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Literature. Netu Publications.

February 7. 1818.] saic account of the Creation and the Deluge ; resp. Memb. Acad. Nat. Sciences at Philadel WORKS IN THE PRESS, &c. by J. Sutcliffe, M. A. &c. 8vo. Is. 6d. phia, ốc. 8vo. 3s.

The fourth and last Canto of Childe Harold's LAW.

Pilgrimage, with considerable notes, comprising First Part of the Institutes of the Laws of Sensibility, the Stranger, &c.; by 'W. C. observatious upon society, literature, &c. col. England, or a Commentary apon Littleton; by Hervey.

lected during his travels and residence abroad, Sir Ed. Coke: revised and corrected, with notes, A Monody on the Death of the Princess Char- will soon appear from the pen of Lord Byron. &c.; by Francis Hargrave, and Charles Butler, lotte; by M. S. Croker.

A publication has just been commenced in Esqrs. 2 vols. 8vo. L.3, 6s.

The Lament of the Emerald Isle; by C. Phil. numbers, on the Topography, Edifices, and OTA Complete Collection of State Trials and lips. 8vo. Is.

naments of Pompeii, by Sir William Gell, R.S. Proceedings for High Treason, &c. from the Psyche on the Soul : in seven cantos ; by J. F.A.S. and J. P. Gandy, Esq. architect ; illus. year 1783 : with notes, &c.; compiled by T. Brown.

trated with engravings. B. Howell, Esq. F.R.S. and F.S.A. and conti No. I. of thc British Muse, to consist of ori. A poem, entitled the Social Day, by Mr Peter nued from 1783 to the present time by Thos. ginal and select poetry; comprising sonnets, bal- Coxe, will be published in the spring, embellishJones Howell, Esq. Vol. XXIII. royal 8vo. lads, songs, tales, epigrams, &c. &c.: the whole ed with 28 engravings. L.1, Ils. 6.

intended to form a complete museum of polite The Dramatic Works complete, with the

entertainment;, each number to contain two Poems, &c. of the late Right Hon. Richard Observations on the Treatment of certain se- plates of music. Is.

Brinsley Sheridan, are announced, with an essay yere Forms of Hemorrhoidal Excrescence: il An Epicedium sacred to the Memory of the on the life and genius of the author, by Thomas lustrated with Cases; by J. Kirby, A.B. 8vo. Princess Charlotte; by Rich. Hatt.

Moore, Esq. with an engraving. 3s.

Philanthropy, a poem : with miscellaneous A History of the Civil Wars of England, from A Disquisition on the Stone and Gravel; by pieces; by I. Cobbin, M.A. 9s.

original, authentic, and most curious and inteS. Perry, surgeon.

resting manuscripts, and scarce tracts of the An Account of some Experiments made with Considerations on the principal Events of the times, is in the press. It will be illustrated by the Vapour of Boiling Tar in the Cure of Pul- French Revolution, from the period of the ad- | 200 engravings by the first artists, from original mionary Consumption ; by Alcx. Crichton, M.D. ministration of M. Necker to the fall of Bona- paintings, by G. Arnald, R.Ai taken expressly F.R.S. 2s. 62.

parte; by the Baroness de Stael. 3 vols. 8vo. for this work, on every spot on which battles, or A Practical Enquiry into the Causes of the Kings, Lords, and Commons, the true Consti- other important events, took place. frequent Failure of the Operations of Depression tution of England, established on the Rock of Travels in Syria, by J. L. Burckhardt, are and the Extraction of the Cataract, as usually Justice and Liberty; by Philanthropus. 8vo. 6d. abont to be published, under the direction of the performed; by Sir W. Adams. 8vo. 16s.

African Association.

The l'nitarian Refuted, or the Divinity of Observations,' moral, literary, 'and antiquaPickle's Club: illustrated by elegant engrar. Christ and the Doctrine of the Holy Trinity rian, made during a Tour through the Pyrenees, ings on wood, from designs by Thurston. royal proved from copious Texts of Scripture, accom- France, Switzerland, Italy, and the Netherlands, Svo L.I, Is ----imp. drawing paper, L.2, 5s. panied with notes, selected from the New Fa- in the years 1814-15, by Jolin Milford, jun: tate

Encyclopædia Edinensis ; a Dictionary of mily Bible; by the Ķey. G. A. Baker, M.A. of St John's-college, Cambridge, are in the press. Arts, &c. Vol. II. Part I. 8s. 8vo. 5s.

Travels from Vienna through Lower Hungary, The Meteorologist's Annual Assistant in keep The Bible, not the Bible Society: being an with some account of Vienna during the coning a Diary of the Weather; or, Register of the attempt to point ont that mode of disseminating í gress, with engravings, by Richard Bright, M.D. State of the Barometer, Thermometer, Wind, the Scriptures which would most effectually con- will shortly be published in a quarto volume. &c. and fall of Rain, Folio, 3s.

duce to the security of the Established Church, Letters from the Abbe Edgeworth - to his The Naturalist's Journal; by the Hon. Daines and the peace of the United Kingdom ; by the Friends, written between the years 1777 and Barrington. 4to, Ss.

Rev. W. Phelan, Fellow of Trinity college. 4s. 1807, with Memoirs of his Life, including some Anecdotes respecting Cranbourn Chase; to. The Divine Authority of Holy Scripture as- account of the late Roman Catholio Bishop of gether with the amusements it afforded our an- serted, from its adaptation to the real state of Cork, Dr Moylan, and letters to hini trom the cestors in the days of yore; by William Chafin, Human Nature: in eight sermons, preached de- Right Hon. Edmund Burke, and other persons clerk. 8vo. 4s.

fore the Uuniversity of Oxford; by J. Miller, of distinction, by the Rev. Thonias R. England. Young's Night Thoughts, with Westall's De- M.A. fellow of Worcester-college.

are in preparation. signs. foolscap, 12s.

