in all its parts; arrangement of different kinds of boilers: super-heaters, flues, chimneys, uptakes, propellers; dynamometer, indicator, interpretation of indicator diagrams.