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"The profits which are enjoyed by the owners of property of this character are rather the result of having control of the murket and being everywhere firmly established in the business of manufacturing the parented article."

COMPARATIVE STATEMENT OF WORK DONE.

The following tabulated statement, comparing the records of the office for the first three years of democratic administration with the corresponding three years of the last Republican administration, will show the work of the office during these periods :

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Ia comparing the work of the Patent Office at different periods, it must be borne in mind that the labor employed in examining in any given year the same number of applications, is necessarily greater than that required in previous years. This is owing to the fact that the field of invention is continually expanding and growing wider, and each year adds to the patented inventions that must be exam. ined in succeeding years.

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CHAPTER XXI.

THE DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE.

THE LEGAL BUSINESS CONDUCTED WITH ECONOMY AND THE LAWS

STRICTLY ENFORCED IN ALL PARTS OF THE COUNTRY.

This Department, to whose hands is entrusted the vast litigation incidental to the business of the Government, has demonstrated in the highest degree the wisdom of the great political change of 1884. In the face of an enormous increase of law business growing out of new and far-reaching legislation, and of augmented activity in the various executive departments, the work of prosecuting suits has been accomplished with marked success and without an increase of force.

The following acts, passed in the second session of the 49th Congress alone, will give some idea of the new business which has been thrown upon the shoulders of the Attorney-General and his subordinates :

The Act of February 4, 1887, creating the Inter-state Commerce Commission.
The Act of February 23, 1887, prohibiting the importation of opium.

The Act of March 2, 1887, giving the United States courts jurisdiction over crimes against the Indian Police.

The Act of March 3, 1887, giving the United States courts concurrent jurisdiction with the Court of Claims, over suits against the Government.

The Act of March 3, 1887, establishing the Railroad Commission.

The Act of March 3, 1887, providing for the adjustment of Land Grants to railroads, and for the forfeiture of unearned lands.

The Act of March 3, 1887 (Anti-Polygamy Act), in relation to the Perpetual Emigrating Fund Company, and the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints, and including the annulment of the charters and forfeiture of a large amount of property.

ENFORCING THE LAWS. Many important laws had for years lain dormant. The people had inferred that the mere passage of the laws for needed reform had effected the result intended, whereas, in many instances, it had only silenced public complaint and left the wrong unremedied.

The Department of Justice under President Cleveland inaugurated a new erathat reform should be in fact and not in form only; in deed and not in mere word. A faithful enforcement of the laws found upon the statute books was determined upon, and proper action taken in pursuance thereof. Among the results so secured, the Mormon people have declared, both by word and deed, that polygamy shall be no more.

In the landed States and Territories fraudulent entries have become less frequent.

Timber trespasses have become unprofitable.
Bank wrecking has become dangerously odious.

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In all parts of the country all the laws of the United States are recognized as of binding force.

In all the landed States and Territories proceedings are pending for the recove ery of vast bodies of valuable land, unlawfully withheld from the public domain by railroads and other corporations, and by individuals. Whatever success may attend the efforts of the administration for the recovery of these lands, the Department of Justice is entitled to its share.

The same is true in suits for timber trespass. In the calendar year of 1887, 594 criminal prosecutions were instituted at the request of the Interior Department, and 336 civil suits for the value of the timber, were brought aggregating in money value two million four hundred and nine thousand one hundred and sixty-two dollars and twenty-five cents ($2,409,162 25.)

In addition to these, there are pending civil suits against the Northern Pacific Railroad Company, the Montana Improvement Company, and others, in the territories of Washington, Idaho and Montana, for two million dollars ($2,000,000) value of lumber unlawfully cut and removed from the public domain. Also against the Sierra Lumber Company, in California, for an equal amount, and numerous other suits in the different landed judicial districts, amounting, all told, to seven or eight million dollars.