God is Love the most Pure, My Prayer, and The Memoirs, with a selection from the corA Report upon thc Claims of Mr Geo. Ste- My Contemplation : freely translated from the respondence, and other unpublished writings of phenson, relative to his Safety-Lamp; by the original of M. d'Eckharthausen, with suitable al- the late Mrs Elizabeth Hamilton author of LetCommittee.

terations and additions, and including a compa-ters on Education, Agrippina, &c. by Miss Benger, An Appeal to the Citizens of London against nion to the altar; by J. Grant, M.Å. minister will appear in the course of January. the alleged lawful mode of packing special ju- of Kentishstown chapel. 12mo. 2s. 6d.

Mr Campbell's Selected Beauties of British ries ; by T.J. Wooler.

Instructions for the Use of Candidates for Poetry, with lives of the poets, and critical disMemoirs relating to European and Asiatic Holy Orders, and of the Parochial Clergy, as sertations; will soon appear, in five volumes, post Turkey; edited from manuscript journals, by to ordination, licences, institutions, collations, octavo Robert Walpole, A.M. L.3, 3s.

induction, dispensations, &c.; by C. Hodgson. An Account is preparing of a Voyage of Dis8vo. 8s.

covery to the Western Coast of Corea, and the Mandeville, a Tale of the Seventeenth Cen A series of Sermons on various Subjects of great Loo Choo Island, in the ship Lyra, by tury in England ; by W. Godwin. 3 vols. 12mo. Doctrine and Practice; by the Rev. G. Mathew, Capt. Basil Hall, R. N. F.R.S. L. et E. ; with L.), Is. A. M. 2 vols. 8vo LI, 1s.

a vocabulary of the language of that island by Rosabella, or a Mother's Marriage ; by the A Series of Discourses, recommending and Lieut. Clifford, R.N. and an Appendix, containAuthor of the Romance of the Pyrenees, &c. enforciug Stedfastness in the Christian Religion; ing charts and various hydrographical and scien5 vols. 12mo. L.1, 10s. by W. Pendred. 8vo. 5s.

tific notices, illustrated by eight coloured enManners: a novel. 3 vols. 12mo. 18s.

gravings, after drawings by Havell, of scenery The Quakers: a tale; by E. B. Lester, 12mo. The Personal Narrative of M. de Humboldt's and the costume of the people of Corea, and par. 6s.

Travels to the Equinoxial Regions of the New ticularly of the more interesting inhabitants of The Story of Clarissa. 12mo. 3s. 6d. Continent, during the years 1799-1804: trans- Loo Choo; in one volume, quarto.

Foundling of Devonshire, or Who is She ? lated by Helen Maria Williams, under the im- . The Case of the Salt Duties, with proofs and by Miss C. D. Haynes, 5 vols. L.1, 7s. mediate inspection of the author. Vol. 1fI. illustrations, are printing, by Sir T. Bernard,

Robertina, or the Secret Deposit ; by C. G. History of a Six Week's Tour through a Part Bart. in small octavo.
Ward.. 2 vols. 10s.

of France, &c. with Letters descriptive of a The Copious Greek Grammar of Augustus Helen Monteagle; by Alicia Lefanu. 5 vols. Sail round the Lake of Geneva and of the Gla- Matthiæ, having been translated from the Ger21s. ciers of Chamouni. 58.

man by the late Rev E. V. Blomfield, M A fel.

Notes on a Journey in America, from the low of Emanuel College, Cambridge, will soon A Synoptical Catalogue of British Birds: form Coast of America to the Territory of the Illinois, appear, in two octavo volumes. ing a book of reference to observations in British by Morris Birkbeck, author of Notes on a Tour Speedily will be published, Four Discourses on Ornithology; by Thomas Forster, F.L.S. Cor. in France, &c. 5s.

the effects of drinking spirituous and other in

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the press.

February 7. 1818.]
Literature-Foreign Publications.

241 toxicating liquor ; with notes and an appendix; nes, with numerous illustrative notes, in three

FRANCE. by James Yates, M.A. 8vo. volumes.

A volume, in 12mo, entitled, De Lingua LaThe first volume of the Transactions of the The author of “ Pride and Prejudice,” has in tina colenda, et Civitate Latina fundanda, liLiterary Society of Bombay, with plates, is in the press a new novel, entitled, Northanger Ab- ber singularis, has appeared at Toulouse. It is bey, or Persuasion, in 4 volumes.

indeed a singular book. The author, who is a Speedily will be published, Dunsany, a no The first number of a selection of Spanish Spaniard, devoted to the ecclesiastical profession vel.

plays, with the title of Teatro Espanol, will ap- in France, proposes to the great sovereigns asOn Jannary 31, 1818, will be published, No Imediately appear. This selection will comprise sembled in congress, to found a Latin, free, and of a new series of the Female Preceptor a peri , the most esteemed plays of Lope de Vega, Cal Hanseatic city, to belong to all the nations of odical miscellany, dedicated to Hannah More, deron, Terso de Molina, Moreta, Roxas, Solis, Europe. The plan may seem extravagant and and conducted by a lady. The plan of the n«w which will be followed by the productions of re- difficult of execution ; but at least it is explained series will embrace all the leading features of cent writers, as Moratin, Cruzy, Cano, &c. the in a novel and original manner. the former arrangement, which will be nearly whole illustrated by occasional notes, and pre

GERMANY. as follows:---Biography, Original and select Es- ceded by an Historical Account of the Spanish Among other works relative to modern history, says, Series of Female Letters, Natural His- Drama, and Biographical Sketches of the au a tract published in 1813 at St. Petersburg, but tory, Reviews, Moral Tales Juvenile Correspond tbors.

which has only just found its way to Germany, is ence, Miscellanea, and Poetry.

