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are as a
1831.] Translation of the Psalms, by French and Skinner. 221 latter ones
the pillars of the earth” is rickety (see note supra, on Psalm are well explained to mean "those fun LXXV. 2 and 3); a state of things ini. damental laws which are essential to the mitably depicted by the strong pencil existence and well being of society.” of Thucydides, L. III. C. 84—EuVtaThe almost lyrically bold, and conse- ραχθέντος τε του βίου ες τον καιρόν τουquently obscure passage at Ps. LXXVI. τον τη πόλει, και των νόμων κρατήσασα 4, is thus explained : “Thou art be- Ý đvēpwreia dúois, ciwbvia kai papà come illustrious by having enabled τους νόμους αδικείν, άσμένη εδήλωσεν Thy people to gain possession of the άκρατης μέν οργής ούσα, κρείσσων δε fastnesses in which hostile kings had του δικαίου, πολεμία δε του προύχοντος deposited the spoils taken by them and which, alas, finds too striking a
counterpart in various parts of Europe At LXXVIII. 26, our prayer-book at present. version, agreeably to the Sept., ren In Ps. xc. 5, the words
they did eat angels' food;" sleep” of our two old versions, is in while our bible version has “ the food the new judiciously changed to they of the mighty.” The new version is, sleep.” It would, however, have been “the bread of princes.” It occurred still better, “they are asleep.” For to us that the old version is defended though there is no room to suppose by Sapient. Sal. xvi. 20, Tpopnv åy here an ellipsis of » (notwithstanding gédwv éxwuioas. -- And this would it occurs occasionally), yet if a verb seem preferable; as offering a stronger cannot be extracted from the noun
The force of the idiom being gw sleep, an adjective may, by sup“ food fit for angels” which may posing the frequent ellipsis of the prebe explained to mean the most excel- position a. Thus our adjective asleep lent food. See Glass Phil. Sacr. p. 44. was formed from the preposition at The Hebrew idiom, however, will not and sleep. At verse 10, our common admit this sense; and the LXX had translation has, “yet is their strength probably something else in their copy. but labour and sorrow;" the new one, The version of the very learned new “And the pride of them is trouble and translators is, we doubt not, the vexation.” We grant that the common right one. And the very same sense version can scarcely be defended. Yet will arise, that is, being “ food fit neither, we conceive, has the new for princes,” which is exactly cor translation seized exactly the true respondent to a common idiom in our sense. We cannot but object to the own language. That Max means antecedent to the pronoun o being princes as well as mighty, is certain carried so far back as the days of our from Job xxiv. 22, and xxxiv. 20. years. It is much more natural to
At Ps. LXXXII. verses 2-4, are ju refer it to the nearer one, “ fourscore diciously marked as the words of the years.” The sense, we conceive, is this: Almighty pronouncing solemn judg “ And then the most that men have ment upon the gods, i.e. the representa to boast of is but trouble and sorrow!" tives of God, judges on the earth. At It would be too cynical to assert this v. 5, however, the sublime image in of the whole of life. Whereas how apour old versions, “ all the foundations plicable it is to advanced years, is quite of the earth are out of course,” is, we obvious. The ancient poets abound conceive, weakened by the substitu in sayings attesting the truth of this tion of the feeble term moved. It is sentiment, one of which we shall cite, plain, from the context, that some vio- in order to remove a corruption which lent shock is meant, such as, if it does disfigures a beautiful passage. Eurip. not overturn a solid and massy edifice, Col. frag. 18. répovtes ovdèv dojev throws the building out of course, i.e. άλλο, πλήν όχλος | Και σχήμα. Nostro shakes the courses of the stones out periculo tu lege őtdos, an old word for of their places. The term used by the wóx@os, móvos, on which see Steph. Sept. oaleveodai, is very strong, and, Thes. in v. Nov. Ed. So Eurip. Metaken with the context, may surely lan. frag. 15-avpoToLOW OTL ois imply as much. It is clear, however, Bios lo perpòs eŰkpatos éyéveto do öykos that the words are used figuratively; Kakov. and they seem to denote a state of There is not a more frequent cause things in which those strong pillars of of difficulty in the Psalms than a society, the ordinances of law and the breaking off of the construction ; and sanctions of morality,are broken down, sometimes, though rarely, of the and the whole frame-work of societu contiment itself. Our new translators
