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NASH'S IMPROVED FARM FENCE. bushel higher than spring barley. In New-York it has as

yet been but little cultivated, but wherever it has been The accompanying illustration represents a section of tried it has proved a successful and remunerative erop when straight fence, recently invented by É. Nasb, Auburn, N. properly attended to, and its culture is extending. Y. It may be built of rails or of boards. The upright | The advantages of growing winter over spring barley pieces are made of boards abont four feet long and sis are: Ist. The farmer has more time to prepare his land inches wide. The ends of the rails are flattened to a uni- get it into good tilth in autumn than spring, when a mulform thickness, and two battens or uprights are nailed to tiplicity of work comes on him at once.

2d. He is less dependent on the weather, which is generally such in autumn as will allow of almost any soil being worked to better advantage than in spring.

3d. Less secd is required, as it will tiller out very considerably, especially when sown early.

4th. It blossoms and ripens earlier even than winter wheat, and will thus more easily escape the ravages of the wheat midge, which bas recently shown a disposition to attack and commit extensive havoc in spring barley.

5th. It is preferred by the brewers, who will give from Sizifone

10 to 15 per cent more for it.

The ground intended for winter barley requires mach each panel, when they are set on flat stones, as represented

the same preparation as for wheat, and it will amply repay in the illustration, and braced with a brace on each side. which are set firmly in the ground with a piek or spade. 13

any extra care bestowed upon it. Dry loams are most and the upper endy beveled off and nailed or bolted to the

suitable for it, and the land should be ridged so as to carry uprights. "Two small stakes may be driven on each side

off all surface water. The surface soil is better to be made of the bottom rail to keep it from being moved sideways.

e loose and friable, as the roots are short and spread out near

the surface, and it is found desirable to encourage as much It may be erected on rolling land or up and down slopes, as well as on lovel ground. It may be used for burdles, 18

growth of root as possible before the soil freezes up. The main

point is to have the soil rich, well drained, and thoroughly or for fencing stacks, or for making pens for stock. The P only portion liable to rapid decay is the ends of the braces.

pulverized. The time for sowing the seed is the last of Sep

tember or first week in October, if sown earlier it is apt to get The foot of the braces need not be more than twenty inches from the blocks.

too heavy a top, and become smothered in winter, should The cost of such fence per lineal rod will depend on the

the snow be heavy and lie long. Two bushels per acre is value of the materials used, in the locality where it is

little enough to sow. If drilled in early, less might do; erected, which any one can compute.

and everything having been properly attended to, forty to When it is made of boards, the panels may be made in

in sixty bushels per acre may reasonably be expected as a re

turn for the labor and trouble bestowed on this crop. the workshop in the winter or at any time.

Hamilton, C. .

Jons MACKELCAN, JR. It makes a very permanent fence when the braces are firmly set; and the frost of winter will not affect it more than an ordinary rail fence. It has been well tested du

TURNIPS SOWN AMONG CORN. ring the past season, and I have applied the principle to

In some recent notes from Dutchess Co., we alluded to some of my board fence; and I do not hesitate to pronounce it the most permanent surface fence that I have

the practice now becoming quite prevalent there, of putcver met with.

S. Edwards Topd. ting turnips in between the rows of corn. A Berks Co.,

(Pa.) correspondent of the Germantown Telegraph says: (For the Country Gentleman and Cultivator.)

The practice of sowing turnips among Indian corn, at the WINTER BARLEY.

the last boeing, and especially where the latter has been thin

ped by worms or other insects, is one which cannot be too Some years ago it was thought that the coldness of the urgently recommended. Tbo turnip is a vegetable wbich rewirxter in Western New-York would prove a bar against quires less assistance from solar light during the incipient the successful cultivation of winter barley. The same idea stages of its development, than almost any plant in the whole was also held in England, although the winter there is com catalogue of edibles; consequently, it is but slightly injured paratively mild.

by the foliage of the corn plants, or the closeness of tbe ar mosBut this theory has proved to be erroneous, and winter

phere thus created. After the corn crop is barvested, and bobarley is now extensively grown in England, in some coun

fore the advent of frost, there will be aj ple time for them to

root, especially if the soil be well cultivated. Burnt lands, ties it having become almost as frequently grown as winter l in wbich the natural vegetative powers of the soil are aug. wheat. It has also been found that barley raised from I mented by the alkaline principles of the ashes, are very faseed grown in the south of England sticceeds better in the vorable to the cultivation of turnips; and when they are Northern counties than that grown from soed matured in sowed among corn on such, they almost invariably produce a the colder temperature of the north. It ripens earlier lucrative crop. Hundreds of busbels of excellent turnips may and gives a more certain crop.

