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For victuals furnished to the seamen by order of the captain, to a year after the delivery.

For supplies of timber and other things necessary for the construction, equipment, and victualling of the vessel, to a year after the delivery.

For wages of workmen, and work done, to a year after the completion of the work.

All demands for the delivery of goods on board of a vessel, to a year after the arrival of the vessel.

Art. 434. The limitation cannot take effect, if there be a written acknowledgment, obligation, account settled, or judicial citation,


Of Exceptions or bars to actions.(50)

Art. 435. Absolute exceptions to a right of action are admitted in the following cases :

To all actions against the master and insurer for any damage which may have happened to the goods, if they have been received without protestation.

To all actions against the freighter for average loss, if the master has delivered the goods and received his freight, without having made a protest.

To all actions for indemnity of damage caused by running foul, in a place where the captain might have had his legal remedy, and has made no claim.

Art. 436. These protestations and claims are void, if they be not made and notified to the opposite party within twenty-four hours, and if, within a month from their date, they be not followed by a judicial demand.


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Art. 437. Tout commerçant qui cesse ses paiements est en état de faillite.

Art. 438. Tout commerçant failli qui se trouve dans l'un des cas de faute grave, ou de fraude prévus par la présente loi, est en état de banqueroute.

Art. 439. Il y a deux espèces de banqueroutes:

La banqueroute simple ; elle sera jugée par les tribunaux correctionnels.

La banqueroute frauduleuse; elle sera jugée par les cours de justice criminelle.




De l'Ouverture de la Faillite.

Art. 440. Tout failli sera tenu, dans les trois jours de la cessation de paiements, d'en faire la déclaration au greffe du tribunal de con merce; le jour où il aura cessé ses paiements sera compris dans ces trois jours.



General Provisions.

Art. 437. EVERY merchant, or trader, who stops payment, is in a state of failure.

Art. 438. Every merchant, or trader, having failed, and being found guilty of any of the acts of gross misconduct, or of fraud, recognised in the present law, is in a state of bankruptcy.

Art. 439. There are two species of bankruptcy, to wit:

Simple bankruptcy, which shall be tried by the correctional tribunals.

Fraudulent bankruptcy, which shall be tried by the courts of criminal judicature.




Of the Commencement of the Failure. Art. 440. Every insolvent is required, within three days from his stoppage of payment, to make a declaration of the same at the clerk's office of the tribunal of commerce; the day on which he has stopped payment is included in the three days.

En cas de faillite d'une société en bom collectif, la déclaration du failli contiendra le nom et l'indication du domicile de chacun des associés solidaires.

Art. 441. L'ouverture de la faillite est déclarée par le tribunal de commerce : son époque est fixée, soit par la retraite du débiteur, soit

par la clôture de ses magasins, soit par la date de tous actes constatant le refus d'acquitter ou de payer des engagements de commerce.

Tous les actes ci-dessus mentionnés ne constateront néanmoins l'ouverture de la faillite, que lorsqu'il y aura cessation de paiement ou déclaration du failli.

Art. 442. Le failli, à compter du jour de la faillite, est dessaisi, de plein droit, de l'administration de tous ses biens.

Art. 443. Nul ne peut acquérir privilège ni hypothèque sur les biens du failli, dans les dix jours qui précèdent l'ouverture de la faillite.

Art. 444. Tous actes translatifs de propriété immobilière, faits par le failli, à titre gratuit, dans les dix jours qui précèdent l'ouverture de la faillite, sont nuls et sans effet relativement à la masse des créanciers; tous actes du même genre, à titre onéreux, sont susceptibles d'être annullés, sur la demande des créanciers, s'ils paraissent aux juges porter des caractères de fraude.

Art. 445. Tous actes ou engagements pour fait de commerce, contractés par le débiteur dans les dix jours qui précèdent l'ouverture de la faillite, sont présumés frauduleux, quant au failli: ils sont nuls, lorsqu'il est prouvé qu'il y a fraude de la part des autres contractants.

Art. 446. Toutes sommes payées, dans les dix jours qui précèdent l'ouverture de la faillite, pour dettes commerciales Dog échues, sont rapportées.

Art. 417. Tous actes ou paiements faits en fraude des créanciers, sont nuls.

Art. 448. L'ouverture de la faillite rend exigibles les dettes

In case of failure of a partnership under a collective firm, the declaration of the insolvent shall contain the name and place of residence of each of the partners jointly and severally responsible.

Art. 441. The commencement of the failure is declared by the tribunal of commerce: its epoch is determiued either by the departure of the debtor, or by the closure of his shop, or warehouse, or by the date of acts, or instruments, proving his refusal to acquit or pay his commercial engagements.

The acts or instruments above mentioned shall not, however, be proof of the commencement of the failure, except where there has been an actual stoppage of payment, or the declaration of the insolvent.

Art. 442. The insolvent, from the day of his failure, is devested of all right in the administration of his property.

Art. 443. No person can acquire a lien, or mortgage, on the property of the insolvent, within the ten days next preceding the commencement of the failure.

Art. 444. All acts or instruments executed by the insolvent, conveying or assigning real property, as a gift, or free grant, within the ten days next preceding the commencement of the failure, are void and without effect, in regard to the creditors; all deeds of the same kind, with a valuable consideration, may be declared void on the application of the creditors, if they appear to the judge to bear the marks of fraud.

Art. 445. All acts or engagements founded on commercial transactions, contracted by the debtor within the ten days next preceding the commencement of the failure, are presumed to be fraudulent, with respect to the insolvent; they are void where fraud, on the part of the other contracting parties, is proved.

Art. 446. All sums of money paid, within the ten days next preceding the commencement of the failure, for commercial debts not due, are to be refunded.

Art. 447. All acts done, or payments made, to defraud creditors, are void.

Art. 418. The commencement of the failure renders all debts

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