[March, are quite aware of this, and have In Ps. cxix. 83, “I am become thrown light (for instance) on the ob- like a bottle in the smoke,” the prescurity which envelopes the second sent translators well render, skin verse of the 91st Psalm, by adverting shrivelled in the smoke,” i. e. a skin to this principle. They judiciously bottle for holding liquids, which, on point thus : “Who saith, Jehovah is being placed in a smoky tent, would my refuge and my fortress,-My God, generally be shrivelled. At verse 85, in whom I place my trust,'"-remark “which thing is not commanded in ing in the note, “ The Psalmist here thy law,” it is well remarked that the breaks off, and instead of completing negative form of expression is here, the sentence, by pointing out the hap- and elsewhere, employed, to give piness of such a person, proceeds to greater emphasis to the expression of address him as though present.” The what is forbidden. On verse 131, “ I difficulty which involves the latter open wide my mouth, and pant eagerpart of Ps. xcv. they remove by sup- ly, because I love thy commandments,” posing that ver. 8–11, are the words there is the following tasteful remark: of the Almighty. It may be interest “ In a simple state of society, inward ing to our readers to know the senti- emotions were accompanied with more ments of two such distinguished scho- of corresponding outward action than lars, profound Orientalists, and theo- is exhibited where civilization is more logians, as Dr. French and Mr. Skin advanced.” ner, on the controverted subject of the It would be easy and delightful to imprecations found in several of the extract a multitude of notes such Psalms, as Ps. LxIx. and cix. Most as the above, and it would be not translators and commentators so ren difficult for us to contribute fresh der and annotate as to explain away illustrations to those of the learned the force of the imprecations. The annotators; but no further specimens present learned translators have here can be necessary for the chief purpose preserved the same rigid fidelity and we have had in view. Indeed our naraccuracy as in other respects, and row limits warn us that we must think content themselves with the follow- of furling our sails. We must therefore ing masterly note on the subject, once pow confine ourselves to general obfor all, at Ps. Cix: “It may be ob- servations. We are enabled, after served, with reference to the impreca- close scrutiny and full examination, to tions, found particularly in this Psalm pronounce this to be by far the most and in Psalm xix, that the morality faithful and accurate version of the which they breathe does not ill accord Psalms which this or perhaps any either with the general character of country has ever produced. The acutethe Mosaic dispensation, or with the ness and judgment shown in the disstate of religious knowledge to which tribution of the several portions of the the Jewish nation had attained. The Psalms (which are often, as it were, love of our enemies was a duty first dramatic, and the persons supposed to distinctly and positively inculcated by be speaking abruptly changed, with as the Divine Author of the Christian much obscurity and occasional harshfaith. This pure and sublime doctrine ness as in the Odes of Pindar), is such did not form a part of the law deli as to claim our warmest commendavered to the Jews, because of “ the tions. As to the notes, they are, wethink, hardness of their hearts." Let it not quite models for annotation of this be urged that it would have been bet- kind. They are almost invariably short, ter if the sacred volume had nowhere but are apt, pithy, judicious, tasteful, exhibited the “ holy men” who were and calculated to prove highly instrucof old, thus betraying, even in their tive to the class of persons for whom intercourse with God, a deep resent- they were especially formed; namely ment of the unprovoked injuries which those who are unacquainted with the they were continually suffering from original, and are not very conversant the wicked. These very passages of in critical lore. It may occur to some Scripture convey an useful and a very readers that it would have been better important lesson ; for they teach to have regularly pointed out the pasChristians, in the most forcible man sages which contain prophecies of, or ner, the value of those pre-eminent allusions to, the Messiah. But the advantages which are enjoyed by limits which the annotators had prethem under the Gospel.”
scribed to themselves forbad this; and
1831.] Translation of the Psalms, by French and Skinner, 223 as it had been fully done by preceding are thoroughly imbued. Indeed their annotators, whose notes it was not the being likewise consummately versed in intention of the authors of the present Classical literature has enabled them to work to supersede, it would have been go much further than mere Hebraists, unnecessary. The present annotators however eminent and perfect, could will, however, be found to have point- have done. This faculty, indeed, has ed out almost all the principal evangeli- had, in the present work, comparacal predictions or allusions. But to re tively but little scope. It will, howeturn to the text, the style is remark- ver, have full play in the work which ably simple, plain, and unadorned; they announce as intended to succeed perhaps somewhat more so than the this, namely, Copious Philological taste of the age (not the most pure), Notes on the Psalms, for the use of will be likely to entirely approve.
