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grounds of the king-making WARWICKS,-that we might sometime or other indulge the American privilege of question-asking, in respect to Agricultural matters; and we know that our readers and ourselves would be equally interested in obtaining some information from one so well qualified to give it as to the breeding and improvement of agricultural horses in the eastern counties, and the probable success with which the Suffolk Punch* would bear our climate. It has been intimated that the breed does not show the activity and nimbleness now, for which it was once noted. We shall be glad to know if breeders have overlooked this point in the pursuit of others, or whether, on the other hand they consider it to have been really maintained.
HOW TO MAKE BARN-YARDS.
As your correspondent TYRO, has asked this question, I will answer it, giving my plan. First, make the yard level, (large or small,) then commence in the middle and scoop out in the form of an apothecary's scale, deepest in the middle, to the depth of one foot in the deepest place.Then collect straw, leaves, old hay, bog grass, saw-dust, or any thing that can be made into manure; fill it up level, ing water in the yard, and when you commence foddering with a row of mangers around the outside; then have livshut the bars or gate, and keep every creature in the yard when not in the stable; then fill up with litter to give them a good bed, and keep doing so until spring, and the manure is three feet deep or more if possible.until full and use it for top-dressing; others cart out in Then dispose of it as best you can. Some let it remain spring, and commence filling up again to keep the weeds from growing.
A dry yard is good for nothing to make manure in, while one made from six to twelve inches dishing will always A red chestnut horse, with a few grey hairs shot here and there be dry around the outside, and the dish will hold water through his coat. He stands something over sixteen hands high. He has enough for the mass above to suck from. Have good evethe most beautiful blood-like head perhaps ever seen on a horse intend troughs on all the buildings, to keep out all the water posed for agricultural purposes." He has a strong neck and fine crest, good oblique muscular shoulders, deep girth, and first rate loins and sible. Spread the horse manure from the stable over the quarters. His hocks and arms are also excellent; and he has a small but good foot. He stands short on the leg; and this, with his fine yard as fast as made. Sprinkle in ashes, plaster, muck, quarter, makes him a very lengthy-looking horse, but still with a short turf, chaff, &c., and waste nothing, and you will soon have powerful back. Emperor is, altogether, one of the most handsome and symmetrical cart-horses ever seen, possessing in perfection those a pile of manure that would greatly astonish some that three leading "points"-great strength, fine quality, and capital | (falsely) bear the name of Farmers. L. F. SCOTT. BethWe think we had a partial promise from Mr. BADHAM, lehem, Conn. in parting after a stroll together over the castle and
"THE SUFFOLK PUNCH-so called from his round, punchy form." -YOUATT.
FOTHERINGHAM.-An old English variety from Surrey, in form like the Imperative, very productive, of fine quality, juicy, of a pleasant, fresh flavor; improves by shrivelling on the tree-valuable.
SHARP'S EMPEROR.-One of the best market sorts, large, handsome, very showy, resembling Victoria, but the tree is more regular, not so vigorous, and the shoots less downy.
For some years past the dwarf plum orchard on the grounds of Ellwanger & Barry, of Rochester, has excited the admiration of all who have visited their nursery at the time of ripening. The high culture, skillful pruning, and assiduous labor in destroying the curculio, bestowed on these trees, have given results which we have never seen excelled and rarely equalled. Those magnificent varieties, the Bradshaw, Pond's Seedling, Victoria, Sharp's Emperor, and Goliath, loading the bending branches which sustain them, are a sight to view! At a recent visit, they presented as with a basket of several specimens, each of a large number of sorts; and as many of them are comparatively new, we believe it will be an acceptable service to our pomological readers to give figures and descriptions of some of the most valuable and interesting varieties.
NELSON'S VICTORY.-Medium in size, roundish oval, brownish yellow, with some dull red, stone small, free, juicy good. Its origin is English; the growth is vigor
BRADSHAW.-This is a plum of foreign origin, remarkable for its large size, productiveness, and vigorous growth of the tree-qualities rendering it eminently valuable as a market variety. It was described by P. BARRY in the Horticulturist for 1855.
It is of largest size, a large portion of the specimens on thrifty trees measuring two and a quarter inches long, and an inch and seven-eighths cross diameter. It is oval in form, inclining to obovate, sometimes with a very slight neck; suture obtuse; color, dark purple, with a light blue bloom; stalk three-fourths to one inch long, set in a narrow cavity; flesh a little coarse, becoming light brownish purple, at first adhering, but nearly free from the stone when fully ripe; juicy, good, slightly acid; tree erect in growth, vigorous; shoots purple, smooth. Ripens through the two last week's of summer.
