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a paler stratum. S. Cereolus, as described by Borrer, and figured in È. Bot. Suppl. t. 2667, is certainly very near the present section, and agrees

in many respects with the species under notice. The apparent difference of structure in the apothecia of this and of the next species from Cladonia, Stereocaulon, and Biatora is one so anomalous, that I prefer to leave them in this place, to which, indeed, their whole habit would seem to refer them.

8. S. aciculare, Tuckerm. Crust persistent, of effuse, roundish, whitish granules; podetia erect, terete, smooth, elongated (fistulous and araneous within), divided at length irregularly into erect, subfastigiate, at length denudate branches ; granules verruculose, pale-cinereous; apoth. at first subconical-globose, immarginate, often conglomerate, from dark-greenish-nigrescent becoming black. Bæomyces, Meth. t. 8, f. 4, dein Cenomyce, Ach. Cladoniu, Auct. Stereocaulon, Mihi, Enum. Lich. N. Amer. p. 52.

On the earth; Northwest Coast, Menzies! Douglas, in herb. Hook.! Rocky Mountains, Herb. Hook.! - New York, Halsey. Pennsylvania, Muhl. Certainly a congener of the last. Fries remarks incidentally (Lichenogr. p. 242), that the apothecia are almost those of Biatora. Rugose cephalodia, like those of the last, occur also in the crust of this species, and at the bases of the podetia. Sommerfelt (Suppl. Fl. Lapp. p. 126) remarks that these cephalodia occur also in S. paschale, S. corallinum, and S. denudatum.

XIII. CLADONIA, Hoffm. Apothecia orbiculate, submarginate; becoming at length inflated, cephaloid, and immarginate; empty. Disk open, at length protuberant and reflexed, concealing the proper exciple. Horizontal thallus squamulose-foliaceous or crustaceous, from which arises a vertical, caules. cent, cartilagineous, fistulous thallus (podetia).

Series 1. Glaucescentes, Fr. Podetia greenish-glaucous.

Apothecia rufous. 1. C. alcicornis, Fr. Thallus cæspitose, subfoliaceous, of palmatelaciniate, crenate, glaucous lobules; podetia elongated-turbinate, somewhat verruculose, glabrous, of the same color; scyphi regular, concavo-plane, crenulate ; apothecia rufous. Fr. Lichenogr. p. 213. C. Cor. nucopia, Hoffm. Tuckerm. Lich. N. E. hc.

Sterile, sandy earth ; pine woods. North America, Floerke ! Common in New England, and fertile. Pennsylvania, Muhl. Arctic America, Hook. Lobes black-fibrillose at the margins, beneath, in the European Lichen, but naked in warm, dry places,' according to Floerke, and in sterile soils, according to Fries. I have never found fibrillose specimens of our plant.

2. C. turgida, Hoffm. Th. foliaceous, erectish, laciniate, glaucous, branching into fruticulose, ramose, glabrous podetia, of the same color; the scyphiferous ones turgid, obconico-cylindrical; spurious scyphi immarginate, dentate-radiate ; apoth. carneo-rufescent. Fr. Lichenogr. p. 214. Floerk.! Clad. p. 115. Cenomyce parecha, Ach.

Sterile, moist earth, in mountainous districts, fertile ; New England. Pennsylvania, Muhl. Arctic America, Rich.

3. C. Papillaria, Hoffm. Th. crustaceous, papillose-granulate, persistent; podetia ventricose-cylindrical, gibbous, glabrous, simple or much branched, glaucous; the branches fastigiate, undivided at the apices, obtuse ; apoth. at length convex, rufous. Fr. Lichenogr. p. 245. Floerk.! Clad. p. 5. Icon, Laur. in Sturm's Fl. t. 22. Pycnothelia, Hook. Br. FI. Tuckerm. Lich. N. E. l. C.

Sterile earth in alpine and subalpine districts, White Mountains ; fertile. The abnormal state with very short, vesicular podetia, tipped with rufous-fuscous, abortive apothecia, is most common.

Series 2. Fuscescentes, Fr. Podetia greenish-fuscous (and cinerascent). Apothecia fuscous.


* Scyphifera, Fr. Podetia passing into a terminal scyphus, closed

with a diaphragm. 4. C. cæspiticia, Floerk. Thallus cæspitose, of pale-green, laciniate squamules ; podetia very short, glabrous, dilated above (and wanting); apoth. fuscous. Floerk.! Clad. p. 8. Cenomyce, Ach. Syn. p. 247.