Mr Mawe has in the press Familiar Lessons in worthy of notice. It is entitled, Account of the The Desateer, with the ancient Persian trans Mineralogy, in which will be explained the me- Burning and Pilluge of Moscow by the French. lations and commentary, and a glossary of the thods of distinguishing one mineral from ano- The statements here given by M. Horn, German ancient Persian words, is printing by Mulla Fe cher.

bookseller at Moscow, who was both an eye-witruz Bin Mullu Kaws; an English translation

ness and a victim of this conflagration, comwill be added, and the whole will form two vo


pletely refute the notion so universally circulated lunes, quarto

by our journals that this conflagration, which in Speedily will be published, Strictures on Dr Though sufficient details to fill all Europe with nine days destroyed 40,000 buildings, was the Chalmers Discourses on Astronomy, shewing terror, and for the greater part with mourning, work of Russian heroism-a notion which, durthat his astronomical and theological views are of what had befallen the invaders of Russia in ing Rostopchin's late visit to Paris, afforded him. irreconcileable to each other, by John Overton. the year 1812, were in general circulation, and occasion for many a sarcastic sally.

N. G. Dufief has in the press, and wil pub- though somewhat approaching the truth, was Among the almost innumerable works produlish in the course of the present month, an ele- unwarily disclosed by the principal culprit, in the ced by the centenary of the Reformation by Lugant, highly improved, and much enlarged, Bri- famous twenty-ninth bulletin : yet much remain- ther-one single house, that of Maurer in Berlin, tish edition of Nature Displayed in her mode of ed behind untold, and indeed not to be told, has 95 of them on sale--a volume by the Abbe teaching language to man, or a new and infal- while the possibility of Napoleon's return to Prechtl in Bavaria, with the title of Seitensuck lible method of acquiring languages with unpa- power could be imagined. Among the works zur Weisheit D. Martin Luther's, seems to be ralleled rapidity, deduced from the analysis of published since his removal to a place of securi- the only one on the Catholic side of the question the human mind, and consequently suited to ty, it is understood, that the “ Letters on the that has obtained any circulation, owing to the every capacity: adapted to the French. War in Russia, by the Chevalier L. V. de Puis-moderation with which it is written. The au

In the press, a new edition, in a large octavo busque," contains much information on this sub- thor charges the works of our great Reformer volume, of Cantabrigiensis Graduate, or an Al-ject. M. de Puisbusque occupied a very impor- with coarseness and acrimony, especially his letphabetical List of those Persons who have taken tant charge in the city of Smolensko, after the ter to the then Pope, entitled, The Popedom of their Degrees at the University of Cambridge, capture of that city by the French. In this sta- Rome founded by the Devil- and he maintains from 1659 to the present time.

tion he had an opportunity of obtaining informa- that Luther was subject to periodical insanity. Mr Cornelius Webb will soon publish, in a tion on all that passed. His statements are new, The best German poem produced this year is small volume, the Reverie, with Songs, Sonnets, not such as are already before the public, and printed in the Urania, an almanack for 1818. and other Poemes.

they are most afflicting to every heart susceptible The title of this piece, which is in three cantos, On the 1st of January will be published, the to the claims of humanity. They display, in is, Die bezauberte Rose~The Enchanted Rose. first number of a periodical work, under the title most dreadfully gloomy colours, the distress of the Brockhaus, the publisher, in April 1816, offered of the Philosophical Library; being a curious troops who were shut up within those walls. He three poetical prizes for a romantic tale, a poeticollection of the most rare and valuable printed adds, 1. interesting particulars of the situation cal epistle, and an Idyl. The above-mentioned works and manuscripts, both ancient and mo of the French in Moscow, and on the disastrous piece, by Ernst Schutze, obtained the prize of dern, which treat solely of moral, metaphysical, retreat from that capital; these he derived from 30 ducats in the first class. It is written in the theological, historical, and philosophical inquiries his correspondence with various officers in that mannerof Wieland's Oberon, except that the stanafter truth; edited by Josephus Tela.

army, and from personal communications. 2. zas are more regular; the whole is more delicate, Mrs Peck is about to give a new proof of her Striking details of the distresses which followed and, as it were, of pure etherial texture. The genius and taste, by thc publication of a na- the evacuation of Smolensko; and on his own young poet died at Celle, in the Hanoverian do tional tale, founded on some facts in the history captivity; during which, being sent to Peters- minions, in his 28th year, a few days after reof Ireland during the seventeenth century. burgh, he had an opportunity of becoming ac- ceiving intelligence of the success of his per

Mr George Dodd, the civil engineer, announ- quainted with that metropolis; with the charac- formance, and just as he was preparing to set ces a new publication on Steam Engines and ter of its inhabitants; with those of Russia and out for Italy. He contracted the disease which Steam Packets, to be illustrated with engra. Poland, and with other subjects of interest and proved fatal during the siege of Hamburgh, in vings. record.

