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PART IV.

ITALY.

CHAPTER XXX.

THE NAVAL SCHOOL (Regia scuola di marina). The Royal Naval School of Italy is composed of two divisions, the first at Naples and the second at Genoa. The course lasts four years, of which the first two are passed in the first division, and the last two in the second. The Naples school may therefore be considered as preparatory to that of Genoa.

The existence of two separate schools is explained by the fact that upon the formation of the Kingdom of Italy, in 1861, the government found itself in possession of two educational establishments, one of which bart formerly belonged to the Sardinian Government, the other to the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies. Neither was a school of a very high order, but it was thought best to build upon the foundations already existing rather than to attempt immediately the formation of a new establishment. The schools, therefore, continue to occupy their antiquated and ill-adapted buildings-at Naples, the old palace of the consulate, and at Genoa, the foriner convent of Santa Teresa—but their courses have been so arranged that they form respectively the preliminary and advanced stages of a single system of education.

This arrangement is, of course, attended with inconveniences, and is particularly objectionable on the score of expense, as it nearly doubles the necessary force of officers, instructors, and employés. Attempts have accordingly been made from time to time to unite the schools, or to establish a new school, with an academy for advanced instruction, at Spezia, Leghorn, or elsewhere. When such a plan is adopted it will donbtless lead to essential changes in the details of the present system, but as yet none of the attempts at reorganization have succeeded. The examination for admission takes place on the 15th of June of each Tear, before a commission appointed by the Minister of Marine. Applications from those who desire to become candidates are sent some time previously to the commandant of the school at Naples. Candidates aust be natives of Italy, and they must be not less than thirteen nor

ore than seventeen years of age at the date of admission. The physbal qualifications are similar to those of other countries, and are ascertained by the usual medical examination. The mental examination is both written and oral, the latter being con

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ducted in public. The subjects of the examination are arithmetic, algebra, geometry, history, geography, Italian, and French. The examination in arithmetic embraces the whole subject, including common and decimal fractions, interest, proportion, and roots. In algebra it extends through quadratic equations, summation of series, exponential equations, and logarithms. In geometry it includes the whole of plane geometry, and measurement of superficial areas and volumes of sections of the sphere, cone, &c. History is confined to sacred history and the history of Greece and Rome. In Italian, candidates must write an essay and answer questions in grammar. In French, the examination includes reading, translation, and grammar.

The examination is divided into two parts, the scientific and literary; the first includes arithmetic, algebra, and geometry; the second, literature, history, geography, French, and handwriting. The work is marked on a scale of 10, and the mark in each branch is multiplied by the coefficient of the branch, the sum of the products giving the final result. In each of the scientific subjects the coefficient is 3, in handwriting 1, and in all the others 2. In order to pass, candidates are required to obtain 60 per cent. in each of the mathematical subjects and in Italian, and 60 per cent. of the maximum aggregate in the remainder. If the number of successful candidates is greater than the number of vacancies, the examination becomes competitive in its character, as only the highest on the list are accepted. But candidates who are rejected either from the want of vacancies or from failure to pass, are allowed to compete the next year if they are still within the prescribed limits of age.

Students at the naval school are required to pay the government a fee of 900 lire, or $180, per annum, payable quarterly in advance. A certain sum, however, is annually appropriated by the Ministry for scholarships and half scholarships, equal in amount to the required fees. These are given each year to the student who passed highest in his class at the examination of the preceding year, counting the examination for admission as the first. The full scholarsbip is only given to sons of naval officers or of civil functionaries connected with the naval administration. The outfit required by regulation is provided at the student's expense and is not covered by the fees; students are also required to provide their own text-books and instruments.

There is an annual practice-cruise, beginning always on the 15th of July and ending about the 1st of November. It is followed immediately by the session of eight months, lasting until the 1st of July. The first fortnight in July is always devoted to the annual examination. The first practice-cruise follows immediately the examination for admission, and therefore precedes the first session of theoretical instruction. In this way the first three years are passed. The fourth year, called the complementary course, is divided into two parts: the first, of eight months, from November to June 20, is the final course of the school at Genoa; the second, of six months, is spent on board a practice-ship, but includes rather more theoretical instruction than is generally the case in practicecruises.

The personnel of the schools is divided into the corps of administration and the corps of instruction. The corps of administration includes at each school (Naples and Genoa) the commandant, two lieutenants as inspecting officers, a chaplain, a paymaster or storekeeper, and four naval officers to assist in executive duties (aiutante). The corps of instruction consists at Naples of a director of studies, eleven civil professors, a mechanical engineer, a writing-master and three tutors; at Genoa, of a director of studies, nine civil professors, five officers detailed for duties of instruction, and three tutors.

The professorships are distributed as follows:
At Naples :

Algebra, trigonometry, navigation.
Analytical and descriptive geometry.
Calculus.
Physics and chemistry.
Italian literature (2).
Geography.
French (2).
English.

Drawing.
At Genoa :

Pure mechanics.
Applied mechanics and theory of ship construction..
Nautical astronomy.
Nautical surveying.
Italian literature.
History.
Geography (political).
French.
English.
Naval construction.
Fortification and military art.
Gunnery.

Officers detailed for this duty.
Hydrographic drawing.
Naval tactics.

There are also at each school two sword-masters, a daneing-master, à petty officer to give instruction in knotting and splicing, and instructors in great-gun drill, in small-arm drill, and in gymnastics. The total namber of persons directly engaged in instruction and government is about sixty. All are approved by the Ministry except the tutors and subordinate masters, who are named by the commandant and approved by the Commander-in-Chief of the department. The command of the practice-ship is usually given to the commandant of one school or the other. In addition to the regular officers of the ship, an instructor in favigation is regularly detailed by the Commander-in-Chief of the departinent. One of the officers of the ship is the instructor in gunnery. At each school there are two boards of government-the council of

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