Trunks of trees and rocks, fertile ; New England. New York, Hal. sey. (Cf. Fr. Lichenogr. p. 218.)

5. C. pyxidata, Fr. Th. squamulose ; podetia cartilagineous-corti. cate, at length verrucose, or furfuraceous, green-cinerascent; the scyphiferous ones turbinate ; scyphi cyathiform, dilated ; apoth. fuscous. Fr. Lichenogr. p. 216. Cenomyce, Ach.! Syn. p. 252. — B. Pocillum, Ach.; th. of large, thickened lobules; podetia dilated sensibly


1. C.

upward from a thick base, verrucose with subsquamaceous granules. Ach. Lichenogr. p. 535.

On the earth, &c., very common and variable; New England, and westward. New York, Torrey. , Pennsylvania, Muhl. North to the Saskatchawan, &c., Rich.; Greenland, Gieseke ; and Melville Island, R. Br. B, in moist crevices of rocks in the mountains of New Eng. land; perhaps the handsomest state of the species. A frequent railLichen (Bæomyces scolecinus, Ach., Pycnothelia scol., Tuckerm. Lich. N. E.) is a degeneration. Infertile states are easily confounded with similar states of several other species.

6. C. gracilis, Fr. Th. squamulose ; podetia cartilagineous-corticate, polished ; scyphi somewhat plane ; apoth. fuscescent. Fr. Lichenogr. p. 218. - «. verlicillata, Fr. ; podetia shorter, all scyphiferous ; scyphi dilated, plane, proliferous for the most part from the centre. Fr.

C. verticillata, Hoffm. Floerk. ! Clad. p. 26. — B. cervicornis, Auct.; th. of conspicuous, elongated, erectish, naked, dark-green squamules; podetia as in the next, of which this is the macrophylline state.

- %. hybrida, Fr.; podetia longer and larger, mostly scyphiferous; scyphi dilated, and commonly proliferous from the margin. Fr. l. c. — 8. elongata, Fr.; podetia elongated, mostly subulate or furcate ; scyphi diminished, somewhat concave. Fr.! 1. c. Cenomyce gracilis, Ach. Cladonia, Hoffm. Floerk. ! Clad. p. 30. Tuckerm. Lich. N. E. I. c. Lichen, L. - * vermicularis, Auct.; podetia papyraceous, prostrate, subulate, subsimple, imperforate, white. C. vermicularis, DC. buliformis, Hoffm. Tuckerm. I. c. — ** taurica, Auct. ; podetia papyraceous, erectish, ventricose, ramose, white. C. taurica, Hoffm. C. subuliformis, B. taurica, Tuckerm. l. c.

On the earth, most perfect, and in all the varieties, on high mountains ; — y being an alpine state, but descending; and * and ** alpine degenerations.f New England and westward. New York (a), Halsey. Pennsylvania, Muhl. North to Point Lake, &c., Rich.; and Greenland, Gieseke.

7. C. degenerans, Floerk. Th. squamulose ; podetia cartilagineouscorticate, irregularly proliferous-ramose (glabrous or granulate-furfuraceous), more or less squamulose-exasperate, green-pallescent, becoming

C. suo

† “ Apothecia lateralia, sparsa, atra, thallo innata, eoque submarginata, apoth. Roccellæ aliquo modo accedenlia,” were observed by Brown in some Arctic American specimens of * (R. Br. in Parry's First Voy. App. p. 307).

blackish and white-spotted at the base; scyphi irregular, cristate-lacerate ; apoth. fuscous. Floerk.! Clad. p. 41. Fr.! Lichenogr. p. 221. Cenomyce gonorega, Ach. – B; scyphi digitately divided into fastigiate branches, and becoming carious with age. Fr. l. c. Cenomyce cario

sa, Ach.

On the earth; common in New England. New York, Halsey. Pennsylvania, Muhl. (Southward to Virginia, Dill.)

8. C. fimbriata, Fr. Th. squamulose ; podetia cylindrical, the whole membranaceous epidermis deliquescing into a fine, glaucous-candicant dust ; scyphi cupulæform with an erect margin; apoth. fuscous. Fr. Lichenogr. p. 222. Lichen fimbriatus, L. — Q; podetia short, all scyphiferous; scyphi somewhat dentate; apoth. simple. Fr. I. c. Dill. Musc. t. 14, f. 8. Lichen fimbriatus, a, L. 3. tubæformis, Fr.; podetia elongated, mostly scyphiferous ; scyphi somewhat entire ; apoth. symphycarpeous. Fr. I. c. Lichen fimbriatus, |, L.- y. radiata, Fr.; podetia elongated, subulate, or the scyphi proliferous-subulate, or obliterated and radiate-fimbriate. Fr. l. c. Lichen fimbriatus, y, L.

