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and Muskingum in Ohio, the Blue River in Indiana, about twenty indigenous fishes of the region. This will be completed by the end rivers and ponds in Illinois, the Barren and Green Rivers in Ken of the fiscal year, and is expected to benefit Missouri, Arkansas, tucky, and the Current River in Missouri, besides a number of Kansas, Texas, and western Louisiana. lakes, Geneva Lake in Wisconsin, and the Blue, Beaver, and Al The most extensive and important work done by the Fish Comcorn Rivers in Nebraska. The varieties of edible fishes planted in mission during the past season, in the way of exploration with a these rivers include all the common kinds, such as spotted cat, view to future practical results, was that accomplished by the crappie, or fresh-water drum, several species of bass, white perch, steamer • Albatross' on the Pacific coast. This steamer, which, and pickerel.
since she was built five years ago, had been engaged in work on On the Pacific coast the propagation of salmon was renewed, and the Atlantic coast, started around the Horn after the close of last during the season about five million salmon-fry were placed in the season. She arrived in San Francisco late in the spring, and, July Columbia and McCloud Rivers and in the shorter streams on the 4, sailed for the Alaskan fishing-grounds. It has been known that coasts of California and Oregon.
the sea-fisheries of the Pacific coast are very extensive and very rich, On the Great Lakes the propagation of whitefish has been con but they are practically undeveloped except in the vicinity of San tinued, but on a far greater scale than ever before.
Francisco. The purpose of the commissioner in sending the . AlIn former days the inshore cod and halibut fisheries on the batross' to the Pacific Ocean was, by a series of careful surveys, coast of New England were exceedingly valuable, as they still are to ascertain the locations of the sea-fishing grounds of all kinds, on the Pacific coast. Thousands of men of small means, and own their extent, character, productiveness, their nearness to market, ing little boats and comparatively primitive apparatus, earned com the kinds of bait that might be used, the methods of obtaining it fortable livings by fishing for cod in the Gulf of Maine, Massa and its abundance, and, in short, to develop the sea-fisheries of the chusetts and Cape Cod Bays, Vineyard Sound, Long Island Sound, Pacific coast. and at many other points along the coast. The fishes were taken Important banks are distributed along the coasts of Washingin abundance and sold fresh, the most profitable way to the fish ton Territory and Vancouver's Island, at points easily accessible erman. But this source of wealth has been largely destroyed by from the ports in Puget Sound. The fishes upon them are very over-fishing; and in few places along the whole coast of New Eng abundant. They swarm with halibut, and also furnish cod in abunland, outside of Ipswich Bay, are the cod plentiful enough to pay dance. It was on these grounds that the Gloucester fishing-vessel, the fishermen for attempting to take them. To catch cod or hali Mollie Adams,' owned by Capt. Solomon Jacobs, did her successbut in large quantities now, one must go to the offshore banks; and ful halibut-fishing during the last summer. She kept her halibut this a majority of these inshore fishermen are too poor to do, or fresh, and shipped it in that condition to the New York and Boston they have domestic ties that keep them at home, or they think the markets, where, in no way inferior to that landed at Gloucester, it risk too great or the labor too severe to be compensated for by the was sold at eight cents per pound, while the price of Eastern haliaverage ‘fares.' The halibut were the first to disappear, and the but was twelve cents a pound. cod and lobsters have also been caught up; so that now all three It must not be inferred from this that Pacific coast halibut can are very scarce. These inshore cod never migrate to the offshore compete successfully in New York and Boston with that caught on banks. During a part of the season they remain quite near the the Grand Banks. In the first place, the price at which the Eastshore, and later move out into deeper water, but never to a great ern halibut was sold was not the natural one, but had been fixed distance from the points where they are found during the fishing- arbitrarily by a 'trust.' Yet the Pacific coast fishermen have some season.