1813, when he served as a volunteer in the JaEarly in the ensuing year will be published, A short time ago we gave notice of a journal, gers. the Hall of Hellingsley, or the Discovery; a no- published at Berlin, for the benefit of the Ger The History of Russia, of which one volume is vel, by Sir Egerton Brydges, Bart. MP. &c. man Jews ; another, we presume of the same published by J. J. Ewers, at Dorpat, printed at

The first number of a new Periodical Journal is description, is announced for the benefit of the the University press, promises to be an interestannounced for publication in January. The ob- Jews in France, under the title of the French ing performance. It comprises the history of the ject is described to be by a methodical arrange Israelite. It is intended to be moral and lite- rein of Wladimir, the first great duke who proment of all inventions in the arts, discoveries in rary; to be conducted by a society of literary fessed Christianity. The account of each reign the sciences, and novelties ir literature, to en men, Jews no doubt; and to appear monthly. is accompanied by separate chapters, explaining able the reader to keep pace with the progress The happy application by Le Sage, in his the exterior relations of the empire, the national of human knowledge. The price will be nearly Diable Boiteux, of a conception not precisely constitution, legislation, administration, the civil double that of most of the magazines.

within the verge of probability, has been much condition of the empire and people, the state of Mr Henry Hallam will speedily publish a View admired; but a hint, susceptible of a more than industry and occupation, of the arts, sciences, of the State of Europe during the Middle Ages, equally extensive application, and at the same &c. together with the more remarkable customs, in two 4to vols.

time much more within the scope of credibility, manners, and prevailing opinions. The Rev. Thomas Mitchell, late Fellow of has been taken by a writer at Paris, who has The Isis, or Encyclopedical Journal, publishSidney Sussex College, Cambridge, will soon pub- entitled his work the Panorama of certain ed at Jena, 1817, presents its readers, from time lish a translation of the Comedies of Aristopha- Houses in Paris, seen in the Interior. to time, with a view of the progress of natural


Voyages and Travels--Remarks on England.

[February 7. 1818. science and philosophic knowledge in England ; | poleon had the basin dug, and every thing here., sengers. The rudder was put in motion by which it takes occasion to compare, pretty fully, ) is his work. Yet notwithstanding all these means of a little wheel. A plentiful breakfast with the progress of the same liberal studies in works, it is still difficult to enter or go out of the was prepared in the dining-room, but nobody Germany. We are glad to see our country take harbour ; it may be easily imagined, therefore, would venture to touch it, for fear of sea-sickthe lead in such matters, and become the object how much time it would have taken for so many of comparison. It is at the same time honour-vessels to go out singly. All the flat-bottomed We weighed anchor : the sky was serene. able and beneficial for England, as it contributes boats were built in the port and the river, where There being some wind, all the sails were spread. to support that reputation, on which depends they remained: two-hundred-thousand men en During the passage over, one does not lose sight much of that jealousy which so strongly excites camped on the heights. Of all these mighty pre- of the two opposite shores. At three o'clock we the envy and jealousy of our rivals.

parations, the only vestiges now left, are the re arrived in Dover-roads. The almost black mains of the fortiñcations, the works of the har- houses give the town a melancholy appearance.

bour, which are not kept in repair, and a couple As it was low water, it was necessary to use VOYAGES AND TRAVELS. of half rotten flat-bottomed boats. This is all the long boat to go into the port

The quaya, that remains of that vast undertaking, wlich and the whole shores, were covered with a mul

cost France above three hundred millions of titude of people. The first impression that is REMARKS UPON ENGLAND, extracted from the livres !

experienced in this country, is not to be describe Journal of Their Imperial Highnesses the

The question whether the landing in Eng. ed. One fancies oneself transported into a new Archdukes John and Lewis of Austria.

land wouid have been possible, has been fre-world; nothing resembles what one has seen On our arrival, (says the traveller who keeps quently discussed, and answered both in the ne elsewhere. Buildings, carriages, horses, people, the journal) on the 21st of October 1815, at gative and the affirmative. So much is certain, dresses, features, every thing is different from Boulogne, we took up our abode at the hotel d’An- that it would have encountered great obstacles. what one has been used to see. In the common gleterre. Our first business was to inquire after The embarkation could not have taken place people is observed a certain elegance, both in the captain of the royal yacht, which was in- unperceived; the vessels niust have gone out of their form and dress; their features, even when tended for our passage. T'he yacht lay in the the port one after another, placed themselves in large numbers stand together, retain an expresroad, and our departure was fixed for the next a line in the road to attempt the passage, dur-sion of composure and cheerfulness. morning; but a storm arose during the night, ing which they must have resisted the English The carriages prepared for us conveyed us to which obliged the vessels to leave the road. fleet, to land afterwards on a rocky coast. Who- the inn from which we enjoyed the prospect of Thus we found ourselves obliged to put off our ever knows the advantages which a large ship the barbour. It was covered with many vessels. departure for a day, which we employed in view. has at sea over small vessels, cannot doubt the At low water it is dry. The entrance is narrow, ing the environs.

issue of the battle. To this must be added, that and is impeded by a sand-bank, so that one can The port is formed by the little river Lianne days on which there is no wind, are rare; and only enter with the tide. and a newly dug basin. Two dams, or moles, ex- that such a one must have been chosen to de We visited the new citadel. The town lies tend into the sea ; the eastern one is prolonged prive the British feet in some measure of its ad on the sea, and at the entrance of a valley. by an arm to a wooden battery, resting on piles, vantages ; lastly, the passage on a stormy day, The old castle of Dover stands upon the east, and on the western is a battery close to the dam. in open vessels, would have been difficult.

and the citadel on the west, both on the The steep coast is formed by a line of hills, From all these considerations it appears, that chalk hills. We were struck with the handthe chalky strata of which are quite visible. A only a kind of miracle could have rendered the some bricks of which the citadel is built. The sand-bank extends into the sea, and this circum- landing in England possible; and what immense very obliging captain of engineers who was our stance made the prolongation of the two stone difficulties would have occurred in the country attendant, informed us, that the clay of which piers necessary, to facilitate the passage out, and itself! Of these no one can form an accurate the bricks are made, is mixed with the ashes of to prevent the entrance from being choaked up. idea who has not seen and examined England. coals; this was confirmed to us in London. The

At low water the vessels lie on dry ground. A This, however, is not the place to enter into chalk found here is made into lime for building. sand-bank is above the water for an extent of a particulars on this subject.