GOLIATH.-Large and handsome, roundish oval or round.
ous, and it is exceedingly productive, which, added to its ish oblong, usually larger on one side of the suture, color beautiful appearance, will make it fine for market.
deep red or greenish yellow, dark purple in the sun, and
Gooseberries, Currants, Raspberries, and Blackberries, somewhat mottled; stalk in a very deep and narrow cavity; flesh light brownish yellow, adhering somewhat all bear at about the same period from the time of setting
to the stone, juicey, rather coarse or fibrous, with a
WANGENHEIM.-Medium in size, oval, suture shallow but distinct, color dark blue, stem rather short, set without depression; flesh greenish yellow, juicy, firm, sweet, rich, 'very good," partly free from the rather large stone. This is of German origin, and is a sort of prune; the growth is erect, moderately vigorous, and the tree very productive-it is one of the best of its class.
suture distinct, stem half an inch long, in a rather deep and narrow cavity; color a fine light reddish purple; flesh yellow, pleasant, "good," adhering
to the stone. It has been long known in some parts of England -stands next to Pond's Seedling in size and beauty, and in productiveness, and is a great grower, rather irregular. It is distinct from and bet
ter than Sharp's
Good-sized gooseberry plants, say a foot and a-half high, will give a good crop for bushes of their size, the second year. We have had a bushel of Cherry currants, the third summer after setting out quite small plants, from a row thirty feet long. A bush of Brinckle's Orange raspberry has been known repeatedly to bear about a hundred berries the same year that it was transplanted-the fruit, however, was not full size.
Dwarf Pears of the right sorts, and under right management, come quickly into bearing. If at the common age when set out, or two years from the bud, the most prolific sorts give some returns the second year, and more afterwards. Older trees, if carefully removed, produce larger crops-we have seen a tree of the Louise Bonne of Jersey, six years old when transplanted, bearing a bushel the second summer afterwards; but much care is required for removing such large trees, and they are not subsequently so thrifty as younger ones, and consequently do not yield such excellent fruit. Among the dwarf pears which bear soon, are Louise Bonne of Jersey, Doyenne d'Ete, White Doyenne, Giffard, Fontenay Jalousie, Josephine de Malines, &c. The following sorts bear nearly as early on pear stock, viz: Bartlett, Seckel, Winter Nelis, Washington, Onondaga, Howell, Passe Colmar, Julienne.
Grapes afford fruit soon-usually beginning to bear the second and third year. The Isabella, York Madeira, Diana, and Delaware, are particularly recommended for this purpose at the North, and the Catawba may be added for the Middle States, wherever it does not rot.
Dwarf Apples should not be entirely overlooked in the list of early bearers. Half a peck per tree is often obtained the third year from the most productive sorts.
A good supply of all the preceding will be sufficient to furnish a family with these wholesome luxuries from within a year or two of occupying entirely new premises; and will not only add greatly to the comforts and attractions of home, but contribute materially to the uniform health of the occupants.
GRAFTING CURRANTS-PAINT FOR WOUNDS, &c. EDS. CULT. AND CO. GENT.-I wish to inquire if the currant can be successfully grafted? I have some Red Dutch currant bushes three years old from the cuttings, which I wish to engraft with some of the newer varieties "I have just come into possession of a new residence, in a region next spring. Please to tell me how to do it. Should it
TO OBTAIN FRUIT IN NEW PLACES.
where fruit generally does well, but there is nothing on it in the shape of a fruit tree or shrub, worthy of the name-what can I do to have an early supply of fruit of my own? G."
This is an inquiry that often occurs in the minds of many owners of new places, or who have built new houses on unimproved spots. We can inform such residents that much may be done towards an immediate supply, with proper selection and management-and that the assertion which they often hear, that "it will take a life-time to get fruit" from a new plantation, is an absurd error.
The quickest return is from planting Strawberries. If set out early in spring, they will bear a moderate crop the same season. We have repeatedly obtained fine ripe berries seven weeks from the day they were set out; and in one instance where transplanted late with a ball of earth to each plant, in less than six weeks.