frequently be grown in this way without any appreciable It having been demonstrated that barley can be success diininution of the corn crop. “Ecunomy is wealth," says the fully grown in Great Britain as a winter or autumn sown

adage, and it is certain no one can practice it long without incrop, it would be well for us to endeavor to do the same

creasing to some extent his means for future operations and for it here.

enterprises. In this business of producing cbeap orops in sub

stitution for the moro expensivo cereals, we gain several imI have no doubt but that it would succeed well anywhere

und succeed well anywhere portant advantages, among which may be mentioned as Dot in the United States south of the 420 degree of north lati- the least prominent, tbe saying of time, and the realization tude. North of this it would perhaps be too hazardous a of a lucrative yield of produce from land prepared for anotber crop, although it has been successfully grown in Canada, species of roots or grain. The ravages of insects often prove especially in the peninsula lying between lakes Ontario fatal to many vegetables-- especially to Indian corn; and and Huron, and along the northern sliores of lake Ontario. when this happers, unless the vacated land can be filled with I saw some winter barley in full ear carly in June. wbich some crop of later growth, it must romain, either in part or had been grown near Ottawa, C. W. Most of that which who I observed is already being harvested, one field near this i.

Again, the turnip boars late sowing so well that it may be city being cut and ready to go into the barn on the 7th of

grown on fields from which early vegetables have been taken; it succeeds well after a crop of "poas, beans, &c.

Bono mopure, wood asbes, lime and poudretto are all exWinter barley has been cultivated for some few years at cellent articles to be used in the cultivation of turnips. the west, especially in Indiana and Ohio, and in the Chicago Ground and crushed bones, and bones dissolved in sulphurio market reports will be found quoted six to ten cents per acid-itself possessing powerful stimulant and manurial pro.

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perties, makos an admirable dressing. Gypsuin also, is ap- fore them but a life of slavery, with no present pleasures plied with success, both before and after planting. Green and to alleviate. The old house stands close to the road, with fermented manures should never be used on this crop. not one foot to adorn with shrubbery or flowers, and if

there were, they have no time to improve it, for from THE TORNADO IN IOWA.

morning until noon, and from noon until night, all is labor,

labor, labor. There are many very curious circumstances connected! Now when those boys shall have grown up and begin to with that winů. A friend of mine has visited its track, inquire for some plan to escape the slavery to which such and has given me these facts.

a system of labor has doomed them, .Columella' will say It kas generally been said to have been about one quar

one quar- they have an aversion to labor, an aversion produced by ter of a mile wide. It did not vary ten rods from three-high mentat culture. Now the

e high mental culture. Now the same advice that I gave quarters of a mile, neither did it vary much in width for to that man I would give to all in like circumstances. Sell many miles. Precisely in the center, a space of about 100 at least 300 acres of your land, and then fit the other 200 feet, the effect was much more severe than the rest of the acres to live on. Select 10 acres and underdrain it to bespace; and in this center all the trees and timber lay gin with. Then, after applying to it all the manure of a north and south, while at the south side the things were single year, with the plow, the cultivator and the harrow, carried east, and at the north side west; and yet there was

prepare it for laying down to grass. Then, the next year, much loose materials fell Wilter skilter on the top of the

another ten acres, and so on for ten years. At the end of first prostration. This rotary motion then, of course, was

ten years, or fifteen at the most, his whole farm would profrom west to east on the south side, and from east to west duce more than 1000 acres

duce more than 1000 acres would in the present condition on the north side.

of his land. Under such examples and influences, his boys The crops are not destroyed along the track of the tor- would become farmers and his girls farmers' wives. nado. It was the 3d of June; wheat was not jointed, and Waverly. N. Y.