UNITED STATES MARSHALS IN THE SOUTH. One of the most noteworthy features of the present administration is the total absence of scandal on the part of the Marshals in the South. In former administrations each recurring election was the signal for habitual invasion of the rights of the people on the part of these officials, but not an incident of the kind has occurred on the part of Mr. Cleveland's appointees.

The federal officers throughout the country have set the example of obedience to the laws.

COURT EXPENSES.

The annexed tables will exemplify the strict attention to economy which rules the present administration of the Department of Justice.

Taking the three years of Mr. Garland's incumbency as a basis of comparison with the last three of Mr. Brewster's administration, it will be seen that the criminal business alone (irrespective of the civil suits of which an accurate report is not now available), has increased from 27,828 cases during 1882, 1883 and 1884, to 39,361 cases for 1885, 1886 and 1887—an increase of nearly fifty per cent.; while the increase in the court expenses for the same period from $9,811,425.18, to $10,078,500.20, is an increase of but two and two-thirds per cent.

TAREZ YEARS OF ARTHUR'S ADMINISTRATION. Statement of the number of criminal prosecutions terminated in the District and Cir-. cuit Courts of the United States during the fiscal years 1882, 1883, and 1881.

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THREE YEARS OF CLEVELAND'S ADMINISTRATION. Statement of the number of criminal prosecutions terminated in the District and Circuit Courts of the United States during the fiscal years 1885, 1886, and 1887.

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Statement of the expenses of United States || Statement of the expenses of United States

Courts for the fiscal years 1882-'83-'84. Courts for the fiscal years 1885-'86-'87.

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UNITED STATES JUDGES APPOINTED SINCE MARCH 4, 1885.

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District.
West Michigan....
South Carolina..
North Georgia.
South Alabama..
South California...
East Missouri....
South Illinois..
West Texas...
West Missouri..
East Wisconsin.

Name.
.Henry F. Severens..
..C. H. Simonton..

Wm. T. Newman.
.H. T. Toulmin..
.E. M. Ross....
.A. M. Thayer..
Wm. J. Allen...

Thomas S. Maxey.
...John F. Philips.
..James G. Jenkins.

Date of Com. May 25, 1886 .January 13, 1887 .January 13, 1887 ..January 13, 1887 .January 13, 1887 .February 26, 1887 ..January 19, 1888 .June

25, 1888 ..June 25, 1888 ..July

2, 1888

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CHAPTER XXII.

THE DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE.

THE EXCELLENT RECORD MADE DURING THE PAST THREE YEARS

IN PROMOTING THE PROSPERITY OF THE FARMER.

The Interests of Agriculture Have Been Looked After With an Intelligence Never ManifestedThe

History of the Department.

I.

The present administration of this Department became responsible for its management April 4th, 1885. Norman J. Colman of Missouri, the gentleman selected by President Cleveland for the cffice of Commissioner, had been identified for many years with agricultural progress and thoroughly appreciated the value of science to agricultural operations.

At the very outset of his administration there was found an embarrassment in the matter of exhausted appropriations in some of the divisions of the Department, and it became necessary to immediately furlough a large portion of the force. After the beginning of the new fiscal year-July 1st, 1885—the real work of the Department-so far as the present administration is concerned-began.

RELATIONS WITH COLLEGES AND EXPERIMENT STATIONS,

The Commissioner had always believed that the problems of agriculture were only to be solved by means of a liberal scientific and industrial education. He knew that the several State Agricultural Colleges, endowed by Congress, were not accomplishing the results which would be possible through a harmonious co-operation with the Department of Agriculture; and which, could their work be co ordi. nated and the results of their experiments unified, edited and published as a whole, would at once become a power for good whose measure could not be easily taken.

A convention of delegates from the Agricultural Colleges and Experiment. Stations of the country was therefore called by the Commissioner to meet in the Department building early in July. It was a bold undertaking to attempt to convene a successful gathering of such a character in the city of Washington in midsummer ; but the agricultural needs of the country fully warranted the undertaking,

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