very important advantages. Three or four trips can be made there In 1878 it was demonstrated by experiments made by the United to one to the great banks of the Eastern coast. These Pacific coast States Fish Commission that the eggs of the inshore cod could be fisheries are also conveniently near ports of shipment. Then Capartificially hatched, and that the small fishes that survived would re tain Jacobs secured unusually low rates of freight; and, even if he turn to the shore the next year. A majority of the young, cod had made no money, he would undoubtedly have sent his fresh were, however, killed that year by anchor-ice. Several times sub halibut East in a spirit of bravado, and to show those people who sequently small quantities of inshore codfish-eggs were artificially had laughed at him for taking the · Mollie Adams' to the Pacific hatched, but last year the hatching of these codfish-eggs was be Ocean that he didn't go on so much of a fool's errand, after all. gun on a large scale. The result was entirely satisfactory. Thou The permanent markets for fresh halibut caught on the Pacific sands of the young cod that were hatched during the season of coast will be San Francisco, and other cities and towns of Califor1887 were seen last spring and summer, and there is no longer any nia that are rapidly growing into importance; the great mountain doubt that the inshore fisheries of the New England coast may be cities of Salt Lake City, Denver, etc.; and all the Mississippi valley restored. This will be as important a result (probably more impor as far east as Chicago, and extending north and south from Duluth tant) as the work which the Fish Commission has accomplished in to New Orleans. In all this vast territory the reduced expense of regard to stocking rivers with shad ; and, according to conserva catching halibut will enable the Pacific coast fishermen to compete tive estimates, the increase in the supply of this valuable food-fish, successfully with those who land their fresh halibut at Gloucester. as a result of the work of the commission, is, in actual value, very In Alaska the fishing-banks correspond in their extent, characmuch greater than the entire cost of the commission, with all its ter, kinds, and abundance of fish, with the great offshore fishingvaried work, from the time of its foundation to the present.
banks of eastern North America. They are inhabited by the same Preparations have now been made for the artificial propagation species of cod and halibut that occur on the east coast; and, of inshore cod during the present season on an immense scale. although the general positions of these Alaskan banks has been The stations have a capacity for handling four hundred million known for some years, they have never been surveyed, and the few eggs; and, if the season is favorable, about one-fourth of that num fishermen who resort to them find the rich spots by trial, and reber will probably be hatched. The principal obstacles are stormy turn to them from time to time. The most important of these weather and anchor-ice.
banks are situated just off the coast from Unalaska to some disIn Maine and upon the Hudson River the work of propagating tance east of Kadiak Island, - an extent of from six hundred to seven salmon has been prosecuted during the past season.
hundred nautical miles : that is to say, that, throughout the region During the last twelve months, new fish-commission stations whose boundaries have been given approximately, the fishing-banks have been established or re-opened, as follows: Clackamas sta are as well defined as those on the Atlantic coast; but good fishing tion on the Columbia River, and Baird station on the McCloud occurs both to the north and south throughout the Alaskan coast, River, for salmon-work, put into operation again ; an extensive while on the north the cod-fishery is limited only by ice. station at Duluth for the propagation of whitefish and trout; a large These banks are a very valuable and important possession. station at Gloucester, Mass., for the hatching of the eggs of inshore Great quantities of cod are now to be found there, and an industry cod. The United States Fish Commission is operating, during the can be built up that may be made very profitable to the Pacific seapresent season, the State station at Sandusky, O., in the propaga ports. Of course, the cod caught on these banks will be salted, tion of whitefish. Congress, during its late session, provided for a and the markets for them will be almost unlimited. They will large station at Neosho, Mo., for the propagation of trout and the comprise, besides our own country, the western parts of Mexico,
Central and South America, Japan, China, Australia ; in short, the Island, interested in the oyster-fisheries, were very anxious to have entire populations who live upon or near the Pacific and Indian a thorough investigation made, and Senator Platt introduced a bill Oceans.
to pay the expenses of it. The bill was not passed, and the expeIt is the mission of the • Albatross' to explore all the fishing dition last summer was paid for out of the regular funds of the grounds on the Pacific coast. It is expected that she will remain Fish Commission. The investigation will be resumed next sumat work the whole year, except during periods occupied in refitting No practical method of exterminating the star-fish pest has and repairs, and that three or four years will be spent in completing yet been suggested, except the one now practised of dredging them the work. She will spend the summer in the north, working south up, which is enormously expensive. ward as winter approaches. Some of her winter work will be done Among the most interesting and important divisions of the scienon the coast of southern California.
tific work of the Fish Commission during the past season has been The 'Albatross' returned to San Francisco Oct. 21, from her the exploration of the interior rivers and lakes of the country for the first cruise to the north. She had spent about two and one-half purpose of ascertaining what indigenous fishes they contain, and months upon the Alaskan fishing-grounds, and one month in the obtaining a knowledge of their physical characteristics. Indeed, region off Cape Flattery. A very careful series of soundings was this work had a twofold object. Besides that already explained, it made of the grounds visited; and these, when plotted on charts was desirable to determine the adaptability of these rivers and lakes and represented graphically, will give the contour of a very large to the introduction of new fishes of economic value. Illustrative of fishing-area, to which the attention of fishermen will be called. the importance of this branch of the work, it may be said that reIn addition to this, the regular observations were made to deter quests are frequently received at the Fish Commission office that a mine the temperatures and densities of the water, the relative certain river or lake be stocked with a particular kind of fish. It abundance of edible fishes on different parts of the banks, the char cannot be decided whether it will be safe to introduce the fish inacter of the bottom, etc. All kinds of collecting and fishing appli dicated until it is known what the present inhabitants of the stream ances were constantly and successfully used; and an extensive or lake are, and whether its physical characteristics are favorable collection of specimens was secured, which will be studied in the or not. It is useless, of course, to put young and tame fishes into laboratories in Washington, in order to determine the principal natu water already inhabited by wild, fierce, predaceous fishes. ral features of the fishing-grounds. Lieut.-Commander 2. L. Tan The greater part of this work has been onducted under the direcner, U.S.N., is in charge of the expedition, having commanded the tion of Pres. David S. Jordan, of the University of Indiana, and one * Albatross' ever since her construction in 1883. He has been in of the most distinguished ichthyologists in the country. His zeal active service with the Fish Commission about nine years. Mr. C. and that of his assistants was not dampened by the fact that they H. Townsend is the naturalist, and Mr. A. B. Alexander the fishery were volunteers, serving without compensation beyond their actual expert, of the expedition.