J. L. EDGERTON. although it was swept off, leaving only the root in the ground, it came up again, and now stands at the edge of the

(For the Country Gentleman and Cultivator,] track about eight inches lower than that outside, and green

GINGER BEER. and late, supposed to harvest over half as much as the very heavy crops in that region. Coru also came up and I will give you my way of making small beer that is the looks quite well.

right kind of beer, in answer to an inquiry by A Subscriber. Along this track were strewn fragments of household fur- Take 8 gallons of warm water and I gallon of New-Orloans niture, clothing, family utensils, buildings, fences, timber, utensile hiildings fonnas timhar | molasses, and a small handful of hops, and boil them in a gal

lon and a ball of water, and strain it in with the other warm and carcasses of all kinds of animals; and most of all

water. Then take two large tablespoonfuls of good ginger these things were besmcared with mud and dirt, for the

and put it in and mix it right well, and then put in two tablo. wind took up quite a quantity of dust and dirt, which was spoonfuls of good cream tartar. Next put in li gallons of well moistened in the elouds, and thoroughly stirred into good yeast, and mix it all well, and let it stand for six or eight mud. Suel Foster. Muscatine, Iowa.

hours, or rather till it has worked a good scum over the top.

Take a clean cloth and wash it in warm water, and wring the (For the Country Gentleman and Cultivator.) water out and lay it in a culender and strain carefully; IMPROVING TOO LARGE A FARM. bottle and cork and tie up so that the strings will make a cross

on the top of the cork. Set the bottles out in the hot sun for MESSRS. Editors-In the days of my boyhood, about two hours, and then put them in a good cold cellar or spring fifty years ago, I was acquainted with three good farmers house and let it get one day old, and then you will baro good of olden times, each owning about 130 acres adjoining on beer.. the saune road, Iying along about a mile. The land being

I Skim before you strain ; also, before you put the ginger and then comparatively new and productive, each of these men

molasses, and the cream tartar and yeast in your water, mako

D it a little cool, a little more than milk warm, but no warmer became independent and reared a large family, and sent or else it will kill your ingredients. G. GEBHART. Indiana. them into the world well to live. About fifteen years ago, a young inan of my acquaintance bouglat one of these APPLES FOR PORK MAKING.-A pitby writer in the farms, and moved into an old horse that had stood there Genesee Farmer remarks on this subiect as follows: "For more than 60 years. But he found the farm so unpro

o swine, nothing equals an apple-pie, either for relish or for ductive that he could not live upon it. So he bought the fattening power. The pic is not very dainty about his second farm, but he could live no better, and finally he nie

ally bę pie, however. If you merely cook the apples and stir in bought the third, making him about 500 acres of very good

my good a little bran, he won't refuse the dish ; substitute shorts, and yet very unproductive land. Now he is just be

- or corn and cob-meal, or ground oats or buckwheat, and it giuning to learn that the more he has of such land, the will suit his palate and pile on the fat amazingly. And for worse he is off. But what ails the land ? It was natural

finishing up a piece of pork, an apple pudding thickened ly productive, and being porous when new it was not too with good corn meal, is as far ahead of hard corn as the wet, nor was it too stony even. But from long use and corn is of raw pumpking. Pork made with apple is. age it has become very compact, and is now wet and cold,

sweeter, and quite as free from shrinking as the cornsfed and of course unprodiective. His whole farm, both meadow and pasture land, is being

WHITEWOOD HONEY.—The Ohio Farmer remarks that overrun with every variety of foul stuff. His whole farm the Whitewood or Tulip trees are covered unusually with lies facing to the west. Nearly every acre of the farm blossoms this season, and adds what had never attracted must be underdrained before it can be made productive. our notice, that the bees gather a rich harvest of honey But the owner can never do that. First, for the want of

from this source, leaving while they last almost untouched a disposition to do it; and secondly, for want of means.

the flowers of the white clover. It is a splendid tree, not His whole capital is invested in unproductive land. If he

only when in bloom, but through the entire summer seawould sell 300 acres of his land, and with the means preson. pare 200 acres to live on, he could make money, become COOKED Food For Hogs.-An experiment related in independent, live like a freeman, and, what is most im- the Working Farmer resulted as follows:-"Mr. Mason of portant of all, he could educate bis children right. Somerville, N. J., found that by using cooked corn meal,

But what I am coming to is the influence such a course from the middle of April to the first of December, he inof farming and of life has upon his children in giving an creased the weight of two pigs from about 40 to 602 lbs., early direction to their future life. He is rearing a young being a gain of one and quarter pounds per day, and that family of boys and girls. But his boys will never become the entire cost of the pork was about four cents per farmers, nor will his daughters ever marry farmers. They pound." will live old maids first. There is not a single thing con. For TAKING OUT IRON Rust AND YELLOW STAINS.—Dij neeted with the life of that growing family calculated to the articles in a strong solution of Tartario Acid, and lay them make them happy upon the farm. There is nothing be-l exposed to the sun.-Exchange.