On the earth, common in mountainous districts, and fertile ; New England. New York, Halsey. Pennsylvania, Muhl. Northward to Arctic America, Rich.

9. C. cornuta, Fr. Th. squamulose ; poderia cylindrical, somewhat ventricose, the epidermis cartilagineous and persistent below, membranaceous and becoming powdery-deliquescent above; scyphi narrowed, rather plane, with an incurved, somewhat entire margin; apoth. fuscous. Fr. Lichenogr. p. 225. Lichen cornutus, L.

Trunks among mosses, dead wood, &c., in the mountains of New England; fertile.

10. C. decorticata, Floerk. Th. squamulose ; podetia slender, cy. lindrical, the submembranaceous epidermis separating into fursuraceous scales, pulverulent ; scyphi narrowed or obsolete ; apoth. fuscous. Floerk. ! Clad. p. 10. Fr. Lichenogr. p. 226. B. symphycarpea, Fr.; poderia somewhat simple ; apoth. symphycarpeous. Fr.l. c. - y. (ramosa), Fr. ; podetia branched, subulate, sterile. Fr. l. c.

On the earth, in mountainous districts. White Mountains ; fertile. Distinguishable from similar decorticate, symphycarpeous states of C. pyxidata by its pulverulence.

** Pervie, Fr. Podetia not passing into closed scyphi, but the axils

and apices dilated-infundibuliform, or simply perforate in the more slender, much-branched forms.

11. C. cenotea, Schær. Th. squamulose, dissected; podetia dichotomous-brachiate, membranaceous-corticate, at length finely glaucous-pruinose; axils and fertile apices dilated, infundibuliform, with incurved margins ; ' apoth. sessile, from pale becoming fuscous.' Fr.! Lichenogr. (sub C. brachiata), p. 228. C. cenotea, Schær. Spicil. p. 35. Floerk. ! Clad. p. 135. Bæomyces dein Cenomyce, Ach.

Q; turgid ; axils and apices as above. Fr. I. c. B. furcellata, Fr. ; slender, fruticulose ; branches subulate, axils perforate. Fr. 1. c.

On the earth, in mountainous districts. White Mountains; as yet infertile.

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12. C. parasitica, Schær. Th. squamulose, narrowly erose-laciniate and granulate-pulverulent; podetia delicate, at length besprinkled with scales and granules, divided above into short, somewhat incrassated branches; apoth. minute (often symphycarpeous), fuscous. Schær.! Spicil. p. 37. Lichen parasiticus, Hoffm. C. delicata, Floerk.! Clad. p. 7. C. squamosa, var. delicata, Fr. ! Lichenogr. p. 231.

Decaying logs, common in mountainous districts; New England. Pennsylvania, Muhl. (Cf. Fries, I. c.)

13. C. squamosa, Hoffm. Th. squamulose, dissected, often somewhat pulverulent; poderia branched, lacunose, at length decorticate, and exasperate with squamaceous granules ; axils pervious, denticulate; apoth. cymose, fuscous. Fr. Lichenogr. p. 231. - a. ventricosa, Fr.; podetia ventricose; axils and apices dilated-infundibuliform. Fr.! 1. c. Cenomyce sparassa, Ach. Cladonia, Floerk.! Clad. p. 129. --B. attenuata, Fr. ; podetia more slender, attenuate, axils pervious, apices subulate. Fr.! 1. c.

On the earth, decaying logs, and stones, most perfect and frequent in mountainous districts; New England.

14. C. furcata, Floerk. Th. squamulose, somewhat dissected; podetia dichotomous-fruticulose, cartilagineous-corticate, polished, greenish-fuscous; axils and fertile apices pervious; apoth. pedicellate, from pale becoming fuscous. Fr. Lichenogr. p. 229. Floerk. Clad. p. 141. - a. crispata, Fl. ; turgid; axils and apices infundibuliform. Floerk. ! 1. c. p. 148. Fr.! 1. c. B. cristata, Fr.; somewhat turgid ; obliquely dilated and fimbriate-cristate at the axils ; the apices cristate-ramulose.

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