The prospect from the eminence is magnificent; bove two hundred toises. · The women at this If the ruin of England was Napoleon's object one can plainly distinguish the coasts of Boutime collect shells upon it, The high tide brings in this enterprise, he wholly failed in attaining logue aud Calais. the water to the height of 14 feet in the port, it, because the extraordinary armaments

Oct. 23. We left Dover at nine o'clock. and against the eastern pier. We were witness- which he compelled his adversary, proved fatal The post horses are excellent, the roads admios of the difficulty of the entrance. A ship that | to himself in Portugal and Spain. It seems as if rable, the postilions steady, and the travelling could not make it with the wind, was forced to he had felt the obstacles to the execution of his extreniely quick. The country is much better put back into the open sea.

plan, as he eagerly seized an opportunity to em cultivated than France, which gives it a pleasBoulogne contains 13,000 inhabitants. The ploy his forces in another quarter, where he ing appearance, though, properly speaking, it is town is irregularly built, on the slope of the hills, might reasonably expect better success.

not beautiful. The chalky soil is mixed with on the right bank of the Lianne. The houses are There were several packet-boats in the har- gravel. built of a greyish stone, which, together with the bour, two of which sailed at noon with a favour Before almost all the houses, are seen little dry neighbouring hills, gives it a gloomy and able wind. We envied their swelling sails, flower beds, with southern plants and flowers, mournful appearance. Trade and fishing are the while etiquette obliged us to wait for our yacht. which remain uncovered during winter, and chief employment of the inhabitants; the herring At lengti, at four o'clock, it appeared in the give a favourable idea of the mildness of the clifishery is very considerable, and brings in, as we road; but the captain would not sail till the mate. There are numerous windmills, water were assured, a million and a half of francs an next morning, because the wind had become being scarce. Numerous country-houses, in a nually. It is carried on in the channel, along the stormy, and because, as he said, he had received peculiar and pleasant style of arehitecture, are English coast. Packet-boats sail for Dover daily, orders to land us at Dover by day-light.

surrounded with little parks: meadows of the and this passage is preferred to that from Calais. Oetober 22. The fine morning promised us most brilliant green, pretty flocks, fields sur

The remains of Napoleon's eamp are still vi a happy passage. The white chalky clults of the rounded with green hedges, and planted with sible. On the east coast of the harbour are for coast of England soon presented themselves to trees, render the landscape pleasing and pictutifications and batteries, which cover each other, our view. At ten o'clock in the forenoon we resque. and from which this coast obtained the name of went on board of our yacht, which was a hand Canterbury, sixteen miles from Dover, is the the iron coast. On the northern extreme emi- some little vessel. As it was the property of the first stage. The city lies in a valley, and its nence of Boulogne was placed the principal te- Admiralty, it was elegantly fitted up. It con fine cathedral rises magnificently above the houlegraph, which communicated with others along tained a drawing-room, dining-room, and a kit ses. As we had resolved not to stop, we put off the coast. The scaffolding for the pyramid, which chen. The two former had pannels of nrahoga- | the view of the city till our return. The postwas to be erected, is still standing. Napoleon ny, ornamented with gilding, and the furniture office is at the same time an inn, which is often reviewed his troops on the beach,

of the drawing-room was of blue satin. At one the case in England as in Germany. The western hills are fortified. On both sides and of it was a handsome stove of polished steel, As we proceeded, we were struck with the are redoubts, which, at high water, are washed and at the other end a lamp, which threw its number of turnpikes, at which travellers must all round by the waves: they are of stone, and light on the pilot's compass. Two adjoining pay. They consist of two small houses, between ale erected in many places along the coast. Na- rooms contained every requisite for sea-sick pas- which the road is closed by a gate; on each side



February 7. 1918.] Remarks on England-Memoirs relating to European and Asiatic Turkey.

243 is a narrow way for foot passengers, and in which employs a hundred and twenty persons, arms under the Sultan Orchan, and his immethe middle a scale, which shews the weight has joined to it a sehool for the children of his diate successors, and conjectured what might of the carriages. The repair of the roads work-people.