Cutting Back Trees when Transplanted.

(For the Country Gentleman and Cahivator.)

CROPS ON DRAINED LAND. This practice, now generally adopted by tho most suc cessful cultivators, and founded partly on the principle that MESSRS EDITORS-I have not seen any statement of mutilated and greatly reduced roots cannot supply a fun

in crops grown on lands that the New York State Ag. So

'ciety awarded their premium on draining for the year amount of nourishment to a great multitude of buds, la la

DUQB, B 1858, and to let the people know how I have succeeded, objected to by some of our correspondents. Having adopt- will write you a short account of the same. ed the practice for twenty years, and had many opportuni. About 12 acres, as shown by diagram on page 230 of ties of comparing the results of cutting back with those that Society's Transactions for 1858, was plowed and plantof planting the tree with the top entire, we have felt no

ed to corn about the 16th of May. The same was hoed hesitation in recommending it for general adoption--the June in the morning, the frost had cut all clean-beyond

from 6th to 11th of June, looking finely. On 12th of only exceptions perbaps being those trees which have ac. Any hope of recovery. That day being the Sabbath, and quired some age, or have become enfeebled or stunted in Monday a rainy day, we commenced plowing again the growth before removal. In such instances a severe cutting 14th, continuing the 15th and 16th. The result, with the back may not possibly always be advisable. It is better,

coldest season I ever knew, was the largest growth of corn

ever seen in these parts, not fully ripened of course. The however, to get out none but young and vigorous trees.

corn was acknowledged by all to grow the fastest that they Much may be said by way of theorizing, but we prefer ever saw, and the mystery was what made it grow so; as testing this question simply by experiment; and where the year before, all said it was folly to try to drain that this mode of reaching truth has been fully adopted, in con- piece, and much more so to try to raise corn there. nection with good trees and good culture, we have never

I harvested 100 bushels ears per acre, which I know is known a cultivator who has not been convinced of the de- I think it highly remunerative, as the fodder was enormous,

not a heavy crop, yet considering the frost and the season cided ad cided advantages of the practice. Having made a few ex. and as hay was scarce, was valuable. I did not weigh but periments in this way the present year, in order to exhibit a part of the dried fodder, but think it safe to say five tons the results, we shall now merely state what these results

per acre, which would have sold for $7 per ton, wbich are up to the present time.

would be $35 for fodder, and the corn 80 busbels at 80

cents, would be $40 more, making a sum total of $70 per Four two-year cherry trees, each about six feet high,

ear cherry trees, each about six feet high, acre for the produce. The labor was nearly double, as were set out, three with entire tops, and one with two- all was planted twice and hoed three times. This year thirds of each one year sboot cut off. The three unpruned the same piece is sown to oats, and promises an abundant trees have expanded their leaves, but none have made a crop. A neighbor said to me yesterday, the crops on that new shoot half an inch long. The pruned tree is covered

dfield was a better argument than all the talking I or any with vigorous shoots about two inches long, now growing

other man could do for a month together.

les long, now growing Tell the people to drain-to drain well, not less than rapidly. The contrast will no doubt be much greater in a three feet deep, with wood, stone, or tile, as each advofew weeks more.

cate, but be sure to do it, for it will pay if well done. Three Mahaleb trees, of three years' growth, and about More anon. Jonathan Talcott. Rome, June 27, 1860. six feet high, were set out. On two of them the shoots were mostly left untouched. These are scantiiy furnished

Preserving Green Corn for Winter Use. with small leaves, and none have grown half an inch, ex Messrs. EDITORS—I give you a recipe for preserving green cept where one of them had four shoots cut back; these cori

corn for winter.

Cut the corn off the cob, and put it in a stone jar, with a four shoots have each several new shoots from one to two handful salt to a pint of corn. When the jar is full, put a inches long. The third Mahaleb had each last year's growth weight on it. When you wish to use it, remove a little of the

G. K. cut back two-thirds ; it is now covered with young grow. top, and wash and soak over night.

Waynesborough, Va. ing shoots about one inch or more in length.