The second year, if Wilthe bed is kept clean, the product will be abundant. son's Albany will safely yield any year, a bushel from a square rod, or about two quarts a day for half a month. Muskmelons and Watermelons will yield their delicious products four months after planting.
be done early?
I also have some fine old apple trees, thrifty and sound, excepting that where large limbs were pruned off many years since, holes have rotted into the trunk large enough to hold a quart or two-can you tell me how to make a composition for filling up these cavities?
Would not Bridgewater paint be excellent for covering the wounds made by cutting off large limbs? I have used the alcohol solution of gum shellac, but upon the whole I prefer yellow ochre paint.
Should winter pears be picked early or late? Some say pick early, others say late. I have found that when my winter pears are picked early, they are apt to shrivel and become tasteless, dry and leathery. An answer to the above questions through THE CULTIVATOR, would greatly oblige W. D. Mass.
The currant is rarely or never grafted, because it grows so freely from cuttings-to be successful the grafting should be done very early in spring, as the currant starts soon.
The decayed portions of the apple should be cut out or shaved off, and the wounds covered with shellac, paint, grafting-wax, or with a mixture of tar and ochre applied
warm. Brickdust, or pounded dry clay sifted will do in the place of brickdust. We do not know the character of Bridgewater paint.
Winter pears should be picked when fully grown. If green and imperfect, they will shrivel, or rot, and never ripen into melting delicious fruit. Many pronounce winter pears valueless, because they give them such poor culture that they never properly mature.
APPLES FROM MAINE.
We were kindly furnished when at the Maine State Fair, by S. L. GOODALE, of Saco, with a large collection of the specimens of apples exhibited on that occasion, a brief notice of which may be interesting to our eastern readers. Among those of most interest were the following:
Billy's Pippin. A fine, large excellent fruit, roundovate, smooth, handsome, shaded and indistinctly striped with rich red on fine yellow ground; the flavor sub-acid and "very good;" worthy of further attention.
Watson's Favorite-A handsome apple, medium in size, roundish-oblate, regular, smooth, with a fine reddish blush on a yellow skin; flesh yellowish, juicy, flavor pleasant, rich, sub-acid, very good."
Winthrop Greening-This has been long known as one of the best autumn apples of Maine. It is large, rather oblate, tapering slightly to the crown, slightly ribbed, skin yellow with a little green, sub-acid, very good."
Blue Mountain Sweet-A fair fruit of medium size, roundish and slightly oblate, greenish yellow with a shade of brown; flesh, fine grained, solid, flavor " very good" for a sweet apple.
Bartlett Seedling-A large, roundish, ribbed apple, striped and splashed with bright red on yellow skinflavor mild sub-acid, "good," or perhaps "very good."
Black Oxford-This variety has already some celebrity as a long keeper-it is nearly of medium size, roundish, dark red; the flesh white, tinged with red, fine-grained, firm, compact, moderately rich, sub-acid, "good."
Fayette Black-Medium in size, roundish, dark dull red, tender, sub-acid, pleasant and agreeable; "good," perhaps very good.
All of the preceding appear to possess considerable merit, and some are evidently quite valuable. We should esteem it a favor if our friend GOODALE would furnish some further facts in relation to the new sorts, their time of maturity, vigor of growth, degree of productiveness, extent of culture, or whether well known or quite local, &c.
GRAPE CULTURE IN CENTRAL NEW-YORK,
MESSRS. EDITORS-In reply to the inquiries of your correspondent, and in response to your own request, I will venture an opinion in reference to the best grapes for this part of our State.
If your correspondent desires to know what grapes are best for general market purposes, I should say, the Hartford Prolific, Concord, and Isabella. The Hartford Prolific bears abundantly, ripens earliest, and is quite palatable.The Concord follows the Prolific, only a few days behind; is large and showy, both in its berries and clusters, and when eaten at just the right time, is of quite good quality. The Isabella should be planted, of course; for though it seldom becomes fully ripe, it generally becomes blue, and quite pleasant to the taste. It is a great bearer, and prolongs the grape season after the sorts just named have passed away.
I will just add here, that the Logan promises now to be an earlier grape than either of the above, and it is thought will not be inferior to any of them in quality.
The three grapes first named should be the planter's main reliance. But as some people will want to buy finer sorts, he had better set out a few Dianas and Delawares. The Delawares will be ready for market along with the
Concords, and the Dianas along with the Isabellas, or a week before.
