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Approximately 94 percent of all displacements will occur in federally assisted programs. Of the 132,600 displacements per year, 124,740 will be in federally assisted programs and only 7,860 will be in direct Federal programs. A breakdown of the displacements by programs is shown below.

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To obtain a more complete picture of the magnitude of disruption, we must add together tenants to be displaced, owners to be displaced, and owners from whom real property is to be acquired but who will not be displaced. That is, we add all owners from whom property will be acquired and all tenants who will be displaced. This more complete accounting is presented below.

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Based on the data provided by the Federal agencies, we find a total of 260,860 tenants and owners per year, or slightly over one-quarter of a million, will be directly involved in real property acquisition for direct Federal and federally assisted programs.

This total may understate by a small amount the number directly involved. In some instances, one ownership may be owned and operated jointly by two families. However, it is unlikely that the addition of such families would materially increase the total given above.

Seven-eighths of the 260,860 tenants and owners per year will be affected by federally assisted programs, while the remaining oneeighth will be affected by direct Federal programs. The table below

summarizes the vastly greater human impact per year that will occur from acquisitions for federally assisted programs than from acquisitions for direct Federal programs.

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The data provided by Federal agencies administering the direct Federal and federally assisted programs show that human disruption in the future will be substantially greater than in the past. Presented below is a comparison of displacements per year in the immediate past, and for the future as described in the first section of this chapter.

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Displacements in the immediate past totaled 85,550 per year, while total displacements in the future will total 132,600 per year. All displacements will increase; i.e., for owners and for tenants occupying dwelling units, business establishments, and farms.

The number of tenants displaced and the number of owners directly involved in real property acquisition also will increase. As shown below, the total will increase from 203,620 per year for the immediate past to 260,860 per year in the future.

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In evaluating what modifications in procedures or laws may be desirable in view of the expanding physical, economic, and human impacts of land acquisition, we can gain much from the experiences of those displaced under direct Federal and federally assisted programs in the past. Data on experiences of those displaced from dwelling units are presented in this section of the chapter. Experiences of those displaced from business establishments and from farms are presented in the next two sections. Data are presented on a “per year" basis so that they are comparable.

Displacements per year from dwelling units totaled 72,920, with most occurring under federally assisted programs. Displacements under federally assisted programs were 70,570 per year, or approximately 97 percent of all displacements. By contrast, displacements under direct Federal programs totaled 2,350 per year, or approximately 3 percent of all displacements.

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Urban renewal, Federal-aid highway, and low-rent housing programs accounted for most of the displacements. These 3 accounted for 70,553, or roughly 97 percent, of all displacements. Acquisitions by the U.S. Army Engineers for all programs as described earlier account for an additional 2 percent of the displacements, with an additional 1 percent by other remaining programs. The number and percentage breakdown of unrounded data for major programs is as follows:

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Most of the remaining programs caused some displacement of families and individuals from dwellings. Displacements ranged from a few to as many as 200 per program. Although the remaining programs comprised only 1 percent of all displacements, they do cause them, and, therefore, cannot be ignored in any modification of procedures and laws relating to displacement of families and individuals from their dwelling units.

Displacements occurred largely in urban areas. Displacements for urban renewal, Federal-aid highway and low-rent housing programs accounted for 97 percent of the displacements, or a total of 70,553. Of this number, 64,722, or 92 percent, were in urban areas.

The number and percentage breakdown of unrounded data for urban and rural areas is shown below.

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It is unlikely that this 92 percent would be materially altered if the urban-rural breakdown were added for the remaining 2,370 displacements not accounted for by the three programs above. Even if we were to include the remaining 2,370 displacements in the rural-area category, the percentage of urban displacements would still amount to approximately 89 percent.

A majority of the displaced families and individuals were tenants. Of the 72,920 displacements per year, 42,880, or approximately 59 percent, were tenants. The remaining 30,040, or approximately 41 percent, were owners. The breakdown of owners and tenants by type of program is shown below.

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The large proportion of displacees that are tenants and the sizable number of tenants are especially significant since tenants displaced from dwellings would rarely if ever share in compensation payments made for real property they occupied.

Most of those displaced had occupied dwelling units of low value. This fact is important because it indicates the economic conditions of those displaced.

As shown earlier, approximately 91 percent of the displacements of families and individuals from dwellings occurred under urban renewal and Federal-aid highways. The large majority of the dwelling units acquired under urban renewal are of low value by the very nature of the program. Most are occupied by families of low incomes with some having very low incomes. For example, a recent survey of 68 renewal projects areas indicated that almost 29 percent of the families had monthly incomes of less than $200,4 or an annual income of less than $2,400. Another recent study of 789 families relocated to private housing from urban renewal projects in 9 cities showed that the median income for the families in this sample was $3,264 per year or $272 per month.” The median rental paid before relocation was $54 per month. It should be recognized that this group does not include the incomes of those families who were relocated to public housing.

The study of 789 families also indicated that larger rental payments generally are required of the families who relocate to private housing. The median rental paid before relocation was $54 per month for a rent-to-income ratio of 19.7 percent. The median rental paid after relocation was $65 for a rent-to-income ratio of 23.7 percent.

1 Statement of William L. Slayton, Commissioner, Urban Renewal Administration, Housing and Home Finance Agency, in hearings before the Subcommittee on Housing of the Committee on Banking and Currency, House of Representatives, 88th Cong., 1st sess., Nov. 21, 1963, p. 414.

2 Statement of Robert C. Weaver, Housing and Home Finance Administrator, in hearings before a subcommittee of the Committee on Banking and Currency, U.S. Senate, 88th Cong., 2d sess., on S. 2468, Feb. 19-Mar. 3, 1964, p. 364.

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