Of six Breda apricot trees, two years from the bud, and | Red Ants---How to Get Rid of Them. about seven feet high, five were cut back, and one left un

Messrs. EpitoRS - Please tell "A Distressed Housekeeptonched. In order to avoid vague estimate or guess work, ler," that she can get rid of her ants by placing camphor we measured and counted the shoots they have each made about the shelves where they are found. Å neighbor of mine, up to the present time. On the five cut trees the follow in whose word I can place the utmost confidence, says-take

spirits of camphor and sop it on the shelf, making a perfect ing are the results :

ring, and place the ants insido of the ring and none of them 1 tree has 18 new shoots, from 6 to 18 inches long.

can get out alive-it is sure death. He has tried it. Those 1 . 10

6 to

out of the ring will leave in the first train. Will "A Dis-
tressed Housekeeper" try this, and report in TRE CULTIVA-

TOR. JOSEPH E. PHELPS. Worcester, Mass. besides which all have many other shoots from three to six inches.

RULES FOR PRUNING GRAPES. The remaining tree, left uncut, has seven shoots one to

The last number of Hovey's Magazine gives substan. two inches long, none are over two inches. The amount of foliage it contains is certainly not over one-twentieth tially the following general rules for grape pruning, after part that on either of the five pruned trees; hence the in

recommending grape-growers to be free in the use of the tention which some have of obtaining more foliage by knife, followed by the remark that where one vine is pruned leaving the trees unpruned results in failure and defents too severely, nine are not pruned enough:its own end.

Ist. No shoots should be nearer than one foot of each The worst part of the unfavorable result on the un-1°


une | 2d. Prune back to within one eye of the old wood, pruned trees has not yet come, for the trees having once every fall and spring, about one one-half of the annual become thoroughly stunted, will require years to restore shoots—the remaining eyes producing canes to be retained them.

for bearing next year-when the old bearing wood is in

turn to be cut out, to make room for new shoots. The Rensselaer Co. Ag. Society has commenced 3d. Disbud or rub off, as soon as they appear, all shoots the publication of a monthly “Journal."

I not wanted as bearing wood.

6 to 7
6 to 13
6 to 21

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Native Fruits and Errors of Opinion. fully through a bag into the water you use, before it is

stirred in the whole mixture. If a larger quantity than We never could perceive why a pear seed, containing five gallons be wanted, the same proportion should be obwithin itself the germ of its future character, deposited in served. E. F. AIKEN. Grove Ranch, Cal. soil on one or the other side of the water, should come up and make a different tree on account of the place of

(For the Country Centleman and Cultivator.)

A NOTE FROM VIRGINIA. its growth. For the same reason we cannot perceive why a native grown variety is necessarily better than one A two weeks' visit among the farmers in Fauquier, enabrought across the national line. It is true, that the se-bles me to say that the season there is generally a fruitful lected native seedlings are as a general rule better than one. Wheat will be quite an average crop; some plantothers, being selected because they are found best in the ers, however, bave nearly lost that crop by the cut-worm,

I know of one instance where three hundred bushels of particular region of their origin.

wheat sown will not return one hundred. Yet the average As an example,--take 100 seeds of the Bartlett pcar. crop of the county is good and superior in quality. An Plant 50 in England and 50 in New-York. Out of the intelligent farmer told me that he had examined the inseedlings, one is selected in England as best, and one in sect which was troubling his wheat, and thought our HesNew-York. The English seedling will not prove so good

sian fly bad got among it for the first time in his experience.

I introduced spring wheat there this season, and when in America as the other, nor the New-York seedling so I left it looked very promising; it has not been tried in good in England, simply because each has been chosen tbat section for years, and if it should turn out as there is for its adaptation to the respective locality. But there reason to anticipate, it will prove a great benefit, as it is no doubt that of the remaining plants, there are as many comes in after the cut worm has done its work.

Corn, oats, clover, rye, &c., never looked better. Toin England that would be good in New York as those

bacco paid so poorly last year that many planters have growing here; or as many of the New York plants that I declined trying it this season: it is a crop requiring more would be good in England as those growing there-could labor than any other, yet there is some compensation in their place of growth be changed and the choice made the fact, that contrary to the received opinion north, it accordingly.

makes a good preparation for wbeat the succeeding year, These remarks bave been suggested by a remark in

The mountain lands of Madison, which have been sold

for almost nothing, are giving large crops of potatoes and Hovey's Magazine, from an intelligent and eminent cor- 1 grass, and if Northern seed corn was introduced there, respondent, that pear trees as hardy as our forest trees, would make a crop. Sheep are being extensively intro" can be expected only from native seedlings.” Time duced there. will prove much in relation to the bardiness of varieties,

Can you tell me why it is that onions (which would be and in the meantime we will only remark that western

a valuable crop there,) cannot be raised from the seed,

" and that what they terin “clove onions” are always used cultivators assure us that the hardiest pear tree they have to produce them? I have supposed that the introduction tested is the Flemish Beauty; and fruit raisers in Maine of new seed might answer, instead of their “rare ripe" assert that the Urbaniste is the hardiest there—both Euro-plan, but I am not a practical farmer. pean sorts.