expenses. There are scores of college professors and students adThe experimental station at Wood's Holl was kept open during vanced in science, who are ambitious to spend the months of their the summer, as usual, from early in July to October. The com summer vacation in the field, making original investigations. To missioner himself was present there during most of the time with a majority of such the saving of their expenses is a matter of conProf. John A. Ryder, in charge of the scientific work. From siderable importance, while the Fish Commission secures the sertwelve to fifteen volunteer naturalists, including Prof. W. K. Brooks vices of men whom it could not afford to hire. The attractiveness of Johns Hopkins University, were at work at the Wood's Holl of the scientific work of the government, on account of the superior station during most of the time. The steamer • Albatross'having advantages which it offers to those who desire to become specialgone to the Pacific coast, and regular explorations on the offshore ists, is shown by the eagerness with which positions to which very fishing-banks being therefore suspended, the work of the season small salaries are attached, in the United States Geological Survey, consisted mainly in a study of embryology with regard to its are sought, and also by the fact that positions in the National bearing upon the fish-cultural branch of the Fish Commission's Museum are sought by hundreds of college graduates who are willwork. Many studies were also made of fishes and their habits in ing to work for salaries that are barely sufficient to pay their board. later stages of development. A quantity of English soles had been President Jordan spent the entire summer in the field with his brought to this country last spring, and had been kept in a com parties, personally devoting himself mainly to the rivers of Virginia, partment of the laboratory at Wood's Holl. They were planted in eastern Tennessee, North Carolina, and parts of South Carolina Vineyard Sound in October.
and Indiana. In North Carolina he found a virgin field of exploThe steamer · Fish Hawk' was employed for about two months ration in which he had had no predecessor, and a very interesting in examining the oyster-beds of Providence River, Narragansett one it proved to be. Prof. C. H. Gilbert and Dr. J. A. Henshall of Bay, and Long Island Sound near New Haven, with especial refer Cincinnati carried on a similar kind of work on the Ohio and other ence to the depredations of the star-fish and drill, which are esti rivers of the Ohio valley, and Mr. C. H. Bollman of Indiana was mated to destroy several hundred thousand dollars' worth of oysters detailed to accompany the party of Michigan explorers sent out by every year. The operations were mainly confined to studies of the the Fish Commission of that State. Collections and information temperatures and densities of the water on the oyster-beds upon of the same kind are expected from Illinois, where the naturalists which these pests thrive, and of the inhabitants of the bottom, with employed by the State were greatly aided by the use of the fisha view of ascertaining the conditions of their existence. It is an commission cars, and in return agreed to give to the latter the reinteresting fact that the star-fish cannot live in fresh water, nor in sults of their observations. The relations between the United water that does not contain a considerable quantity of salt. For States Fish Commission and the various State commissions are very this reason, no star-fishes infest the oyster-beds of Chesapeake Bay. cordial, and they are in many ways helpful to each other.
In the early spring of 1886 one of the greatest freshets ever The schooner .Grampus' went to the early-mackerel fishingknown occurred in Rhode Island. Several inches of snow was on grounds in the spring for the purpose of observing the arrival of the ground, and beneath this a thick sheet of solid ice. The rain the first shoals of mackerel, and watching their movements as they descended as though the flood had come again, carried off the snow, went north along the coast, and especially the physical changes of and then, instead of being partially absorbed by the ground, the the water accompanying those movements. Very important results water all ran down into the streams, converting every one of them were obtained. In a general way it may be said that the late arinto resistless torrents, before which neither dwellings, nor factories, rival of the mackerel last spring was coincident with the lateness nor bridges, nor railroad-embankments could stand. This immense in the season, that the temperature of the water remained low, and volume of water all finally found its way into Providence River and that the mackerel-food obtained by the use of the towing-net at the Narragansett Bay, and it freshened the water to such an extent surface was less abundant than usual. Observations of the habits that all of the star-fishes perished. In 1887 there were plenty of of the mackerel were made by the 'Grampus’ at intervals throughlittle star-fishes, but they were too small to do any harm; but this out the season and as late as the middle of October. These exyear they are about as destructive as usual.