soon be the fate of Constantinople itself, they is undertaken by private persons, who pay We arrived pretty late in the evening at sent a deputation to thc sultan at Bursa, in Asia a certain sum to the government, and are autho- Beech-wood, a bcautiful seat of Six **** Sc- Minor, carrying a present of 14,000 sequins, and rised, by act of parliament, to take toll, for the bright. The owner is a great agriculturist, who begging, that when his victorious arms had tapurpose of keeping the roads in order. The gave us a particular account of the agricultural ken possession of the seat of the Greek, empire breadth of the roads is just sufficient for two processes followed in England, and particularly the caloyers might be left in the full enjoyment carriages to go abreast, and on both sides are those employed by himself. As soon as the wheat of their religious privileges, and in the exclusive foot-paths raised two or three feet. The roads is got in, the field is ploughed, then it is harrow possession of Mount Athos." The Turk accepted are kept in good repair with gravel,

ed, that the weeds may shoot in spring; it is the bribe, promised all they wished, and gave It was dark when we rcached Daitford, and afterwards ploughed again three times; the last them a charter, which is said to be still preserv. we arrived in London at eight o'clock in the time it is manured, and in June sown with tur- ed among the arehives at Chariess, the metro. evening. The house of the duke of St A***, nips, which stand during the winter. The sheep polis of the peninsula. The Turkish sultans where we lodged, is agreeably situated in the graze' off a part, and the other part is used suc- however, have since made this faithless body pay handsomest part of Westminster, near the parks. cessively to feed the cattle in their stalls. This dearly for their treachery to their own Christian Everything had been provided which could repeated ploughing, after the weeds have shot, monarch --; and instead of being for ever make our residence pleasant and convenient. cleanses the land admirably. In the second year exempted from tribute, as they had expected, The succeeding days, to the 3d of November, they sow barley or oats, mixed with 'clover; in they now pay annually 113,000 piastres to the were employed partly in visits of ceremony and the third and fourth the clover is cut, and in the Porte, besides occasional contributions in time others, and partly in collecting information for fifth wheat is sown again: but as in this manner of war, and other demands; one of which, in our intended tour through the provinces, for the same field would bear clover too, the half is the preceding month, amounted to forty-eight which we were not sufficiently prepared; we often sown with oats, white clover (trifolium re purses, or 24,000 piastres. In consequence of also dressed ourselves in the English fashion, pens) and rye grass. The turnips of Beechwood these perpetual extortions, the convents have that we might be able to walk about the city gow to an enorinous size. Sic **** Sebright been obliged to borrow large sums, for which more at our ease.

told us, that he had once sent his sister nineteen they give from four to eight per cent. according On the 5d of November at eight o'clock in partridges in the hollow of a turnip.

to the urgency of the moment, or the piety of the forenoon, we lett London. The suburbs of

Catimné p. 274.

the lender. The general debt is supposed to an this capital are continually extending. Houses

mount to a million of piastres, or nearly eigut and streets are built on speculation, and easily | Memoirs relating to European and Asiatic thousand pounds sterling.” find inhabitants. When you leave the suburbs, Turkey. By ROBERT WALPOLE, M.A. As they cannot raise even the interest of this you see villages before you. Sometimes the coun

sum, a bankruptcy is likely to ensue. The po. try rises, and the hills, covered with mansions The readers of this work will find it highly pulation of the peninsula is not clearly ascerand gardeus, give it a very picturesque appear- interesting; and as a specimen we select the tained.

From this side, too, when the weather is ninth chapter, which is from the pen of Dr It pays charatch, or capitation-tax, for clear, there must be the finest prospect of Lon- Hunt, and consists of an account of the monas- 5000; but the actual number of resident cadon. The road, which only a year ago led over tic institutions and the libraries on the Holy laycrs, including the labourers, workmen, her. a pretty steep hill, is now nearly level; the hill Mountain.

mits, is calculated at 6000."---,' The temporal has been cut through, and by these means the It appears from a preceding chapter, that a- affairs o fthe Holy Mountain are thus managed: road is made considerably shorter, and much less mong the other inquiries valuable to literature the twenty monasteries (which constitute its fatiguing for the horses. Another road passes and the arts, undertaken under the auspices of religious republic) are divided into four classes, over this artificial defile, by means of a bridge, Lord Elgin, a strict examination was instituted of five each, according to their respective sizes, 60 or 70 feet high. The country is every where through all the libraries, mosques, schools, col- and one convent of each class, by rotation, anwell cultivated. Gravel and chalk occur fre- leges, convents, &c. within the influence of the nually sends a deputy to Chariess, This council quently. The latter is strewed upon the fields ambassador, to discover such ancient MSS. and of four deputies settles all the business of the to make the soil more loose.

works of classical research, as have long been peninsula, and regulates the proportion of money . Chipping-Barnet is the first stage, and St thought to be preserved in those receptacles. which each convent is to give on extraordinary Alban's the second : we alighted at the White After sifting the establishments at Constanti-contributions. Their office is annual; they live Hart, a very good inn, where we found, as is nople to little purpose, Professor Carlyle and Dr with no external pomp, and they receive but a every where the case in England, very clean Hunt sailed, on the 3d of March 1801, with the trifling salary for their trouble.” apartments, and good provision, as well as polite design of investigating the libraries of the Greek The chief benefits derived from this hive of and obliging treatment.

convents in the peninsula of Athos, in Macedo- drones (who subsist on the precarious donations The abbey of St Alban's is a building remark- nia. Contrary winds obliged them to land in of pilgrims, and on the alms collected by traable for its antiquity. The chureh stands upon Asia ; they traversed the Troad, ascended mount velling brethren in Russia, Moldavia, Wallaan eminence, and was built at three different Ida, viewed the ruins of Assos, and finally arri- chia, and other countries professing the Greek periods, for which reason it appears very irregu- ved at the convent of Batopaidi on mount Athos. creed,) is its helping to preserve the language lar. The Anglo-Saxons are said to have begnn It resembles a fortress more than a monastery of Greece from being superseded by that of her the work; the second period is Gothic, and the The lofty walls are flanked with towers, and conquerors, and checking the defection of Christhird near the reformation. Henry VIII, and many cannon appear in the embrazures. The tians to Mahometanism, in European and Asi. Queen Elizabeth, when they were obliged to monks, however, were polite and hospitable, and atic Turkey. Almost all the Greek Didascaloi, leave London on account of the plague, held with them our travellers remained five days. schoolmasters, and the higher orders of their clertheir poblic courts of justice in this church. It Before particularizing any of the circumstances gy, aro selected from this place; and Dr Hunt contains the tomb also of the patron saint of related of this convent, and its Athoan brethren, proceeds: England. On a little cminence to the south of it may be worth while to lay before our readers “ Ifit sometimes hides a criminal who has fled St Alban's stood the old Roman town of Verula. a general view of the remarkable district itself, from public justice; yet that criminal most promium, of which some ruins may still be traced. of which we may well say Chariess is the capi-bably reforms bis life, in a residence so well cal.