AYRSHIRE Prize MILKERS.—It will be remembered (For the Country Gentleman and Cultivator.) that we noticed some weeks since, the Duke of Atholl's VALUABLE WASH FOR BUILDINGS. ltender of certain Prizes for Milking Cows, to be awarded

I saw an inquiry in one of The CULTIVATORS, a short by the Ayrshire Agricultural Society. The trial formed a time since, for a good whitewash, that would not wash off. novel feature ; eight cows competed, and they were kept I send you the following. More than three years ago I together for five days, and carefully watched and milked. whitewashed my barn and outbuildings with it, and they The followivg is a statement of the quantities of milk gir. look nearly as well as when put on. The recipe was originally taken from the National Intelligencer.

en by the cows belonging to the winning competitors : Greatest

Per Centage

Average of
Take half a bushel of rock lirne; slack it with boiling

ten milkings.

of Cream. water; cover it during the process to keep in the steam.

28 lb. 7 oz. . ......

26 lb. 5 o Strain the liquid through a fine sieve, and add to it a peck of salt, previously well dissolved in warm water; three

4 24 12 pounds of ground rice, boiled to a thin paste and stirred in boiling hot; half a pound of powdered Spanish whiting, and a pound of clean glue, which has been previously

De Mr. JEREMIAH Niver of Stuyvesant, Columbia Co., dissolved by soaking it well and then hanging it over al is agent for Eddy's “Patent Protective Bee Hive." Mr. slow fire, in a small kettle within a large one filled with N.'s experience leads him to speak in high terms of the water. Add five gallons of hot water to the mixture, stir operation of this invention. He has written a little book it well, and let it stand a few days, covered from the dirt. I on the subject, which we presume may be had by address.

It shouid be put on right hot. For tliis purpose it can ing him as above. Mr. Niver has also placed one of the be kept in a kettle on a portable furnace. About a pint hives at this office, where it will remain some days on exof this mixture will cover a square yard on the outside of hibition, and by way of sample of what it can accomplish, a house, if properly applied. It answers as well as oil. I has left with us a box of new honey of first quality, weighpaint for wood, brick or stone, and is cheaper. It retains ing upwards of 10 lbs. its brilliancy for many years. There is nothing that will compare with it, either for inside or outside walls.

Farming Hilly LAND.-Such land is apt to wash into Coloring matter may be put in, and made of any shade you like. Spanish brown stirred in will make red pink. guillies in heavy rains, especially if poor and shallow; the more or less deep according to the quantity. Yellow ochre best way to prevent it, says a Hill Country farmer, is to stirred in makes yellow-wash, but chrome goes further and make the ground deep and rich, and sow on grass seed in makes a color generally esteemed prettier. In all these the hollows most exposed. “Make a sufficient quantity of cases the darkness of the shades of course is determined the soil mellow to absorb all the rain that falls, and none by the quantity of coloring used.

will run off, carrying the soil with it." Deep plowing, When walls have been badly smoked, and you wish to sub-soiling and underdraining, will best accomplish this have them a clcar white, it is well to squceze indigo pleuti- I end.


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Another form of construction is first to make a foundaA correspondent in Indiana has requested directions for

tion frame of side pieces about 2 by 8 inches, connected

on constructing a rack or frame for placing on an ordinary |

together by four cross bars morticed into them, nearly as

already described, the cross bars being of white oak or farm wagon, to draw hay and grain upon. There are many modes of construction, variously known and adopted in

other hard wood, into which oblique mortises are cut on different localities, and possessing various advantages and

each side, within the side pieces. These oblique mortises defects. Among them we have selected two already well

or receive sloping side frames, which complete the rack-the known to many of our readers, but doubtless new to others,

feet of the side frames being thrust into the oblique morand which, on the whole, are, perhaps, as good as any that

tises, and the frame resting against the top of the founda

tion frame. This rack is not so substantial as the precedare used.

ing, but as the side frames are taken out and put in separately, one person may more easily place the whole on the wagon.