tended from the coast of Maine to Cape Hatteras. This examination was not carried as far as was desired, on ac For many years the temperatures of the waters have been recorded count of a lack of funds. The people of Connecticut and Rhode by employees of the Lighthouse Board and the Signal Service
at prominent points along both the Atlantic and Pacific coasts, and cussion upon the question, and finally voted to recommend a law on the principal rivers and the Great Lakes. The results of these abolishing it. The chief advocate in favor of the exhibitions was observations are now being plotted graphically upon charts by the M. Delboeuf. Belgium thus follows the action of Austria, Italy, Fish Commission, and will be published in an early report. It is Denmark, Germany, and most of the Swiss, cantons. The people expected that they will prove of great importance in explaining the have been strongly impressed with the dangers of an unskilled use distribution and movements of the fishes.
of hypnotism, and a healthy sentiment to have it restricted to exAltogether the result of the Fish Commission's work has been perts prevails. At the last session of the French Association for very satisfactory. Much of the scientific study and digestion of the Advancement of Science, M. Berillon introduced a similar material collected during the summer, of course, still remains to be measure, and it was voted as the sentiment of the section of hygiene done, and this will be pushed forward in Washington during the and public medicine that all public exhibitions of hypnotism should months when, as a rule, field-work is impracticable.
be legally prohibited in France.
Miscellaneous. — Considerable space is taken up in the same MENTAL SCIENCE,
periodical with the discussion of phenomena whose genuineness is
not recognized, particularly with Dr. Luy's experiments upon the Notes on Hypnotism.
action of drugs at a distance. A committee of the Academy of The Paris and Nancy Schools of Hypnotism.- Dr. Bernheim, Medicine was appointed to examine the correctness of Dr. Luy's the leader of the Nancy school, whose classic work we are soon conclusions, and they find unconscious suggestion to be at the basis to have in English, contributes to the Revue de l'Hypnotisme, of it all. When the contents of the vials containing the drugs were May, 1888, a platform of beliefs. These can be summarized as fol unknown to those present, the subject also failed to be appropriately lows: 1. They do not obtain Charcot's three phases— lethargy, cata affected by them. So, again, these pretended mysteries fall to the lepsy, and somnambulism — by any physical manipulation ; nor do ground, and exemplify the pitfalls of the subject as well as the unthey find, as Charcot claims, that opening the eyes or rubbing the critical nature of methods often adopted by eminent scientists. vertex will cause the patient to pass from one of these stages to Mention should also be made of the fact that the Church has reanother. They do not get the phenomena of transfert (of an affec cently entered into relations with hypnotism by a letter from the tion of one side of the body passing to the other) nor the localiza Bishop of Madrid, warning his brethren against the evils of the new tion of function by pressing different portions of the cranium, nor movement, and placing it in line with the forbidden treatment of any purely physiological result. On the other hand, they easily get miracles. all these results by a slight suggestion. If the subject has heard
Abnormal Sense-Perceptions. of or witnessed the expected results, it is sufficient. Again : the Sound-Blindness. — Recent observations have emphasized the unconsciousness of lethargy is apparent only, the subject being fact that many persons are defective in the distinctness of their peropen to suggestions at any stage. 2. In hysteria magna the hyp- ceptions, while others form peculiar links between perceptions of notic phenomena are the same as in normal subjects, the three different senses. An illustration of the former is what has been stages, etc., being equally illusory. 3. Hysterical subjects are not rather falsely termed sound-blindness.' This condition refers to good for the study of hypnotism. They introduce neurotic and the defective hearing of sounds; so that, in the same way as the other foreign symptoms, and vitiate the purity of the results. 4. color-blind fail to distinguish between to us utterly distinct impresThe hypnotic state is not a neurotic one. The phenomena are sions, the sound-blind fail to make distinctions perfectly evident to natural, are of a psychological origin, and can be developed from ordinary ears. A Boston lady, Sara E. Wiltse, has recently tested natural sleep. 5. Neurotic patients are not more ready subjects the powers of Boston school-children in this direction (American than others, the wards of hospitals representing all types of dis Journal of Psychology, No. 4). Standing on the teacher's plateases, furnishing an equal number of good subjects. 6. Not all form, she repeated the following words as distinctly as possible to subjects are purely automata played upon by the operator : more 259 boys of the Latin School, aged from twelve to twenty years: 'ulor less resistance is frequent, and the individuality partially remains. tramarine,’ ‘altruistic,' • frustrate,' “ultimatum,' 'ululate,' · Alcibi7. All methods of hypnotization depend upon suggestion. Physi ades,' unaugmented.' The words were repeated as often as recal methods, especially hypnogenetic zones, do not exist except as quired, some as often as five times, and ample time was given for the results of suggestion. 8. Suggestion is the key to all the phe the writing of the words. 84 of the boys made mistakes in the nomena, and careful study with new subjects will prove it so. vowel-sounds, such as ‘ultruistic,' “frostrate,'' altimatum,'' elulate,' Moreover, the large percentage (eighty) of subjects among normal olulate,'alulate,'' unolmented.' That these 84 were really defecpersons found at Nancy is not due to a mental contagion, but to a tive, was shown by the further test, in which the following words skill in applying the suggestion. This position is rapidly gaining. were read to them but once ; viz., ‘fan,' log,'' long,'pen,' dog,' adherence above that of Charcot and the Paris school, which it op pod,' land,' • few,''cat :' for only 4 of the 84 spelled these monoposes on all the above points.