If, however, your correspondent is an amateur, and wishes a good assortment for the supply of his table, I should say-leaving a place for the Logan, in case it fulfills its present promise-plant one vine each of Hartford Prolific and Concord, but devote your ground chiefly to the Delaware, Diana, Rebecca, and Isabella. An occasional taste of the Prolific and the Concord, will serve to show you the superiority of the others.
Several other grapes are now being tested in this region -such as the Anna, Clara, Child's Superb, Louisa, King, &c., but their character has not yet been sufficiently proven to warrant an opinion upon them at present. Clinton, N. Y.
A. D. G. P. S.-If a grape can be found, which neither boys nor birds will steal, I should advise putting that at the head
of the list.
STARTING BLACKBERRY CUTTINGS,
EDS. CO. GENT. AND CULTIVATOR-According to promise I send you the plan I pursued with my blackberry cuttings. I had a hot-bed of fifty sash ready for cucumbers with a strong under heat. I smoothed the surface under five sash at one end of the bed. I then spread the cuttings on the surface of the bed, and covered them about two inches with light mould, and then put on the sash and tended them the same as the cucumbers, and in five days they commenced coming up, and in ten days the bed was covered with briars from one to six inches high. I now took the sash off in warm and moist days, and put them on again at night, and by April 20th I had plants eighteen inches high, which was twendy days from the time I started them; and on 22d of April I set out a few of the strongest, and although there were several very hard frosts they started and grew finely. May 9th I set out another lot which did very well. May 20th I set out another lot which on account of the ground being too dry, about half died-the remainder started slowly. June 1st I set out another lot which did well.
Now for the result, (Nov. 1st)-the first planting will average four feet high, and very branchy and strong; the second is fully as good as the first planting; the third planting, what is standing, will average two feet; the last planting is fully as good and all standing.
To make a plantation, the cuttings should be procured in the fall or fore part of winter, and tied in bunches and buried in the cellar, in order to have them ready in time; and the hot-bed should be put up the first of March with a good strong heat, the same as for cabbage. The bed should be kept well aired and moderately moist, and the cuttings (about three inches long) spread rather thin to make strong plants. There should be about one hundred plants under a sash of three by eight feet, and when the plants get up about a foot high, the sash should be taken off in moist or warm days, to make them strong and hardy; and about a week before setting out, cut them off four inches above the ground, which will prevent wilting in the field, and they can also be more easily handled.Plants treated as above will be ready to set out as soon as the ground is in growing order, and will be better rooted than suckers, from the nursery, and can be raised for $1 per hundred. MARKET GARDENER. Pittsburgh, Pa.
INCREASE OF STRAWBERRY PLANTS.
The rapid increase from a single strawberry plant in the course of a few years, under favorable circumstances, can be hardly comprehended by one who has never observed this increase. There is a great difference in varieties. In rich soils, some will occasionally produce a hundred in a single year, but calling the number but thirty, the yield would be 900 at the end of the second year; 27,000 at the end of the third; 810,000 at the end of the fourth; 24,300,000 at the end of the fifth; 729,000,000 at the end of the sixth, &c. Cultivators who do not wish to pay high prices per hundred for new sorts, may soon obtain all they need by increase.
The Flower and Kitchen Garden.
Treatment of House Plants.
The wants of plants cultivated in the winter, are the same as in summer; they are heat, moisture, sun and air. Of the first they generally have too much; of the latter three they rarely have enough. They are most frequently kept in a room heated up to 70°, which is much too hot. The great majority of plants will do better until they be gin to bloom, with a heat not exceeding 45° or 50°. If you have a room with windows facing the south or east, in which the temperature can be kept generally at 50°, and never fall below 40°, your plants can probably be kept in good health and condition, as far as heat is concerned. With regard to moisture, it is more difficult to meet the wants of the plants. You may drench the roots with water, but that is not all they want. They desire a moist atmosphere, which it is impossible to give them in a room heated either with a stove or by pipes from a hot air furnace. If, however, your plant room is so situated that it receives its warmth from an adjoining room, the communication with which may be closed at pleasure, the air may be kept much moister in all moderate weather, than where they are in a stove room. Your plants will need not only water at the roots, but they will also require frequent waterings of the foliage, which is not only refreshing to them, but also serves an important purpose in removing the dust with which the leaves soon get covered, and which greatly obstructs the respiration of the plants. Those with polished leaves, such as the Orange, Myrtle, Wax plant, Pittosporum and the like, should have the leaves frequently washed with a sponge. In watering, some discretion must be used. All plants do not require the same amount. Those which are in a state of rest and consequently not growing, need but little; those which are in an active state of growth and blooming or forming flower buds, need considerable. The soil will frequently seem to be dry in spots, when in fact it is not. Nurserymen tell when the plants need water by striking the pots with the knuckles, the sound being quite different when the earth is moist, from that when dry. Water should never be allowed to stand in the saucers.