those who have some knowledge of the To advert to a matter which may Original. This, we hope, they will give possibly be a stumbling block to some to the public in the same form (8vo.) well-meaning, but not well-informed as the present performance, and whenreaders. It may be thought strange ever it appears, we shall feel it our that Dr. French and Mr. Skinner duty to give it an early and an ample should have sometimes translated and notice. We have no doubt that the explained in a manner varying from two works taken together will be inthe sense which appears to be af- dispensable to all who would attain a fixed to the passages by the inspired correct knowledge of this most imporwriters of the New Testament. This, tant of the books of the Old Tesit would seem, must be wrong; and tament. yet it is, in fact, as a system, quite As to the present work, from its conright. As there are two handles by venient size, beautiful typography, and which most things may be taken, so the great information which it contains we not unfrequently meet with two as to the literal sense of the Psalms, it senses ; the grammatical and primary is well calculated to be a constant acsense, and the mystical or allegorical companiment to Mant's Family Bible
The latter of these has with and Prayer-book, and may be even of reason been adopted by the writers considerable assistance to young Heof the New Testament; but the former braists. alone could, consistently with their Of the success of a work which, plan (which was to give a literal though formed as little as possible ad translation, with notes pointing out captandum, contains solid merit suffiand illustrating the grammatical sense) cient to make it very valuable to all have been expressed by Dr. French and classes of readers, we entertain no Mr. Skinner.
doubt. And we are anxious that this We have said that the present success should be as speedy as it must translation stands pre-eminent for finally be certain ; since that may exaccuracy. This will be found to be the cite the learned and able translators to case especially in assigning the true furnish some further contributions of force of the tenses of verbs ; the real this kind to sacred literature. We sense of the numerous obscure par- have, indeed, been informed (and we ticles ; and, above all, in explaining hope report speaks true) that they are the various perplexing idioms, and now closely engaged on a new translaadjusting the harsh constructions, in tion of the Proverbs of Solomon. This, which the Book of Psalms abounds. can venture to augur, they will In all these respects, the two old ver execute in a manner even superior to sions are defective to a degree which the present work ; for we have obwould scarcely be credited by those served that they never fail to execute who have little or no knowledge of the gnomic portions of the Psalms in the Hebrew language. The present the best possible style. We trust they translators were enabled to correct intend to include Ecclesiastes in their these numerous errors, not only by proposed work; and may we venture their own profound knowledge of the to express our further hope that they Oriental languages, but by availing will, at their leisure, favour the public themselves of all the invaluable infor- with a new version of all the books of mation to be found in the works of the the Old Testament and the Apocrygreat Hebraists of the last century; with pha which are gnomic? To use the which and every other kind of lore they words of a distinguished ornament of
224 CLASSICAL LITERATURE.-Signification of Káundos. [March, their own College, Utinam calcar addere neither is there one to support and nostra voluntas posset! But whether help her of all the sons whom she they accomplish more or less, we can hath educated !” In the moral influnot conclude without thanking them ence of the enlightened bands she is heartily for what they have already continually sending forth, will consist done, in a work which may be consi- her own security and prosperity. Their dered a very important addition to the pious care shall (θρεπτηρίων oύνεκα) other new translations of the books of guard her time-honoured walls, and the Old Testament, and which must be bequeath them to posterity, as a krnua exceedingly valuable to those persons és uei. who shall (we trust, ere long) have the task of either forming a new trans MR. URBAN, Brook-st. March 2. lation of the whole of the Old Testa. IT is possible that
learned corment, or effecting a complete revision respondent T. E., p. 122, may not of the old one. Such works as the know that the word káundos, in the present, and those in preparation, verses he has cited from Matthew, show that for the noble work we have Mark, and Luke, has been, in two just adverted to, there would be no English versions of the Gospels, transwant of scholars at either of our Uni- lated a cable, or a cable-rope. versities properly qualified to effect it; First, in “ The New Testament in and as to Cambridge, it will readily be Greek and English ; containing the allowed, that few indeed of her sons are original text, corrected from the auso well qualified to take part in this glo- thority of the most authentic manurious work as the Master and Senior Tu- scripts : and a new version formed tor of Jesus College, (rüyos ’Arpeidwv; agreeably to the illustrations of the Whether, indeed, it shall still be de most learned commentators and cri. ferred, or at length be happily accom. tics; with notes and various readings, plished, Τούτο Θεών yoúvaol Keita! and a copious alphabetical index. In One thing is certain,—thatthemanyim- two volumes, 1729.” In this the portant works in Theology which have Greek word in the corresponding cobeen of late years produced by Cam- lumns is káundov. bridge scholars have not only done Secondly, in “ Divers Parts of the honour to that University, but, by pro- Holy Scriptures done into English, moting the credit, have materially chiefly from Dr. J. Mills's printed added to the security of our Church Greek copy; with notes and maps. establishment. And, as far as they 1761.” In this the expression is “it have been accomplished by scholars is easier for a cable-rope to go through resident in that University, and occu the eye of a needle than for a rich pying stations of great dignity and man to enter into the kingdom of considerable emolument, they tend, God.” placare invidiam, to make a certain But long before either of these part of the public view less grudgingly translations had appeared, a similar the ample revenues (much, however, translation had been given in English. exaggerated) of its great academical In “A compendious and a moche foundations. Again and again we fruytefull Treatyse of
well livynge, would say, let Cambridge, from which, contaynyng the hole summe and effect since the revival of literature, so much of al vertue. Wrytten by S. Bernard, of light has emanated, but hold on and translated by Thomas Paynie,” her course resolutely, through evil [15–), the author comments upon report and good report, and ever and praises the state of poverty, and verify her motto—"Hinc lux et po- referring to Luke xviii. quotes thus : cula sacra!”; let her continue to car “ Yt is moch more easy to nedel a ry, not follow, the lamp of knowledge, gabell of a shyp then for a riche man and she will have no reason for fear in to come to heven.” the evil day; the storm may beat upon
I have not been able to find the word her house — but it will not fall, being needle used as a verb in any other aufounded on a rock. It will not be thor, nor in any dictionary. This with her as with some foreign Univer- book, indeed, is well worthy the atsities, whose sun is set for ever. Nevertention of all philologists, who are to her will be applicable the words of fond of searching out obsolete words Isaiah, “ There is not one to lead her and expressions with which it abounds. of all the sons she hath brought forth ; Yours, &c.