syllables correctly. For ‘fan,' there appeared than,' 'thank, A New Hypnotic Phenomenon. — M. Liegois contributes to the fanned,' clam,' thang,' and 'fam;' for 'log,''glove,' clog, lug,' August number of the same periodical an article describing a love,''land,'' long,'' knob;' for long.''lung,'' lown,' lone,' lawn,' new hypnotic phenomenon, in the field of a negative hallucination.' "land,' .log,' 'loud,' • lamp;' for 'pen,’ ‘penned,' 'pan,’ ‘paint,' This term describes a state in which the suggestion that a certain "hen,''ten ;' for .dog,''dove,''dug,' dot;' for 'pod,' “hour,'' heart,' person, a certain object in the field of vision, remains unseen, has hog,' hod,'hard,''fod,''thod,' • fog,” bog,” “pug,' part,' 'plot,' been obeyed. The state is explained as an annihilation of the per 'pard,' long,' bog ;' for 'land,''lamb,' lend,' 'lamp.'-lambed,' ception as it reaches consciousness. The impression is received, blend,'· hen,' can;' for 'few,'frew,''fuse,' 'pew,''pen.' 'Cat' but ignored. Having a third party to suggest to one of his subjects was correctly understood in every case. Of the 80, only 2 were that he will be invisible to her, it is found that she does not hear found to be hard of hearing, suggesting that the others were more him, see him, or even feel the prick of a pin when he holds the pin, or less ‘sound-blind.' So, again, of 223 boys of the English High re-acting normally to all other persons. If, however, M. Liegois School at Boston, 105 misspelled one or more of the polysyllables. calls out impersonally, “ Camille feels thirsty, Camille will drink a In the Comins Grammar School, where the pupils were between the glass of water,” she hears and obeys the command ; if similarly ages of eight and fourteen, only 34 of the 530 spelled all the monotold to stand at his side, she does so; and so on for every sense. syllables correctly. These pupils were tested under good condiWhile she does not hear him, she none the less really can hear him. tions, and five were found to be deaf to the sound of a tuning-fork, There is a sort of dual personality, one half of which obeys the though the teacher was unaware of the defect. For • fan,' 7 differnegative suggestion, while the other is automatically regulated, and ent words and 2 blanks were given (a blank indicating an entire obeys any suggestion not directly in conflict with a previous one. failure to understand the word), the total number of mishearings The further development of this study promises interesting results. being 17; for 'log,' 17 different words and 10 blanks, involving 86
Hygienic Aspects of Hypnotism. — Upon the hygienic side mishearings, the word being understood as 'love' 65 times; for we find the discussion of the prohibition of public hypnotic per- long,' 14 words and 11 blanks, with 22 errors; for 'pen,' 18 words formances. The Academy of Medicine of Belgium held a long dis and 12 blanks, with 135 errors, of which 48 made the word 'hen,'
and 47 'pan;' for 'dog,' 6 words and i blank, with 10 errors ; for be made to inhale its vapor in amounts too small to be measured, * pod,' 51 words and 64 blanks, with 270 errors, of which · hog'is they are almost instantly killed. It seems to destroy life, not by responsible for 85,' hod' for 36, “pog'for 26,‘hard' for 25; for 'land,' attacking a few, but all of the functions essential to it, beginning 14 words and 12 blanks, with 63 errors, the word being written at the centre, the heart. A significant indication of this is that "lamb ’ 42 times; for · few,' 11 words and 10 blanks, with 15 errors; there is no substance known which can counteract its effects: the for.cat,' 5 words, no blanks, and 5 errors. Of course, these errors system either succumbs or survives. Its depressing action on the may be due to defects elsewhere than in the power of sound-dis heart is by far the most noticeable and noteworthy symptom of crimination, e.g., in the power of translating auditory into visual nicotine-poisoning. The frequent existence of what is known as symbols; but the variety and nature of the errors are certainly in smoker's heart' in men whose health is in no other respect disteresting. If we classify the nature of the confusions, we find that turbed is due to this fact. in the vowel-sounds, a, as in ‘fan' and ' cat,' is most apt to be Those who can use tobacco without immediate injury will have heard as a long 8 of 16 times; that the e of 'pen’ is heard as a all the pleasant effects reversed, and will suffer from the symptoms short a 69 of 84 times ; the o of dog,"log,' long,'' pod,'as a short of poisoning if they exceed the limits of tolerance. These symp% 83 of 132 times; while the ew of few' is about equally often re toms are : 1. The heart's action becomes more rapid when togarded as various other sounds. With regard to consonants, d, as bacco is used ; 2. Palpitation, pain, or unusual sensations in the in 'dog,'.pod,' becomes hard g 132 of 199 times; the g of dog' heart ; 3. There is no appetite in the morning, the tongue is coated, becomes v 67 of 82 times; the p of pen,' etc., becomes h 240 of delicate flavors are not appreciated, and acid dyspepsia occurs after 278 times ; the n of pen,' etc., becomes m 56 of 78 times; the ng eating ; 4. Soreness of the mouth and throat, or nasal catarrh, apof long' becomes n 7 of 15 times; while h, t, and hard c have no pears, and becomes very troublesome ; 5. The eyesight becomes sounds with which they are specially confused. . These facts should poor, but improves when the habit is abandoned ; 6. A desire, often be of some importance to philologists, and will perhaps agree with a craving, for liquor or some other stimulant, is experienced. the laws of language and dialect transformations.