As to exposure to sun-light, the plant stand should be situated so as to receive the benefit of the whole. The plants should be as near the glass as possible. Light is the life of plants as well as of man. When grown in darkness they are invariably spindling, weak and colorless. Air should be given freely whenever the weather is mild. The windows should be drawn down from the top, so that the cold air may not strike directly upon the plants.
It is almost needless to say that the utmost neatness should prevail in the plant-rooin. No dead leaves, stalks or decayed flower stems should be allowed to remain. When requisite, neatly painted wires or sticks should be used to support the stems. The pots should be washed occasionally.
There is no doubt that the trouble and care of tending plants adds greatly to our enjoyment of them. Most of those who possess spacious green-houses and gardeners to do all the labor necessary therein, take but little interest in flowers, as compared with those whose labor and time have been lovingly given to the occupation. G. B. H.
The Hubbard Squash,
The Hubbard squash has (in my opinion,) sustained its eastern reputation in the west, as an A No. 1 squash. East Desmoines, Iowa, S. M. DYER.
The Cassabar Melon.
This melon belongs to the Cantaloupe family, and is, we think, the best we have ever met with. It grows to a large size-long in shape, frequently measuring from 16 to 20 inches in length, and corresponding in diameter.The flesh is fine grained, tender and very juicy, and of a greenish color. The melon from which I got my first seed was 24 inches in length. It is very productive, more so than any variety I know of.
I have some of the seed of this excellent melon, and I would like to see it more generally cultivated. I will send a package of the seed to any person who wishes to give it a trial, upon the receipt of a few postage stamps to pay the postage and cost of putting up. I raise no seeds of any kind to sell, but will share any kind which I have with those who wish to give them a trial.
I have also a small amount of the Honey Cantaloupe, a very good melon, which I think ranks next to the Cassabar melon. If my supply of the first runs out, I will send a package of the latter instead of the Cassabar melon. F. A. FLEMING,
Curwensville, Clearfield Co., Pa.
I notice a communication from G. W. BROWER of Schenectady, stating that he raised several apple-pie melons "averaging 26 pounds each." My father raised four of the melons, the largest weighing 53 pounds, the next in size 38 pounds. The other two he did not weigh."H. G. W." wishes to know how to make pies and preserves-also how to determine when they are ripe. The following I take from the “American Agriculturist" for October: "When ripe, which can be known by the melon turning yellow, or the seed black, remove the seed, pare and slice the flesh in small pieces, and then stew it in water just enough to have it like stewed apples; when done, add sugar, spices, and a little acid. Tartartic acid or lemon juice, or good vinegar may be used; the latter, however, does not make as good a pie. A tablespoonful of lemon juice to four pounds of melons I think the best proportion. The quantity of sugar must be in proportion to the acid. Without the acid the pie is tasteless. Do not put the sauce in a copper vessel." Bridge Creek, Ohio.
REBECCA W. PEABODY.
subject, I will tell you of our success in raising them the As the Apple-pie melon question seems to be an open present season. We planted a few seeds-perhaps half a gill or more-in a row or two of sugar cane, the same as soil, and has never been manured. They sprung up and The land is a light sandy we plant pumpkins among corn. grew rapidly, and the result is half a wagon-load or more of fine large ripe melons. We weighed one the other day, which weighed 26 lbs., and many more are nearly or quite as large. I have not yet tested them for pies, but stewed in Chinese molasses they make excellent melon-butter, or pre
SEEDING DOWN YOUNG ORCHARDS.-The Gardener's
Monthly is an excellent practical paper, and we are there
fore surprised to see in the last number a recommendation to seed down a young orchard the next spring after planting, with orchard grass. This recommendation is the more extraordinary as it immediately follows directions for the management of dwarf pears, All we ask the editor, is to try this mode alongside the practice of keeping up a system of broadcast cultivation by horse labor. We have seen both ways tried so often, with such invariable and striking results, that we supposed the matter settled long ago with all intelligent cultivators.