[ 225 )
REVIEW OF NEW PUBLICATIONS.
The Parochial Topography of the Rape of combs- but that we would imbue, if
Bramber, in the Western division of the we were able, the public mind with County of Sussex. By Edmund Cart à taste and veneration for those sacred wright, M.A. F.A.S. Canon of Chiches edifices which have in them an intrinter, Rector of Earnley, Vicar of Lymin- sic character of holiness, and lead us to ster, &c. [Vol. II. Part II. of the History that primum mobile of all that is good; of Western Sussex.]
the feeling what God is, what is the COUNTY HISTORIES are works
man, and what he ought to be. in which the provincial gentry, not of Mr. Cartwright is a connoisseur on coarse or frivolous habits, take a warın
the subject, and there is no commoninterest ; and, considering that they place in his information. The followcontain memorials of an inaccessible or
ing extracts will show it. evanescent character, most rationally At Broadwater, so. The best feelings are excited –
“ The capitals of the pillars which supthose feelings which accord with the humanum est, support the pieties of mounted with branches of palm, an orna
port the arch under the tower, are surnature, and elevate sentiment. But
ment introduced by the Crusaders, and pewe have expatiated more than once culiarly appropriate to a Christian Church. upon the subject.
Instead of the stone stalls, frequent on the The work before us is one which south side of our chancels, is a stone bench, will place Mr. Cartwright among the
over which is a Norman arch, a very rare first of our county historians. A law- if not an unique instance (p. 35). On the book form all such works must neces
south side of the Church is a cross in the sarily have to a certain extent, if they wall, in flint work, a style peculiar to the
Suffolk Churches, and not occurring in any are good for any thing, and all that can or ought to be done is to relieve heavy other Church in Western Sussex.” pp. 35,36. but indispensable particulars by sea How essential proportion is in Gothic sonable, instructive, or judicious ein,
architecture, and the causes why many bellishment. This is remarkably well
Churches have been in this respect effected in all points, but in one more disfigured, are given in the following particularly, i. e. Gothic architecture; account of that of New Shoreham: and upon this point we fasten with " The mixed style of architecture which particular pleasure. Not that we would makes this Church remarkable, is peculiar support such strange persons as would to buildings of the twelfth century; the say, that although there may be a
earliest authentic instances of the pointed George the Second, Third, and Fourth; arch being pretty certainly dated in the there never was a George the First, i. e. reign of King Stephen, and the semicircular because there never were but two styles King John, in the end of the same century.
arch being quite disused at the accession of in Europe, the debased Roman, de
Within this period many stately Churches rived from the Gothic reign in Italy,
were erected, which exhibit both pointed and the Asiatic or Pointed style, (and and circular arches, intimately joined and the first was brought from the Conti- intermixed. When the Church of New nent to this island in the time of the Shoreham was standing entire, it was a Anglo-Saxons,) we would say, that no stately and spacious structure, extending in memorials exist of their works-not length from east to west about 210 feet, that we would support theorists, who with a transept measuring 92 feet from have never regarded the works of orien north to south, and a tower rising from the tal travellers, who find English castle
centre of the cross, 83 feet. The destrucand church work on the shores of the
tion of the nave has taken away one half of Red Sea, and have beheld with their
the total length, spoiling the proportion of
the building, and throwing the tower out of eyes closed, actual fac-similes of our
its proper position, as seen in a general architecture in ancient Churches at
view. It is not known at what time the Rome and other parts of Italy, where
Church was thus mutilated; it is likely to the dates are known-not, we say, that have been done in the reign of Henry VIII. we would violate the sacredness of his soon afterwards, when the monastic tory to gratify the positiveness of pe Churches were generally destroyed, either dants or the pseudo-discoveries of cox- totally or ia part, though it may have hap
GENT. MAG. March, 1831.