In an experimental observation of thirty-eight boys of all classes Color and Taste. - The peculiar association of a color with a of society, and of average health, who had been using tobacco for sound by which a certain sound will at once vividly arouse a defi periods ranging from two months to two years, twenty-seven showed nite color, is quite normal, and has of recent years been frequently severe injury to the constitution and insufficient growth; thirty-two described. The association of color with smells is a much rarer showed the existence of irregularity of the heart's action, disordered phenomenon, and of color with tastes perhaps rarer still. Dr. Féré stomachs, cough, and a craving for alcohol ; thirteen had intermitgives an account of a woman, who, after taking vinegar, saw every tency of the pulse; and one had consumption. After they had thing red for a few minutes, and then every thing as bright green abandoned the use of tobacco, within six months' time one-half for more than an hour. Dr. Féré explains this as due to a similar were free from all their former symptoms, and the remainder had ity in the subsidiary emotional effects accompanying the sensation. recovered by the end of the year.
A great majority of men go far beyond what may be called the HEALTH MATTERS.
temperate use of tobacco, and evidences of injury are easily found.
It is only necessary to have some record of what the general health Use of Tobacco.
was previous to the taking-up of the habit, and to have observation C. W. LYMAN, in a communication to the New York Medical cover a long enough time. The history of tobacco in the island of Journal, discusses in a very entertaining way, tobacco, its use and
New Zealand furnishes a quite suggestive illustration for our purabuse. Tobacco, he says, contains an acrid, dark-brown oil, an pose, and one on a large scale. When Europeans first visited New alkaloid, nicotine, and another substance called nicotianine, in which Zealand, they found in the native Maoris the most finely developed exist its odorous and volatile principles. This description of the and powerful men of any of the tribes inhabiting the islands of the active principles of tobacco is of importance to smokers; for, when Pacific. Since the introduction of tobacco, for which the Maoris tobacco is burned, a new set of substances is produced, some of developed a passionate liking, they have from this cause alone, it is which are less harmful than the nicotine, and are more agreeable said, become decimated in numbers, and at the same time reduced in effect, and much of the acrid oil - a substance quite as irritating in stature and in physical well-being so as to be an altogether inand poisonous as nicotine - is carried off. These fire-produced ferior type of men. substances are called, from their origin, the 'pyridine series.' By great heat the more aromatic and less harmful members of the
ELECTRICAL SCIENCE. series are produced, but the more poisonous compounds are generated by the slow combustion of damp tobacco. This oil which
Some New Tests of Secondary Batteries. is liberated by combustion is bad both in flavor and in effect, and In the last two years the improvements in storage-batteries have it is better, even for the immediate pleasure of the smoker, that it been such as to indicate the near approach of the time when they should be excluded altogether from his mouth and air-passages. can be economically used for street-car work. Indeed, it is now a
Smoking in a stub of a pipe is particularly injurious, for the reason question whether, under favorable conditions, they cannot advanthat in it the oil is stored in a condensed form, and the smoke is tageously replace horses ; and the result of the experiments on the therefore highly charged with the oil. Sucking or chewing the stub Fourth Avenue Road in New York, where ten storage-cars will of a cigar that one is smoking is a serious mistake, because the soon be regularly operated, will be awaited with interest. nicotine in the unburned tobacco dissolves freely in the saliva, and Dr. A. von Waltenhofen, in the Centralblatt für Electrotechnik, is absorbed. “Chewing' is on this account the most injurious gives the results of some interesting experiments on the Farbakyform of the tobacco habit, and the use of a cigar-holder is an im Schenck accumulators that have a direct bearing on the subject of provement on the custom of holding the cigar between the teeth. electric traction. But before giving the results, it is well to call to Cigarettes are responsible for a great amount of mischief, not be mind the points in which the present storage-cells are lacking. The cause the smoke from the paper has any particularly evil effect, but principal point is in the small discharge-rate, necessitating a large because smokers — and they are often boys or very young men