In a neiglibouring valley near a rivalet, is si- tal, since it is the only town in the peninsula, culated to bring his mind to reflection. The tuated Mr Woglam's manufactory for spinning and situated near its centre.

oath of a person who becomes a caloyer on Mount silk. The machinery is like that for spinning Of the early history of the religious commu- Athos, is very solemn and simple; it implies an cotton. The silk passes through twelve opera nity of Athos, little is certainly known. They absolute renunciation of the world, enjoining the tions. All the machines are put in motion by pretend to great antiquity, and refer their found person who makes it to consider hinuself as quite water. We found in the whole process two new ation to Constantine the Great, Arcadius, and dead to its concerns. Some are so conscienti. improvements : by means of one, the machine Honorius; but no records exist anterior to the ously observant of this vow, that they never afstands still of itself, as soon as a thread breaks time of Nicephorus Pbocas, who reigned in the terwards use their family name, never correspond upon a reel;, and by means of the other, the sitk year 961.

with any of their relatives or former friends, and is divided upon the spindle more equally than in “ When the crafty caloyers (monks, says our decline informing strangers from what country the usual nuode. The owner of the manufactory, author) adverted to the progress of the Turkista or situation of life they have retired! By ilac

Remarks on England -Memoirs on Navigation.

[February 7. 1818. rules of the institution, every convent on Mount | and horror found it filled with' piles of skulls of tain. Eugenius, who translated the Æneid into Athos, and indeed throughout the whole Turkish such monks and caloyers as have died within the Greek hexameter verse, and was afterwards creempire, is ordered to shew hospitality to stran. walls of the convent. A little church dedicated ted bishop of Chersonésus by the Empress Can gers who present themselves at their gate, whe- to all the saints, is placed over this awful re po therine was forty years ago master of an acadether they be Greeks, Heretics, or Infidels; nor. sitory of mortality. By the canons of the order, my at Batopaidi, from which he retired in disare they permitted to ask for payment from any no caloyer or monk can eat meat except in case gust, and it has since fallen into decay, from ha pilgrim, or other visitor, for the provisions which of great and extreme illness. He must also ab- ving two hundred students of respectable families they may give them."

stain from eggs, oil, and fish, on all Mondays, from Greece Germany, Venice and Russia. Within the holy precincts of this monastic Wednesdays, and Fridays

. The food on those We shall conclude with one extract more, clo territory, not only is no woman allowed to enter, days is restricted to bread, salted olives, and ve- sed by an anecdote of considerable pungeney. (gens eterna, in qua nemo nascitur) but all fe getable soup. This is made of dried pease, The whole country now presented a beautiful male animals are rigorously prohibited, and beans, or other pulse; onions and leeks: the appearance, looking like a garden, and adorned cows, ewes, she-goats, and even hens, are ba látter grow to a most extraordinary size. The with hawthorns, roses, and the Judas tree. In a nished from their sanctified abodes. Some of Hegoumenos (prio or abbot) assnred us they retired vale, surrounded by forests, is the little the monks, indeed, asserted that no 'she crea sometimes weighed an oke, or 2 lbs, avoirdupois, convent of Constamoneta. In their charch we ture could live three days in the atmosphere of each. Our inquiries respecting the library of found a manuscript copy of Æschylus, The SeMount Athos, but our travellers doubted the the convent were always evaded, and at length ven Chiefs at Thebes, and part of Hesiod. fact, as they saw pigeons, swallows, and other we were told that that the manuscripts were Though the sun was setting, and the road to the birds, breeding under the noses of the fraternity, merely rituals and liturgies of the Greek church, next monastery long and dangerous, yet we rebesides the vermin, which were abundantly pro- and in very bad condition. On pressing our resolved to proceed rather than pass the night with lific about their persons and cells Milk, butter, quest to be admitted to see them, and adding so rude and inhospitable a body of caloyers, as we cheese, and eggs, are imported from Thasos that it had been the primary object of our visit, found at Constamoneta. Their Hegoumenos, or and Lemnos, or from Macedonia, across the we were shewn into a room where these old tat- abbot, is a native of Maina, the ancient EleutheIsthmus.

