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THREE YEARS OF CLEVELAND'S ADMINISTRATION. Statement of the number of criminal prosecutions terminated in the District and Circuit Courts of the United States during the fiscal years 1885, 1886, and 1887.

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COURT EXPENSES.

Statement of the expenses of United States Statement of the expenses of United States

Courts for the fiscal years 1882-83-81. Courts for the fiscal years 1885-'86-'87.

1882.

1883 1884

$3,192,393 67
3,372,465 45
3,246,566 06

1885
1886
1887.

$3,299,703 23
3,561,124 39

3,217,672 58 $10,078,500 20

Total..

$9,811,425 18

Total..

UNITED STATES JUDGES APPOINTED SINCE MARCH 4, 1885.

Justices of Supreme Court:
Name.
Chief Justice, Melville W. Fuller....
Associate Justice, L. Q. C. Lamar.

Date of Com.
..July
...January 16, 1888

20, 1888

Circuit.
Sixth Circuit..
Second Circuit...

Circuit Judges :

Name.
Howell E. Jackson...
Emile H. Lacombe..

Date of Com.
April

12, 1886. .. February 28, 1888.

District.
West Michigan....
South Carolina..
North Georgia..
South Alabama.
South California..
East Missouri.....
South Illinois.
West Texas...
West Missouri...
East Wisconsin...

District Judges :

Name.
Henry F. Severens.
.....C. H. Simonton....

Wm. T. Newman..
H. T. Toulmin...
.E. M. Ross..
.A. M. Thayer...
Wm. J. Allen ...
Thomas S. Maxey
..John F. Philips.
..James G. Jenkins..

Date of Com.
May

25, 1886 ..January 13, 1887

.January 13, 1887 January 13, 1887 ..January 13, 1887

.February 26, 1887 ..January 19, 1888 ..June 25, 1888

.June 25, 1888 ..July 2, 1888

CHAPTER XXII.

THE DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE.

THE EXCELLENT RECORD MADE DURING THE PAST THREE YEARS

IN PROMOTING THE PROSPERITY OF THE FARMER.

The Interests of Agriculture Have Been Looked After With an Intelligence Never ManifestedThe

History of the Department.

I.

The present administration of this Department became responsible for its management April 4th, 1885. Norman J. Colman of Missouri, the gentleman selected by President Cleveland for the cffice of Commissioner, had been identified for many years with agricultural progress and thoroughly appreciated the value of science to agricultural operations.

At the very outset of his administration there was found an embarrassment in the matter of exhausted appropriations in some of the divisions of the Department, and it became necessary to immediately furlough a large portion of the force. After the beginning of the new fiscal year-July 1st, 1885—the real work of the Department-so far as the present administration is concerned-began.

RELATIONS WITH COLLEGES AND EXPERIMENT STATIONS,

The Commissioner had always believed that the problems of agriculture were only to be solved by means of a liberal scientific and industrial education. He knew that the several State Agricultural Colleges, endowed by Congress, were not accomplishing the results which would be possible through a harmonious co-operation with the Department of Agriculture; and which, could their work be co ordi. nated and the results of their experiments unified, edited and published as a whole, would at once become a power for good whose measure could not be easily taken.

A convention of delegates from the Agricultural Colleges and Experiment. Stations of the country was therefore called by the Commissioner to meet in the Department building early in July. It was a bold undertaking to attempt to convene a successful gathering of such a character in the city of Washington in midsummer ; but the agricultural needs of the country fully warranted the undertaking,

and the colleges of the several States being honored with their first attention on the part of the new administration of the affairs of the Department, responded almost unanimously by accepting the invitation and sending delegates. The outcome of that convention was the fullest endorsement of the Department's aims and efforts. Among the results which attended the convention may be mentioned the following, and their importance to the farmer will be readily recognized :

1. A better understanding among the colleges and experiment stations, and a general mapping out, after conference and discussion, of lines of work for the future.

2. The adoption of plans which when put in operation would provent unneces. sary duplication of work.

3. The resolution to exchange results of experiments, through a central station, in order that experiments might have more than a local value.

4. The success of the legislative committee of the convention in securing the passage of a bill establishing experiment stations in the several States and Territo. ries, with an annual appropriation of $15,000 each for their maintenance.

5. The benefit to the whole country which accrueş. Every section, State, county and town, and the individual farmer must sooner or later be benefited directly, as they are already indirectly, by reason of this action.

These and other results were anticipated by the present administration when the convention was called, and its satisfaction has just been crowned by legislation at the present Congress, approved by the President July 18th, which places in its hands the organization of a bureau in the Department of Agriculture which is to act as a clearing-house for the several colleges and stations—thus enabling it to diffuse among the farmers of the country a vast amount of information affecting their business.

INVESTIGATING ADULTERATIONS AND IMITATIONS. The first order given to a subordinate by the new administration was given to the Chemist. He was directed to proceed at once with an investigation into the subject of adulteration of foods and food products. Enough was done in the earliest stages of the examination to show the pernicious extent of the adulteration of dairy products, and the attention of Congress was called to the matter in the first report of the Department made under the present administration. The agitation of this subject resulted in a bill originating in a Democratic House of Representatives which was approved by a Democratic President before he had been eighteen months in office, regulating the manufacture and sale of oleomargarine. The enactment of that law was hailed with delight by every dairyman and friend of pụre butter, and its beneficial results to dairymen are too well known to require repetition. Bulletins have been published by the Department on the subject of butter substitutes; impure wines and liquors; adulteration of spices and condi. ments, etc., and it is the intention of the administration to analyze and publish every article of consumption, whether it be a substitute in whole or in part, which competes with or reflects upon the handiwork of the honest farmer.