number of cells being carried by each car (from 3,200 to 4,500 are apt to use them continuously or at frequent intervals, believ pounds), a corresponding increase in the weight of the car itself to ing that their power for evil is insignificant. Thus the nerves are give the strength necessary to sustain this increased weight, a under the constant influence of the drug, and much injury to the larger outlay for battery and a corresponding depreciation, a greater system results. Moreover, the cigarette-smoker uses a very con power to move the greater weight, and the necessity of re-laying siderable amount of tobacco during the course of a day. • Dip much of the track now in use with heavier rails and a better roadping' and 'snuffing' are semi-barbarities which need not be dis bed. For instance: the weight of an ordinary 16-foot car is from cussed. Not much effect is obtained from the use of the drug in 6,000 to 7,000 pounds. Equipped with motors and storagethese varieties of the habit.
battery, the weight is about 13,000 pounds. A car equipped with Nicotine is one of the most powerful of the 'nerve-poisons' this weight of battery can be run for from 45 to 60 miles, dependknown. Its virulence is compared to that of prussic acid. If birds ing on the conditions of the track and the type of equipment.
Now, what is wanted is a cell with, say, the same storage-capa It is stated that the effects cannot be accounted for by induction. city and weight, - even with the same rate of depreciation, — but A heating or cooling of the wire as a whole produces the same which has a normal rate of discharge and charge of four or five effects. If the wire is annealed, it loses its power of giving a curtimes that of the present type. We could then use from 1,000 to rent, but regains it again on being stretched. The effect is not 1,500 pounds of battery on a car, enough to make one or two large enough in diamagnetic bodies to be observed with any cerround trips, — reduce the total weight of the car to 9,000 pounds, tainty. It seems to exist in iron and steel, but other effects make decrease the investment and cost of renewal three or four times, the observations difficult. If these effects exist at all, and are not and allow the present car bodies and tracks to be used without any due to induction, they are probably caused by the different strains considerable alteration. Under these circumstances (and there is on the outside and inside of a spire of the wire. It is stated that no doubt the conditions will be sooner or later attained), street-car if the wire be magnetized the effect is greatly augmented. traction by secondary batteries would be an assured and immediate
SOME CURIOUS INCANDESCENT LAMP PHENOMENA.—The Elecsuccess for any ordinary condition of grade. Dr. von Waltenhofen's experiments are of interest in this con
trical World publishes a letter from F. J. Crouch describing some nection, because of the very rapid discharges to which he subjected
curious effects obtained with incandescent lamps, both of whose terthe Farbaky-Schenck cell, with apparently excellent results as 10
minals were joined to the circuit of an alternating-current dynamo.
The circuit of the dynamo is made through a resistance of about 2,000 efficiency and freedom from harmful effects. The cell in question had seven positive and six negative plates, weighing 47 pounds, the
ohms (the electro-motive force is not stated). To the leads on one
side of the resistance are attached both terminals of some Berntotal weight of the cell being about 60 pounds. It was constructed
stein incandescent lamps, whose bulbs are immersed in tumblers of with a view to discharging it at 100 ampères, — five times the nor
salt water. From the other side of the resistance, and therefore at mal rate. The plates of this type of storage-cell have been described in this journal. They are of a modified 'grid' form, the
a potential differing greatly from that of the lamps, wires are holes being filled with a mixture of red lead and coke, or other
brought to the tumblers and dipped in the water. “Now, when porous material, moistened with sulphuric acid.
the dynamo is started, the light appears, and the light-waves pass The cell was first completely charged, and then discharged at a
through the glass." The light is described as “similar to that of rate of 100 ampères, until the potential difference at the terminals
the glow-worm or firefly. With three Bernstein lamps, I obtained fell from 1.87 to 1.78 volts. The capacity was 166 ampère hours.