tered volumes were thrown together in the grea ro-Laconia. A beggar, passing some months ago The whole twenty convents were visited by test confusion, mostly without beginning or end, by the door of this convent, asked the accustonthe British scholars. They contain, according worm-eaten, damaged by mice, and mouldy with ed alms of bread and wine : on which the porter to their classification, from 40 or 50 to 500 monks damp, Assisted by three of those whom I have told him, that the abbot had strictly forbidden in each, and bear the following names, -Bato- mentioned (three of the best informed monks) him to distribute any more, as the convent was paidi, Coutlouroussi, Pantocratoras, Slavronike- we took an aecurate catalogue, examining each poor, and scarcely able to support its own memta, Iveron, Philotheo, Santa Laura, Caracalla, mutilated volume separately and minutely. We bers. In the course of conversation, the beggar Xeropotama, St Paul, Dionyno, St Gregorio, found copies of the New Testament not older asked him how the convent became so poor, and Simopetra, Xenophou, Docheiriou, Lografou, than the twelfth and thirteenth centuries, and a on the porter's not being able to give a satisfacChiliantari, St Bazil, Sphighmenon, Constamo- variety of theological works, of Chrysostom, Basil, tory answer, he replied, I will inform you. There neta. There are, besides, numerous and filthy Gregory of Nazienzen, and others, and an infini. were two brothers who dwelt in this convent at hermitages. The reception at Balopaidi, where ty of liturgies, canons, and church histories. The its first foundation, and on them its happiness there are 250 priests and friars within the walls, only interesting manuscripts we saw were two solely depended. Your tyrannical abbot forced and 250 more in the farms, gardens, and vine- tragedies of Æschylus, the liad, a copy of that one of them into exile, the other soon fled, and yards, withont, may serve as a sample of the very ancient poem the Batrachomyomachia ; the with them your prosperity. But be assured, that whole, and of the manners and customs of the works of Demosthenes, Athenæus, Lysias, Ga- until you recal your elder brother, you will condistrict :

len, some parts of Aristotle, Hippocrates, and tinue poor. What were their names ? said the “ The behaviour of the monks in general was Plato; two copies of the Apocalypse, and the wondering caloyer: The expelled brother, replihospitable and and polite ; and during our resi- Jewish History of Josephus; but none of them ed the beggar, was called Aidols

, and the name dence of five days among them, they seemed to bore marks of remote antiquity."

of him who followed was Aetnolla. (Give, and regret, that the concourse of uncivilized and The libraries of other convents were similarly it shall be given unto you. Luke vi. 38.) noisy pilgrims, assembled for the holy week, pre- unproductive : not one of them producing a co vented them from being more attentive to us. py of any inedited fragment of a classical author. M. de Rossel, of the Royal Academy of SciOn Easter day there were about fifteen hundred When the learned Greeks fled from Constanti. ences, read the following Memoir of the Propeople, who dined in the court-yard of this con- nople in 1453, they took with them to western gress and State of Navigation, at the Genevent, principally Albanian, Bulgarian, and Wal- Europe their most valuable MSS. those which they ral Annual Sittings of the Four Academies lachian Greeks. It appears, as soon as the op-left were probably secreted in monasteries ; but of the Institute, on the 24th of April 1817. pressed Christian peasants in the neighbouring from this search it appears, either that Constan If the arts and sciences ought to excite an inTurkish provinces have saved a little money, or tinople and Mount Athos are not the conserva- terest proportionate to the advantages we derive when pirates and freebooters have made a suc tors of these desired treasures, or that they are from them, what art deserves, more than Naviga. cessful sally, they set out on a pilgrimage to this still (which does not prima facie appear to be tion, to fix our attention? It is that which estabholy mountain, where they not only get a plena- the case) hid from the longing eyes of European lishes an easy commmunication between the most. ry absolution, by giving up part of their gains, investigation. Some of these convents had MSS. distant nations, which introduces civilization an but enjoy the luxury of hearing a perpetual din in the Servian and Illyric dialects, chiefly per- mong the most barbarous people, and enables us. of bells, and the sight of splendid churches, pic- taining to the church.

to participate in the riches which Nature produtures of saints, and wonder-working reliques. The country possessed by this monastic socie- ces in every part of the earth. No other art calls

Our principal object being to examine ty, is wild and beautiful. Mountain torrents, and forth more largely the faculties of man, it teachthe ancient MSS. we found we could not have forests, and shrubs, and flowers, variegate its fea- es bim to brave numberless dangers, and gives arrived at a more unpropitious moment. The tures. But it is not our purpose to enter into him the means of surmounting them; it enlarges attention of the whole convent was directed to these details, nor even to remark upon the ho- his ideas in shewing him Nature, under all her the different caravans of pilgrims, who were ar- noured beards of the caloyers, one of which grow- aspects, and humanity in all its conditions, from riving at every instant; they were in general ing on the face of a certain Father Joachim, ri- savage life to the highest degree of civilisation. well mounted, each of them armed with a nus- valled the leeks of Batopaidi, for it reached “ The men who have the most contributed to. ket, a pair of pistols, and a sword. After dinner, bout an inch below his knees!” This venerable perfect it are almost all our contemporaries, and their mirth became extremely noisy, and my com- caloyer, by the way, had travelled as a mendi- it will be permitted to touch but slightly on anpanion, Mr Carlyle, who wished much to know cant of his order over almost all European Tur- cient times, without dreading the reproach of the subject of their songs, found they were very key, and the shores of the Black Sea. “On diffe- having committed an historical infidelity. We similar to the old border songs in England, do rent visits to the Fanal at Constantinople, he know that the navigation of the ancients, confiscribing either the petty wars of neighbouring had paid his homage to twenty-four patriarchs : ned to the coasts of the Mediterranean, never agas, or the successful opposition on the part of namely, fourteen grand patriarchs of the Greek extended much beyond them; in effect, what the Albanians to pashas sent from the Turkish church, four of Alexandria, and six of Jerusalem; could it be previous to the use of the compass, court.

such is the rapid succession to those envied dig- when they yet dared not altogether to lose sight " In one of our rambles near the monastery, nities. Our countrymen met two of the ex-på- of land ? we went to a small building, and to our surprise triarchs among the residents of the Holy Moun The maritime states of Italy, charged to CON

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