STAMPING OUT CATTLE DISEASES.

The present administration was confronted from the beginning by momentous problems arising from the existence of contagious diseases of cattle. Pleuro pneumonia, the most dreaded cattle plague of Europe, had been introduced into the

United States and allowed to propagate itself almost without hindrance in various States on the Atlantic seaboard. For years the cattle raisers of the Mississippi Valley and of the Western States and Territories had been alarmed at its steady increase, and had secured the adoption of local laws and regulations which threatened to destroy inter-state commerce in cattle, while for the same reason Great Britain had for five years prohibited our cattle from going inland and required them to be slaughtered at the docks where landed. To make the matter still worse, this dreaded disease had very recently been carried to the great cattle raising States of Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Kentucky and Missouri, and the people were in consternation at its presence

This burden upon our domestic and foreign commerce was at the same time a menace to one of the most important sources of our food supply and reacted with serious effect upon the agricultural interests. It demanded immediate attention and prompt action.

By co-operation with State authorities, the general Government has completely eradicated the contagion from the States west of the Alleghany mountains. In New York it has also eradicated it from Washington and Delaware counties and from the greater part of Westchester and Richmond counties. In New Jersey the plague is now confined to a very small section of the State. In Pennsylvania it is practically eradicated. In Maryland it is confined to a single county. In the District of Columbia and Virginia it has been completely eradicated.

This greatly feared danger has, therefore, been removed from nearly all parts of the country where it existed, and trade and commerce have been relieved of the necessity of embarrassing restrictions outside of the seven or eight counties to which the disease is now confined. In these counties the regulations are still strictly enforced, every bovine animal is numbered and registered by the officers of the Bureau of Animal Industry, not one can be moved from its owner's premises without a written permit, and each herd in which the malady appears is slaughtered as soon as its presence is discovered, and the premises are then disinfected. By the careful and constant enforcement of these regulations this imported plague is rapidly disappearing, and there is every reason to believe that by continuing them for a short time our country will be rescued from this danger and the restrictions removed from our trade in live cattle.

It is worthy of remark that few countries have ever succeeded in extirpating this destructive plague after it was once introduced, and done have made such rapid progress as has been shown here during the last two years. Within this time it has been necessary to inspect 31,446 herds of cattle, and to number, register and keep a history of the 283,270 individual animals which they contained. The success of the work has required the slaughter of 10,600 head of cattle, and the disinfection of 1,743 stables. The total expense of this great work has been less than $700,000.

SIGNAL SERVICE STATIONS FOR FARMERS,

Among the recommendations made to Congress the first year of the present administration for the welfare of the farmer and the advancement of his interests, may be mentioned the establishment of the Signal Service Station in connection with each agricultural college, and experiment station for the purpose of investigating meteorological conditions affecting the health and growth of plants; the

introduction of medical plants; the investigation of the agricultural capabilities of Alaska ; the completion of a report on wool, giving a scientific endorsement of American grown wool; increased attention to matters of forestry, etc. Several of these were met with appropriate legislation and the results have been laid before the country. Congress also provided for increased duties in certain branches of Departmental work, and in new fields, which required careful direction in their inauguration.

GENERAL EXTENSION OF THE DEPARTMENT WORK. It was not long under the new regime before this infusion of new life began to be manifest in every division, and the Department itself began to reach that emi. nence which its founders had hoped for. Instead of being the butt of the news. paper paragrapher, the object of ridicule among a portion of the agricultural press, the useless appendage of the Government in scientific minds, its work began to inspire the confidence of all. Its scientific branches were consulted more and more by those whom the Department was established to benefit, its deductions began to be received with confidence and with credit, and its standard began to rise to a plane commensurate with a Department intended to assist in the protection and promotion of the greatest of all industries. And, as these scientific investigations increased, and were stimulated by increasing inquiry on the part of the country for that class of information, new fields for investigation were entered, and in certain cases new divisions and sections were established in the Department to keep pace with the progress that was being made.

Thus a new division was created to take charge of the interests of the dairy, preliminary steps were taken to stimulate the pomological and horticultural interests of the country, a section for experimeats in silk-reeling was organized, and otber investigations inaugurated of more or less note. The most important experiment during the year, and one that is destined to favorably affect the future of this country, was that conducted by the Department of manufacturing sugar from sorghum by the diffusion process. Silk-reeling experiments were instituted in the District of Columbia in order to ascertain is the reeling of silk from the cocoons might be made profitable in this country; and investigations of the diseases of fruits and vegetables were prosecuted, a separate section being organized for the purpose. A most important reform was introduced in the Seed Division. Prior to the advent of this administration no test of seed distributed by the Government had ever been made to prove its purity, its freshness, or its freedom from the germs of disease or of noxious weeds or insects. A system was adopted wbich absolutely prevents the distribution of any seed untrue to name, wanting in vitality or containing any element which the Government ought not to distribute throughout the country. This has proven a great boon to the farmers, as will be readily acknowledged, and as thousands of letters amply testify.

A change in the Annual Report of the Department-a document of which there are now published 400,000 copies, the largest edition by far of any report published by the Government-deserves a notice. For several years the report has been confined exclusively to the operations of each division of the Department. The First Annual Report under the new administration contained besides the above other articles of popular interest to all classes of our farmer citizens. Among them was an article upon “Wheat Culture in India” and another upon “Truck Farming."

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