a beautiful moonlight effect, sufficient to read by in a large room." Then the cell was charged at 20 ampères, and discharged at 100
Another interesting phenomenon has been brought out in a series ampères as before, but only 100 ampère hours were put in. 88
of letters to the same paper. It is found that incandescent lamps ampère hours were returned, giving an efficiency in ampère hours
in the vicinity of belts or apparatus giving considerable statical disof 88 per cent. In total energy the efficiency was 77 per cent. It
charges have a very short life. The writer has tried a few experiis evident, however, that these figures are much higher than would
ments to verify this. On holding near a Weston lamp (110 volts) be obtained if the cell was fully charged. In another experiment
the end of a wire connected with a Holtz machine, if the lamp be the discharge-rate was increased to 200 ampères, the cell was
burning and the machine is turned rapidly, the filament will break charged with 200 ampère hours, and the output was about 130
in from one to five minutes. In the first lamp experimented on ampère hours, a current efficiency of 65 per cent, with a total
there was a very marked vibration of the filament, being more vioefficiency of from 45 to 50 per cent. It is stated that neither of
lent when the negative pole of the Holtz machine was presented.
Some these discharges injured the cell in any way. A current of 300
This lasted for perhaps a minute, when the filament broke. ampères was then tried, and the cell kept up its potential difference
other lamps were experimented on in which there was no vibration reasonably well for about fifteen minutes. As to the effect the au
of the filament that could be noticed ; still they broke in a short
time. The effect is of some practical importance in paper and thor says, “ Whether this great over-exertion has been injurious to the accumulator, Messrs. Farbaky and Schenck do not state; but
other mills, and the life of the lamps can be greatly increased by our experiments have shown that the cell can be discharged with
putting over the bulb a wire netting connected with the earth. If
the net be made of polished wire, out injury at 200 ampères."
German silver, for instance,
there will be little or no loss of light. The author compares the performance of several types of cells, from which we get the following data : Farbaky and Schenck. — Capacity per pound of plate, 3.5 am
BOOK-REVIEWS. père hours ; discharge-rate per pound, 2.1 ampères ; total efficiency,
Literature in School. By HORACE E. SCUDDER. Boston and 77 per cent (?). Reckenzaun. — Capacity per pound of plate, 4.1 ampère hours ;
New York, Houghton, Mifflin, & Co. 16°. 15 cents. discharge-rate per pound, .37 of an ampère; total efficiency, 81 per Of the many reforms now being urged in school matters, one of cent.
the most commendable, and one which appeals to the best sense of Julien. – Capacity per pound of plate, 4.2 ampère hours ; dis the community, is that which urges the replacing of the literary charge-rate per pound, .42 of an ampère ; total efficiency, 83.5 per mess now offered to the child in the usual school-reader by works cent.
of literature which have won for themselves a place. In this Tudor (at a practical discharge-rate). - Capacity per pound of movement Mr. Horace E. Scudder of Cambridge has taken and is plate, 1.3 ampère hours; discharge-rate per pound, .33 of an am taking a leading part. Not only has he written forcibly and well père ; total efficiency, 68.6 per cent.
on the subject, but he has himself prepared various editions of These figures of Dr. von Waltenhofen for the Farbaky-Schenck standard works fit for use in the school-room. In the present pamaccumulator mark an advance, and an advance that is in the right phlet Mr. Scudder prints his address on the subject of Literature direction; but it is greatly to be regretted that the most important in Common-School Education, read before the National Edufact that is brought forward, namely, that the cells are not injured cation Association at its meeting in San Francisco in July last, and by such high discharge-rates, rests on a bare assertion, and no his two papers on Nursery Classics' and · American Classics' figures are given to show that a number of such discharges extend respectively, which have recently appeared in the Atlantic Monthly. ing over a considerable period have been attempted.
Mr. Scudder points out that literature has a field and an office of NEw METHOD OF PRODUCING ELECTRIC CURRENTS. – C. its own, and, unless it is recognized in the school, the place which Braun, in the Berichte der Berliner Akademie, describes a new it should take must remain unfilled. Literature gives expression to method of producing electric currents. A wire of nickel is twisted the spiritual and non-material wants of man, and must be brought into a spiral, and the two ends are connected with the terminals of into the foreground to counterbalance the tyranny of materialism, a sensitive galvanometer. When the spiral is suddenly pulled out, which bids fair, unless checked, to increase year by year. Mr. there is a deflection of the galvanometer; and, when it is compressed, Scudder does not mean by the reading of literature in school the there is a deflection in the opposite direction. The direction of the critical study of great authors. To urge that, would be to place a current in a connected wire is determined by the direction of the weapon in the hands of his opponents; but he says (p. 31). "The twist as looked at from the end to which the wire is connected. place, then, of literature in our common-school education, is in