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Fig 1. Fig. 1 represents a strong frame, the only objection to which is its weight, and the consequent inconvenience of placing and removing it from the wagon. It consists, first, of a bottom frame, (forming the foundation or base,) just wide enough to fit within the stakes of the wagon, made of two side pieces 10 inches wide, two inches thick, and about 13 feet long; these are connected at the ends by cross pieces morticed through them. On this frame rest three curved cross timbers, about 4 inches square, and 6} or 7 feet long-the curve may be about 6 inches, or enough

(For the Country Gentleman and Cultivator.) for the boards that rest on them to clear the wheels-if

A GOOD FARM GATE. thic curve is less, the bottom frame must be wider. These timbers support two boards on each side, each board an

| Editors. Co. GestLEMAN—Annexed you will find a plan

"of a gate that was erected on the farm I now own, by my inch tl:ick and 6 inches wide, and about 13 feet long, or

13 feet long, or father, more than 30 years ago, which gate is still in good as long as the rack, Stiff, curved iron straps span from working order, except that the post of the gate into one board to the other over the forward wheels, to prevent which the rails are morticed, is beginning to decay, and the hay from resting on the tire. This frame or rack may will have to be renewod; otherwise the gate is firm and be modified by making the bottom frame five or six inches good, never having sunk or swayed an inch either way.

The plan of the gate is similar to one already described wider, and using straight instead of curved cross timbers, | ;

oss timbers, in Co. Gent., but is much more substantial, and very little but this will make it heavier, and the load will not rest so

more expensive. The posts and cross piece at the top are secarely upon it.

locust. The posts are 11 feet high above ground, are 5 inches square at the top and 6 inches square at the ground; the cross piece is 4 by 5, and curved as represented, to make it (I suppose) more ornamental. The posts are set in the ground about 3 feet, and firmly fastened with stone. The rails in gate are-top rail 54 inches wide; 2d, 54; 3d and 4th, 6, and 5th or lower rail, 7 inches; upper space 71 inches; 2d, 74; 3d, 5, and lower space 4 inches. The railings are morticed into the post of the gate, and secured

by a wooden pin; said post being 3 by 5 inches, and made Fig. 2

4 by 3 above gate as represented in drawing. The braFig. 2 exhibits a lighter and inore perfect frame, but ces and pieces at the end of gate are made of railing, the requiring more labor in construction. The eight upright

braces being 5 inches wide, and the pieces at end of gate

6 inches wide-there are two pieces, one on each side at pins or standards, connecting a light foundation frame end of gate.) and are well secured—both braces and end with a lighter one above, rendeis the whole so manageable pieces--to the rails of the gate by rivets, not nails. that it may be very easily placed upon or removed from I should say that the railings of which the gate is conthe wagon. The crosg timbers (consisting of only one at structed, are only one inch thick by the widths above each end) need not be so much curved-a curvature of

s given. The long braçe being dove-tailed as represented, three inches is sufficient, and they will be large enough if The bolt for fastening and the plan of hanging are very

and secured, prevents it from drawing out or givirg way. 24 by 4 inches; their length may be about 6 feet, or if simple, and in fact the whole gate is so easily constructed the rack is large, 7 feet. The bottom frame may be made that any man that can use a saw and chisel, and boro a of 3 by 5 inch stuff, 12 feet 6 inches long, and the top hole, can make and put one up. frame 2 by 3 stuff. An inch board a foot wide goes all

il There being no patent on this gate, and hoping it may

be worthy a place in the Co. Gext., and that it may be of around the top, the extreme length of which is about 14 advantage to some of your numerous readers, I send it to feet. In both these racks the bottom frame must be just you.

JAMES M. KINKKAD. wide enough to fit within the upright stakes of the wagon, which is usually about 3 feet 2 or 3 inches. The short

ALBANY Co. AG. SOCIETY.--At a late meeting of the ladder placed at the forward end, to prevent the load from

Managers of the Albany County Agricultural Society, it

was resolved to hold the Seventh Annual Fair of the Society falling forward, and to fasten the reins to during the opera on the Washington Parade Ground on the 18th, 19th, 20h tion of loading, should be about four feet high.

and 21st days of September next,

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